Felis nigripes nigripes Burchell, 1824
|Black-footed cat range|
The black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) is the smallest African cat, and is endemic in the south west arid zone of the southern African subregion. It is one of the lesser studied African carnivores, and is listed as Vulnerable by IUCN since 2002.
The black-footed cat is one of the smallest cat species. Adult resident males weigh on average 1.9 kg (4.2 lb) and a maximum of 2.45 kg (5.4 lb). Adult resident females weigh on average 1.3 kg (2.9 lb) and a maximum of 1.65 kg (3.6 lb). Males reach a head-to-body length of 36.7 to 43.3 cm (14.4 to 17.0 in) with tails 16.4 to 19.8 cm (6.5 to 7.8 in) long. Females are smaller with a maximum head-to-body-length of 36.9 cm (14.5 in) and taills 12.6 to 17.0 cm (5.0 to 6.7 in) long. The shoulder height is about 25 centimetres (9.8 in).
Only the pads and underparts of its feet are black, which gives the black-footed cat its name. The fur varies in colour from cinnamon-buff to tawny, and is patterned with black or brown spots that merge to form rings on the legs, neck, and tail. The skin, however, is unpigmented pink, unlike that of other spotted cats. The backs of the rounded ears are the same color as the background coat color. The eyes are very large.
Distribution and habitat
The black-footed cat is endemic to southern Africa, and primarily found in South Africa, Namibia, marginally into Zimbabwe and likely in extreme southern Angola. There are only historical but no recent records in Botswana. It lives in dry, open savanna, grassland and Karoo semi-desert with shrub and tree cover at altitudes of up to 2,000 m (6,600 ft), but not in the driest and sandiest parts of the Namib and Kalahari Deserts.
Distribution of subspecies
Two subspecies are recognized:
- F. n. nigripes — lives in Botswana, Namibia, and in the northern parts of South Africa;
- F. n. thomasi — lives in southeastern South Africa
According to Shortridge's description, F. n. nigripes is smaller and paler than F. n. thomasi. But since specimens with characteristics of both assumed subspecies are found close to Kimberley in central South Africa, the existence of subspecies is questioned, as there are no geographical or ecological barriers to their ranges.
Ecology and behavior
Black-footed cats are solitary and strictly nocturnal, thus rarely seen. They spend the day resting in dense cover, in unoccupied burrows of springhares, porcupines and aardvarks, or in hollow termite mounds. They emerge to hunt after sunset.
They are typically found in dry, open habitat with some degree of vegetation cover. Apparently, they get all the moisture they need from their prey, but will drink water when available.
Unlike most other cats, black-footed cats are poor climbers, and will generally ignore tree branches. Their stocky bodies and short tails are not conducive to tree-climbing. They dig vigorously in the sand to extend or modify burrows for shelter.
Black-footed cats are highly unsociable animals that seek refuge at the slightest disturbance. When cornered, they are known to defend themselves fiercely. Due to this habit and their courage, they are called miershooptier (anthill tigers) in parts of the South African Karoo, although they rarely use termite mounds for cover or for bearing their young. A San legend claims that a black-footed cat can kill a giraffe by piercing its jugular. This exaggeration is intended to emphasize the bravery and tenacity of the animal.
Within one year, a female covers an average range of 10 km2 (3.9 sq mi), a resident male 22 km2 (8.5 sq mi). The range of an adult male overlaps the ranges of one to four females. On average, the animal travels 8 km (5.0 mi) per night in search of prey. The cats use scent marking throughout their ranges, with males spraying urine up to 12 times an hour. Other forms of scent marking include rubbing objects, raking with claws, and depositing faeces in visible locations. Their calls are louder than those of other cats of their size, presumably to allow them to call over relatively large distances. However, when close to each other, they use quieter purrs or gurgles, or hiss and growl if threatened.
Diet and hunting
Due to their small size, black-footed cats hunt mainly small prey species, such as rodents and small birds, but may also take the white-quilled bustard and the Cape hare, the latter heavier than itself. Insects and spiders provide less than 1% of the prey mass consumed. They are unusually active hunters, killing up to 14 small animals in a night. Their energy requirements are very high, with about 250 g (9 oz) of prey per night consumed, which is about a sixth of its average body weight.
Black-footed cats hunt mainly by stalking, rather than ambush, using the cover of darkness and all available traces of cover to approach their prey before the final pounce. They have been observed to hunt by moving swiftly to flush prey from cover, but also to slowly stalk through tufts of vegetation. Less commonly, they will wait outside rodent burrows, often with their eyes closed, but remaining alert for the slightest sound. In common with the big cats, but unlike most other small species, black-footed cats have been observed to hide some of their captured prey for later feeding, rather than consuming it immediately.
Reproduction and life cycle
Black-footed cats have lived for 10 years in captivity. Females reach sexual maturity after 8 to 12 months. They come into estrus for only one or two days at a time, and are receptive to mating for a few hours, requiring males to locate them quickly. Copulation occurs frequently during this period. Gestation lasts from 63 to 68 days. A litter consists usually of two kittens, but may vary from one to four young. Kittens weigh 60 to 84 g (2.1 to 3.0 oz) at birth. They are born blind and relatively helpless, although they are able to crawl about after just a few hours. They are able to walk within two weeks, begin taking solid food after about a month, and are fully weaned by two months of age.
Females may have up to two litters during the spring, summer and autumn. They rear their kittens in a burrow, moving them to new locations regularly after the first week. In general, kittens develop more rapidly than other similarly sized cats, quickly adapting them to a relatively hostile environment. They become independent by five months of age, but may remain within their mother's range.
In situ research
The Black-footed Cat Working Group carries out a research project at Benfontein Nature Reserve and Nuwejaarsfontein Farm in central South Africa, where seven black-footed cats have been radio-collared. This project is part of a multidisciplinary effort to study the distribution, ecology, health, and reproduction of black-footed cats over an extended period. In November 2012, this project was extended to Biesiesfontein Farm located in the Northern Cape Province.
Wuppertal Zoo acquired black-footed cats as long ago as 1957, and succeeded in breeding them in 1963. In 1993, the European Endangered Species Programme was formed to coordinate which animals are best suited for pairing to maintain genetic diversity and to avoid inbreeding. The International Studbook for the black-footed cat is kept in the German Wuppertal Zoo. As of July 2011, there are detailed records for a total of 726 captive cats since 1964; worldwide 74 individuals were kept in 23 institutions in Germany, United Arab Emirates, USA, UK, and South Africa.
In February 2011, a female kept at the Audubon Nature Institute gave birth to two male kittens. This birth was significant in that the kittens are the first of their species to be born as a result of in vitro fertilization using frozen and thawed sperm and frozen and thawed embryos. In 2003, the sperm was collected from a male and then frozen. At the Audubon Nature Institute, it was later combined with an egg from a female, creating embryos in March 2005. Those embryos were frozen for almost six years before being thawed and transferred to a surrogate female in December 2010, which carried the embryos to term, resulting in the birth of the two kittens. Scientists hope this will provide a means for them to increase the species numbers, as well as introduce greater genetic variation into the small population.
In April 2011, the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo reported the births of black-footed cats.
In June 2011, the Fresno Chaffee Zoo reported recent births of black-footed cats.
In March 2012, the Brookfield Zoo reported the birth of a black-footed cat.
- Wozencraft, W. C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 536. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- Sliwa, A. (2008). Felis nigripes. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 22 March 2009. Database entry includes justification for why this species is vulnerable
- Sliwa, A. (2004) Home range size and social organization of black-footed cats (Felis nigripes). Mammalian Biology 69 (2): 96-107
- Smithers, R.H.N. (1983) The mammals of the southern African subregion. University of Pretoria
- Stuart, C.T., Wilson, V.J. (1988) The cats of southern Africa. Chipangali Wildlife Trust, Bulawayo.
- Pollard, Michael (2003). The encyclopedia of the cat. Barnes and Noble Books. p. 369. ISBN 978-0-7607-3459-9.
- Sunquist, M., Sunquist, F. (2002). Wild cats of the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 76–82. ISBN 0-226-77999-8.
- Olbricht, G., Sliwa, A. (1997) In situ and ex situ observations and management of Black-footed cats Felis nigripes. International Zoo Yearbook 35: 81–89
- Armstrong, J. (1977). The development and hand-rearing of black-footed cats. Pages 71–80 in: Eaton, R. L. The World's cats; the proceedings of an International Symposium. Volume 3 number 3. Winston Wildlife Safari, Oregon
- Sliwa, A. (2006). Atomic Kitten BBC Wildlife (November 2006): 36–40
- Sliwa, A. (1994). "Black-footed cat studies in South Africa". Cat News 20: 15–19.
- Sliwa, A. (2006). "Seasonal and sex-specific prey composition of black-footed cats Felis nigripes". Acta Theriologica 51 (2): 195–204. doi:10.1007/BF03192671.
- Leyhausen, P., Tonkin, B. (1966). Breeding the black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) in captivity. International Zoo Yearbook 6: 178–182
- Sliwa, A., Wilson, B., Lawrenz, A. (2010). Report on surveying and catching Black-footed cats (Felis nigripes) on Nuwejaarsfontein Farm / Benfontein Nature Reserve 4–20 July 2010. Black-footed Working Group, July 2010
- Sliwa, A., Wilson, B., Lamberski, N., Lawrenz, A. (2013). Report on surveying, catching and monitoring Black-footed cats (Felis nigripes) on Benfontein Nature Reserve, Nuwejaarsfontein Farm, and Biesiesfontein in 2012. Black-footed Working Group
- Olbricht, G., Schürer, U. (1994). International Studbook for the Black-footed Cat 1994. Zoologischer Garten der Stadt Wuppertal
- Stadler, A. (2011). International studbook for the black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) Volume 15. Zoologischer Garten der Stadt Wuppertal, Wuppertal
- Burnette, S. (2011) Rare cats born through amazing science at Audubon Center for Research of Endangered Species. Audubon Nature Institute, Press release of 10 March 2011.
- Cleveland Metroparks Zoo. 2012. Animal News Press Release 26 April 2011
- Condoian, L. 2011. General Meeting of the Board of Directors. Fresno Chaffee Zoo Corporation, 9 June 2011.
- Chicago Zoological Society. 2012. Black-footed cats born - a first at Brookfield Zoo Press Release 27 March 2012
- Waller, M. (2012). - Audubon center in Algiers logs another breakthrough in genetic engineering of endangered cats New Orleans Net LLC, 13 March 2012
|Wikispecies has information related to: Felis nigripes|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Felis nigripes.|
- Black-footed Cat Working Group: Information about field research of Black-footed cats in South Africa
- IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group - Cat Species Information: Felis nigripes
- Arkive Species Information: Black-footed cat
- BBC Science & Nature: Black-footed cat, small-spotted cat
- Animal Info: Felis nigripes