Original US film poster
|Directed by||Nicholas Ray|
|Produced by||Paul Graetz|
|Screenplay by||René Hardy
Paul Gallico (additional dialogue)
|Based on||Amère victoire
by René Hardy
|Music by||Maurice Leroux|
|Edited by||Léonide Azar|
Transcontinental Films S.A.
Robert Laffont Productions
|Distributed by||Columbia Pictures|
Bitter Victory (French title Amère victoire) is a 1957 black and white Franco-American international co-production film, shot in CinemaScope and directed by Nicholas Ray. Set in World War II, it stars Richard Burton and Curd Jürgens as two British Army officers sent out on a commando raid in North Africa. Ruth Roman plays the former lover of one and the wife of the other. It is based on the novel of the same name by René Hardy.
During the Western Desert Campaign of World War II, two officers are interviewed to command a dangerous commando mission far behind enemy lines in Benghazi. The South African Major David Brand is a regular army officer, but lacks experience of combat and of commanding men in the field. He does not speak Arabic and has only a limited knowledge of the area in Libya in which the patrol is to operate. The Welsh Captain Jimmy Leith is the opposite; an amateur volunteer with extensive knowledge of the area who knows a local guide and speaks fluent Arabic as well. It is decided that both officers will go, with Major Brand in command. The men see Brand as a disciplinatian - "the only thing he's slept with is the rule book".
Major Brand's wife Jane is an RAF Flight Lieutenant who enlisted to be near her husband. When Brand invites Leith to drinks with his wife, he picks up the fact that the two had previously had an affair before she married Brand. Leith had walked out on her without explanation.
The unit parachutes behind enemy lines with the mission of attacking a German headquarters and bringing back secret plans from a safe to be opened by Wilkins, an experienced safecracker. Dressed as local civilians, Brand's hand shakes with fright when he has to knife a German sentry; the deed is done by Leith.
The mission is completed successfully with only one death and one man wounded of the British soldiers. The patrol ambushes a German detachment, capturing the German Oberst Lutze, who Brandt knows was responsible for the secret information. Possibly in the hope of getting rid of Leith, Brandt leaves him alone with two seriously wounded men, one British, one German. Leith decides to put them out of their pain. He shoots the German, who pleas for his life. The Briton encourages Leith to act quickly, and get it over with. Leith puts his pistol to the soldier’s head and fires, but there are no bullets left. Rather than re-loading, Leith picks the man up, and sets out to carry him to safety. The ironic use of music here, a heroic march, is unusually powerful. The man cries out in agony and curses Leith’s failure, but dies before Leith puts him down again. Leith, whose Arab friend has joined him, then catches up with the rest of the unit.
The patrol is supposed to escape on camels, but they discover the men left with them have been murdered and looted of the camels and their weapons. During the long march back across the desert, Brand's animosity towards Leith grows, not only due to the affair with his wife, but to Brand's fear that Leith will reveal him as a coward to headquarters and destroy his career. Brand refrains from shooting Leith, which his orders permit, although after Leith dies during a sandstorm, the men believe he did kill him.
A patrol eventually picks up the group and takes them back to HQ. Brand's wife is distraught to learn of Leith's death, and when Brand is immediately awarded the Distinguished Service Order, instead of congratulating him, she walks off disconsolate. In the closing shot Brand pins the medal ruefully on a stuffed dummy.
- Richard Burton as Captain Jim Leith
- Curt Jürgens as Major David Brand
- Ruth Roman as Jane Brand
- Raymond Pellegrin as Mekrane
- Anthony Bushell as General Patterson
- Alfred Burke as Lieutenant Colonel Callander
- Sean Kelly as Lieutenant Barton
- Ramón de Larrocha as Lieutenant Sanders
- Christopher Lee as Sergeant Barney
- Ronan O'Casey as Sergeant Dunnigan
- Fred Matter as Colonel Lutze
- Raoul Delfosse as Lieutenant Kassel
- Andrew Crawford as Private Roberts
- Nigel Green as Lance Corporal Wilkins
- Harry Landis as Private Browning
- Christian Melsen as Private Abbot
- Sumner Williams as Private Anderson
- Joe Davray as Private Spicer
Production and release
Although labelled a Franco-American co-production, Bitter Victory was mainly a French production, made by Transcontinental Films, the production company set up by German-born producer Paul Graetz (not to be confused with the German actor with the same name). The US co-production consisted of Columbia Pictures putting up some financing in return for worldwide distribution rights. The French financing came from the publisher Robert Laffont. Production started on 17 February 1957 and finished two months later. Much of the film was shot on location in Libya, with support from the British War Office and the British Army, while some interior scenes were done at the Victorine Studios, Nice, France.
Christopher Lee recalls in his autobiography that upon arriving in Libya, all but the main stars essentially took part in a cast lottery for parts. Nobody was satisfied with the role they ended up with, particularly Raymond Pellegrin, who was stuck as an Arab guide who had only four lines. Lee says that the whole cast parted, "in the certain knowledge of having shared in a failure."
The film had its premiere at the 18th Venice Film Festival on 29 August 1957, where it competed for the Golden Lion award (which went to Satyajit Ray's Aparajito) as a French entry, but with English dialogue and Italian subtitles. The first general release was in France, on 20 November 1957.
According to Nick (personal communication) the film’s British distributors were largely responsible for cutting the film down from 101 minutes to 90. The whole final passage is removed, and this version, released on 25 January 1958,  ends with the arrival of help and Lutze setting fire to the documents. On the other hand, the British Board of Film Censors (predecessor of the British Board of Film Classification ) required only minor cuts, which made Leith’s execution of the wounded German less explicit. Not until 2006 did British TV show the uncut version. The film was released in the US on 3 March 1958, cut down to 83 minutes.
- Bitter Victory at the Internet Movie Database
- Bitter Victory at the American Film Institute Catalog
- Amère victoire in the British Film Institute's "Explore film..." database
- Bitter Victory at the TCM Movie Database
- Bitter Victory at AllMovie
- BFI database: Amère victoire - technical credits Retrieved 2012-11-03
- BBFC: Bitter Victory - Submitted runtime Retrieved 2012-11-03
- AFI Catalog of Feature Films: Bitter Victory Linked 2013-11-03
- Christopher Lee, Lord of Misrule, p. 170
- IMDb: Bitter Victory - release dates Retrieved 2012-11-03
- Article in The Times, 4 September 1957, page 3: Venice Film Festival Gets Off To a Bad Start - found in The Times Digital Archives 2013-11-03
- Encyclo Ciné: Amère victoire Linked 2013-11-04
- Review in The Times, 27 January 1958, page 12: Talent Misused if Film of Desert Warfare Found in The Times Digital Archive 2013-11-03
- BFI database: Amère victoire - TV transmissions Retrieved 2012-11-03