Battle of George Square

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Battle of George Square
Part of Red Clydeside
1919 Battle of George Square - David Kirkwood.jpg
David Kirkwood and Willie Gallacher being detained by police at the City Chambers
Date 31 January, 1919
Location Glasgow, Scotland
Causes
  • Anger with 53 hour working week
  • Unemployment
Goals
  • Reduced working week
  • Reduced unemployment
Methods
  • Strike action
  • Rioting throughout Glasgow
  • Running battles with police
Result
  • Army units deployed to Glasgow
  • Workers return to work under guarantee of 47 hour week
  • Growth of Labour movement in Scotland
Parties to the civil conflict

Protesters

  • Striking workers
Lead figures
Lord Provost Sir James Watson Stewart
Sheriff MacKenzie
De-Centralized Leadership
Number

60,000+ Protesters

(Not all involved in violence)
Casualties
Many injured

The "Battle of George Square", also known as "Bloody Friday" and "Black Friday", was one of the most intense riots in the history of Glasgow; it took place on Friday, 31 January 1919.[1] The dispute revolved around a campaign for shorter working hours, backed by widespread strike action. Clashes between the City of Glasgow Police and protesters broke out, leading to the British government sending soldiers and tanks to the city to prevent any further gatherings due to their fear of a Bolshevist uprising. It was described as a "socialist revolution" by supporters,[2] as had happened in the 1917 Russian Revolution, and was occurring in Germany and in the Austro-Hungarian Empire while the 'Forty Hours' strike unfolded.

Forty Hours strike[edit]

Before the First World War, the standard[clarification needed] working week was 54 hours. National negotiations had established a 47-hour working week for men in the shipbuilding and engineering trades, to be introduced in 1919. A Joint Committee of shop stewards, members of the Scottish TUC and Clyde Workers' Committee however proposed a campaign to limit working-hours to 30 per week, which was altered to 40 per week after the Glasgow Trades Council became involved.[3] It was, however, opposed by the Amalgamated Society of Engineers and most other unions.[citation needed]

The immediate objective was to alleviate unemployment, exacerbated by the post-World War I recession, by sharing out available working hours more widely at a time when unemployment was rising as war contracts were completed and when tens of thousands of ex-servicemen were returning to the civilian labour force. Many workers also resented the fact that the new 47-hour week agreement removed their traditional morning break.[citation needed]

A strikers' meeting was called for Monday, 27 January, and more than 3000 workers gathered at the St. Andrew's Halls; 40,000 Glasgow workers came out on strike that same day. By Friday 31 January, the number had swollen to "upwards of 60,000".[1] It was Scotland's first mass picket since the Radical War of 1820. The strike culminated in a mass meeting in George Square on the Friday to hear Lord Provost Sir James Watson Stewart issue a response from the British government to the unions' request for government intervention in the dispute. Emanuel Shinwell, the Glasgow Trades Council president was amongst those to address the crowd.[citation needed]

Riot[edit]

The fierce fighting between the City of Glasgow Police and protesters began while a Clyde Workers' Committee deputation was in the Glasgow City Chambers meeting with the Lord Provost of Glasgow. On hearing the ensuing riot that was taking place in George Square, CWC leaders David Kirkwood and Emanuel Shinwell moved outside in an effort to quell the riot. Before they could reach the crowds outside however, Kirkwood was knocked to the ground by police and he, William Gallacher and Shinwell were arrested and charged with "instigating and inciting large crowds of persons to form part of a riotous mob". Sheriff MacKenzie's attempts to read the Riot Act proved unsuccessful as the crowd tore his copy of the Act from him as he was in the process of reading it.[citation needed]

The exact cause of the riot has been disputed – some sources indicate it was caused by an unprovoked baton charge by the police, while others indicate that strikers attempted to stop trams traveling through the square.[2] Pitched battles took place between police and strikers in the streets around the square. Iron palings were pulled up and used as a defense against the police truncheons, while bottles were mobilized from a passing lorry to serve as missiles. The police's efforts to disperse the crowd from the Square were unsuccessful. Eventually there was a re-grouping and the workers began to move off from George Square to march towards Glasgow Green. Police were again unsuccessful in their attempts to disperse the strikers.[citation needed]

For the rest of the day and into the night, further fighting took place throughout the city. Many people, women and children among them, were injured. More than a dozen strikers were taken to Duke Street Prison and later tried at the High Court of Justiciary in Edinburgh.[citation needed]

Military intervention[edit]

Medium Mark C tanks and soldiers at the Glasgow Cattle Market in the Gallowgate

The failure of the police to control the riot prompted the Coalition Government under David Lloyd George to react, after Scottish Secretary Robert Munro described the riot as a "Bolshevist uprising". Ten thousand troops[1] armed with machine guns, tanks and a howitzer arrived on the Friday night and Saturday to occupy Glasgow's streets. A 4.5 inch Howitzer was positioned at the City Chambers, the cattle market was transformed into a tank depot, Lewis Guns were posted on the top of the North British Hotel and the General Post Office, armed troops stood sentry outside power stations, docks and patrolled the streets. They were deployed for a week, to deter any further gatherings.[citation needed]

No Glaswegian troops were deployed, with the British government fearing that fellow Glaswegians, soldiers or otherwise, would go over to the workers' side if a revolutionary situation developed in Glasgow. Under the orders of Field Marshal Sir William Robertson, Scottish regiments were transported from other parts of Scotland and stationed in Glasgow specifically to avert this possible scenario. Troops from the Highland Light Infantry were also transported from Maryhill Barracks from Maryhill Central railway station to Buchanan Street railway station but without their Glaswegian men. Other troops, including the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, Gordon Highlanders and Seaforth Highlanders arrived from Stirling Castle, Redford Barracks and Fort George into Queen Street Station.[1]

Consequences[edit]

Manny Shinwell, William Gallacher and David Kirkwood were jailed for several months.[citation needed] The striking workers returned to work with the guarantee of a 47-hour week, ten hours less than they were working beforehand.[4]

In the General Election of 1922, Scotland elected 29 Labour MPs, including the 40 Hour Strike organisers and Independent Labour Party members Manny Shinwell and David Kirkwood.[5][6] The United Kingdom general election, 1923 eventually saw the first Labour government come to power under Ramsay MacDonald. The region's socialist sympathies earned it the epithet of Red Clydeside.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Glasgow Digital Library – The battle of George Square (Bloody Friday) 1919". Strathclyde University. Archived from the original on 20 June 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  2. ^ a b "Red Clydeside". International Socialist Archives. Archived from the original on 21 June 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  3. ^ "Glasgow Digital Library – The 40-hours strike 1919". Strathclyde University. Archived from the original on 20 June 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  4. ^ "Glasgow Digital Library – The battle of George Square (Bloody Friday) 1919". Strathclyde University. Retrieved 6 November 2013. 
  5. ^ The Times, 17 November 1922
  6. ^ "David Kirkwood: Biography". Retrieved 6 November 2013. 
  7. ^ "Red Clydeside - 20th and 21st centuries". Retrieved 6 November 2013.