Isotopes of bismuth

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Bismuth (Bi) has no stable isotopes, but does have one very long-lived isotope; thus, the standard atomic mass can be given. Although bismuth-209 is now known to be unstable, it has classically been considered to be a "stable" isotope because it has a half-life of over 1.9×1019 years, which is more than a billion (1000 million) times the age of the universe. Besides 209Bi, the most stable bismuth radioisotopes are 210mBi with a half-life of 3.04 million years, 208Bi with a half-life of 368,000 years and 207Bi, with a half-life of 32.9 years, none of which occur in nature. All other isotopes have half-lives under 1 year, most under a day. Of naturally occurring radioisotopes, the most stable is radiogenic 210Bi with a half-life of 5.012 days.

Commercially the radioactive isotope bismuth-213 can be produced by bombarding radium with bremsstrahlung photons from a linear particle accelerator. In 1997 an antibody conjugate with Bi-213, which has a 45 minute half-life, and decays with the emission of an alpha-particle, was used to treat patients with leukemia. This isotope has also been tried in cancer treatment, e.g. in the Targeted Alpha Therapy (TAT) program.[1] Bismuth-213 is also found on the decay chain of uranium-233.

Table[edit]

nuclide
symbol
historic
name
Z(p) N(n)  
isotopic mass (u)
 
half-life[n 1] decay
mode(s)[2][n 2]
daughter
isotope(s)[n 3]
nuclear
spin
representative
isotopic
composition
(mole fraction)
range of natural
variation
(mole fraction)
excitation energy
184Bi 83 101 184.00112(14)# 6.6(15) ms 3+#
184mBi 150(100)# keV 13(2) ms 10-#
185Bi 83 102 184.99763(6)# 2# ms p 184Pb 9/2-#
α (rare) 181Tl
185mBi 70(50)# keV 49(7) µs α 181Tl 1/2+
p 184Pb
186Bi 83 103 185.99660(8) 14.8(7) ms α 182Tl (3+)
β+ (rare) 186Pb
186mBi 270(140)# keV 9.8(4) ms α 182Tl (10-)
β+ 186Pb
187Bi 83 104 186.993158(16) 32(3) ms α (50%) 183Tl 9/2-#
β+ (50%) 187Pb
187m1Bi 101(20) keV 320(70) µs 1/2+#
187m2Bi 252(1) keV 7(5) µs (13/2+)
188Bi 83 105 187.99227(5) 44(3) ms α 184Tl 3+#
β+ (rare) 188Pb
188mBi 210(140)# keV 220(40) ms α 184Tl (10-)
β+ (rare) 188Pb
189Bi 83 106 188.98920(6) 674(11) ms α (51%) 185Tl (9/2-)
β+ (49%) 189Pb
189m1Bi 181(6) keV 5.0(1) ms (1/2+)
189m2Bi 357(1) keV 880(50) ns (13/2+)
190Bi 83 107 189.9883(2) 6.3(1) s α (77%) 186Tl (3+)
β+ (30%) 190Pb
190m1Bi 420(180) keV 6.2(1) s α (70%) 186Tl (10-)
β+ (23%) 190Pb
190m2Bi 690(180) keV >500(100) ns 7+#
191Bi 83 108 190.985786(8) 12.3(3) s α (60%) 187Tl (9/2-)
β+ (40%) 191Pb
191mBi 240(4) keV 124(5) ms α (75%) 187Tl (1/2+)
β+ (25%) 191Pb
192Bi 83 109 191.98546(4) 34.6(9) s β+ (82%) 192Pb (3+)
α (18%) 188Tl
192mBi 150(30) keV 39.6(4) s β+ (90.8%) 192Pb (10-)
α (9.2%) 188Tl
193Bi 83 110 192.98296(1) 67(3) s β+ (95%) 193Pb (9/2-)
α (5%) 189Tl
193mBi 308(7) keV 3.2(6) s α (90%) 189Tl (1/2+)
β+ (10%) 193Pb
194Bi 83 111 193.98283(5) 95(3) s β+ (99.54%) 194Pb (3+)
α (.46%) 190Tl
194m1Bi 110(70) keV 125(2) s β+ 194Pb (6+,7+)
α (rare) 190Tl
194m2Bi 230(90)# keV 115(4) s (10-)
195Bi 83 112 194.980651(6) 183(4) s β+ (99.97%) 195Pb (9/2-)
α (.03%) 191Tl
195m1Bi 399(6) keV 87(1) s β+ (67%) 195Pb (1/2+)
α (33%) 191Tl
195m2Bi 2311.4+X keV 750(50) ns (29/2-)
196Bi 83 113 195.980667(26) 5.1(2) min β+ (99.99%) 196Pb (3+)
α (.00115%) 192Tl
196m1Bi 166.6(30) keV 0.6(5) s IT 196Bi (7+)
β+ 196Pb
196m2Bi 270(3) keV 4.00(5) min (10-)
197Bi 83 114 196.978864(9) 9.33(50) min β+ (99.99%) 197Pb (9/2-)
α (10−4%) 193Tl
197m1Bi 690(110) keV 5.04(16) min α (55%) 193Tl (1/2+)
β+ (45%) 197Pb
IT (.3%) 197Bi
197m2Bi 2129.3(4) keV 204(18) ns (23/2-)
197m3Bi 2360.4(5)+X keV 263(13) ns (29/2-)
197m4Bi 2383.1(7)+X keV 253(39) ns (29/2-)
197m5Bi 2929.5(5) keV 209(30) ns (31/2-)
198Bi 83 115 197.97921(3) 10.3(3) min β+ 198Pb (2+,3+)
198m1Bi 280(40) keV 11.6(3) min β+ 198Pb (7+)
198m2Bi 530(40) keV 7.7(5) s 10-
199Bi 83 116 198.977672(13) 27(1) min β+ 199Pb 9/2-
199m1Bi 667(4) keV 24.70(15) min β+ (98%) 199Pb (1/2+)
IT (2%) 199Bi
α (.01%) 195Tl
199m2Bi 1947(25) keV 0.10(3) µs (25/2+)
199m3Bi ~2547.0 keV 168(13) ns 29/2-
200Bi 83 117 199.978132(26) 36.4(5) min β+ 200Pb 7+
200m1Bi 100(70)# keV 31(2) min EC (90%) 200Pb (2+)
IT (10%) 200Bi
200m2Bi 428.20(10) keV 400(50) ms (10-)
201Bi 83 118 200.977009(16) 108(3) min β+ (99.99%) 201Pb 9/2-
α (10−4%) 197Tl
201m1Bi 846.34(21) keV 59.1(6) min EC (92.9%) 201Pb 1/2+
IT (6.8%) 201Bi
α (.3%) 197Tl
201m2Bi 1932.2+X keV 118(28) ns (25/2+)
201m3Bi 1971.2+X keV 105(75) ns (27/2+)
201m4Bi 2739.90(20)+X keV 124(4) ns (29/2-)
202Bi 83 119 201.977742(22) 1.72(5) h β+ 202Pb 5(+#)
α (10−5%) 198Tl
202m1Bi 615(7) keV 3.04(6) µs (10#)-
202m2Bi 2607.1(5) keV 310(50) ns (17+)
203Bi 83 120 202.976876(23) 11.76(5) h β+ 203Pb 9/2-
α (10−5%) 199Tl
203m1Bi 1098.14(7) keV 303(5) ms IT 203Bi 1/2+
203m2Bi 2041.5(6) keV 194(30) ns 25/2+
204Bi 83 121 203.977813(28) 11.22(10) h β+ 204Pb 6+
204m1Bi 805.5(3) keV 13.0(1) ms IT 204Bi 10-
204m2Bi 2833.4(11) keV 1.07(3) ms (17+)
205Bi 83 122 204.977389(8) 15.31(4) d β+ 205Pb 9/2-
206Bi 83 123 205.978499(8) 6.243(3) d β+ 206Pb 6(+)
206m1Bi 59.897(17) keV 7.7(2) µs (4+)
206m2Bi 1044.8(5) keV 890(10) µs (10-)
207Bi 83 124 206.9784707(26) 32.9(14) a β+ 207Pb 9/2-
207mBi 2101.49(16) keV 182(6) µs 21/2+
208Bi 83 125 207.9797422(25) 3.68(4)×105 a β+ 208Pb (5)+
208mBi 1571.1(4) keV 2.58(4) ms IT 208Bi (10)-
209Bi[n 4][n 5] 83 126 208.9803987(16) 1.9(2)×1019 a[n 6] α 205Tl 9/2- 1.0000
210Bi Radium E 83 127 209.9841204(16) 5.012(5) d β- 210Po 1- Trace[n 7]
α (1.32×10−4%) 206Tl
210mBi 271.31(11) keV 3.04(6)×106 a α 206Tl 9-
211Bi Actinium C 83 128 210.987269(6) 2.14(2) min α (99.72%) 207Tl 9/2- Trace[n 8]
β- (.276%) 211Po
211mBi 1257(10) keV 1.4(3) µs (25/2-)
212Bi Thorium C 83 129 211.9912857(21) 60.55(6) min β- (64.05%) 212Po 1(-) Trace[n 9]
α (35.94%) 208Tl
β-, α (.014%) 208Pb
212m1Bi 250(30) keV 25.0(2) min α (67%) 208Tl (9-)
β- (33%) 212mPo
β-, α (.3%) 208Pb
212m2Bi 2200(200)# keV 7.0(3) min >15
213Bi[n 10] 83 130 212.994385(5) 45.59(6) min β- (97.91%) 213Po 9/2-
α (2.09%) 209Tl
214Bi Radium C 83 131 213.998712(12) 19.9(4) min β- (99.97%) 214Po 1- Trace[n 7]
α (.021%) 210Tl
β-, α (.003%) 210Pb
215Bi 83 132 215.001770(16) 7.6(2) min β- 215Po (9/2-) Trace[n 8]
215mBi 1347.5(25) keV 36.4(25) min (25/2-)
216Bi 83 133 216.006306(12) 2.17(5) min β- 216Po 1-#
217Bi 83 134 217.00947(21)# 98.5(8) s 9/2-#
218Bi 83 135 218.01432(39)# 33(1) s 1-#
  1. ^ Bold for isotopes with half-lives longer than the age of the universe (nearly stable)
  2. ^ Abbreviations:
    EC: Electron capture
    IT: Isomeric transition
  3. ^ Bold for stable isotopes
  4. ^ Formerly believed to be final decay product of 4n+1 decay chain
  5. ^ Primordial radioisotope, also some is radiogenic from the extinct nuclide 237Np
  6. ^ Formerly believed to be the heaviest stable nuclide
  7. ^ a b Intermediate decay product of 238U
  8. ^ a b Intermediate decay product of 235U
  9. ^ Intermediate decay product of 232Th
  10. ^ Used in medicine

Notes[edit]

  • Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from systematic trends. Spins with weak assignment arguments are enclosed in parentheses.
  • Uncertainties are given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits. Uncertainty values denote one standard deviation, except isotopic composition and standard atomic mass from IUPAC which use expanded uncertainties.

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ Imam, S (2001). "Advancements in cancer therapy with alpha-emitters: a review". International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics 51: 271. doi:10.1016/S0360-3016(01)01585-1. 
  2. ^ http://www.nucleonica.net/unc.aspx


Isotopes of lead Isotopes of bismuth Isotopes of polonium
Table of nuclides