Black-striped capuchin

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Black-striped capuchin[1]
Cebus libidinosus Serra da Capivara.jpg
Adult female and juvenile
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Cebidae
Genus: Cebus
Species: C. libidinosus
Binomial name
Cebus libidinosus
Spix, 1823
Cebus libidinosus distribution..png
Range of C. libidinosus, excluding the subspecies cay and juruanus
Synonyms

Sapajus libidinosus

The black-striped capuchin (Cebus libidinosus), also known as the bearded capuchin,[2] is a capuchin monkey from South America. It was the first non-ape primate where tool usage was documented in the wild, as individuals have been seen cracking nuts by placing them on a stone "anvil" while hitting them with another large stone.[3] Adaptations to carrying large stones and fruit include strengthened back and leg muscles that permit the monkey to walk on its hind legs while carrying stones.[4] The black-striped capuchin has traditionally been considered a subspecies of the tufted capuchin.[1] On the contrary, the southern population here included in C. libidinosus has sometimes been considered another species, Azaras's capuchin (C. cay) (syn. C. paraguayanus).[5]

The black-striped capuchin is found in the Caatinga, Cerrado, and Pantanal of Brazil, and forests and woodlands in Paraguay, far eastern Bolivia and northern Argentina.[2][5] Some confusion surrounds the taxon juruanus, here included as a subspecies of the black-striped capuchin.[2] It has been considered to occur from the upper Juruá River east and south to Mato Grosso,[6] or alternatively entirely restricted to the region near the upper Juruá River.[7] In the latter case, its range would be surrounded by C. apella, leading to doubts over its true taxonomic status.[8]

Groves (2005) recognizes four subspecies:[1]

  • Cebus libidinosus libidinosus
  • Cebus libidinosus pallidus
  • Cebus libidinosus paraguayanus
  • Cebus libidinosus juruanus

In 2011, Jessica Lynch Alfaro et al. proposed that the robust capuchins such (formerly the C. apella group) be placed in a separate genus, Sapajus, from the gracile capuchins (formerly the C. capucinus group), which retain the Cebus genus.[9][10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 137. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ a b c d Rylands, A.B. & Kierulff, M.C.M. (2008). "Cebus libidinosus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 19 January 2012.  Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of least concern.
  3. ^ Fragaszy, D., Izar, P., Visalberghi, E., Ottoni, E. B., & Gomes de Oliveira, M. (2004). Wild Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus libidinosus) Use Anvils and Stone Pounding Tools. American Journal of Primatology 64: 359–366.
  4. ^ "Brazil's Cerrado". Mutant Planet. 2012-08-11. Science Channel.
  5. ^ a b Wallace, R.B. (2008). Cebus cay. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 23 November 2008.
  6. ^ Groves, C. (2001). Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 1-56098-872-X
  7. ^ Fragaszy D., Visalberghi E., & Fedigan, L. (2004). The complete capuchin. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-66116-1
  8. ^ Rylands, A.B., Boubli, J.-P., Mittermeier, R.A. & Wallace, R.B. (2008). Cebus apella. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 23 November 2008.
  9. ^ Lynch Alfaro, J.W. et al. (2011). "Explosive Pleistocene range expansion leads to widespread Amazonian sympatry between robust and gracile capuchin monkeys". Journal of Biogeography. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02609.x. 
  10. ^ Lynch Alfaro, J.W.; Silva, j. & Rylands, A.B. (2012). "How Different Are Robust and Gracile Capuchin Monkeys? An Argument for the Use of Sapajus and Cebus". American Journal of Primatology: 1–14. doi:10.1002/ajp.222007.