Black Hawk, Colorado

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City of Black Hawk, Colorado
Home Rule Municipality
Restored historic buildings in downtown Black Hawk
Restored historic buildings in downtown Black Hawk
Nickname(s): The City of Mills
Location in Gilpin County and the State of Colorado
Location in Gilpin County and the State of Colorado
Coordinates: 39°48′11″N 105°29′32″W / 39.80306°N 105.49222°W / 39.80306; -105.49222Coordinates: 39°48′11″N 105°29′32″W / 39.80306°N 105.49222°W / 39.80306; -105.49222
Country USA
State  State of Colorado
County Gilpin County[1]
Incorporated June 12, 1886[2]
Government
 • Type Home Rule Municipality[1]
 • City Manager Corey Hoffmann (acting)[3]
Area
 • Total 1.5 sq mi (3.8 km2)
 • Land 1.5 sq mi (3.8 km2)
 • Water 0 sq mi (0 km2)
Elevation[4] 8,537 ft (2,602 m)
Population (2000)
 • Total 118
 • Density 78.7/sq mi (31.1/km2)
Time zone MST (UTC-7)
 • Summer (DST) MDT (UTC-6)
ZIP code 80403, 80422 (PO Box)[5]
Area code(s) 303
FIPS code 08-07025
GNIS feature ID 0204706
Website City of Black Hawk
The least populous Colorado city

The historic City of Black Hawk is a Home Rule Municipality in Gilpin County, Colorado, United States. The city population was 118 at the 2010 United States Census, making Black Hawk the least populous city (rather than town) in Colorado. The tiny city is a historic mining settlement founded in 1859 during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush.

Black Hawk is located adjacent to Central City, another historic mining settlement in Gregory Gulch. The two cities form the federally designated Central City/Black Hawk National Historic District. The area flourished during the mining boom of the late 19th century following the construction of mills and a railroad link to Golden. The town declined during the 20th century, but has been revived in recent years after the 1991 establishment of casino gambling following a statewide initiative in 1990. In early 2010, the Black Hawk city council passed a law banning the riding of bicycles in the town, drawing a reaction from bicycle advocacy groups and international press. The ban was overturned by the Colorado Supreme Court in 2013.[6]

History[edit]

Mining boom[edit]

The town is located along the north fork of Clear Creek and Gregory Gulch. Black Hawk was established in 1859.[7] In May 1859 the discovery of gold in Gregory Gulch by its namesake, John H. Gregory, brought thousands of prospectors and miners into the area, combing the hills for more gold veins. The Bobtail lode was discovered the following month.[8] Hardrock mining boomed for a few years, but then declined in the mid-1860s as the miners exhausted the shallow parts of the veins that contained free gold, and found that their amalgamation mills could not recover gold from the deeper sulfide ores.[9]

Nathaniel P. Hill built Colorado's first successful ore smelter in Black Hawk in 1868. Hill's smelter could recover gold from the sulfide ores, an achievement that saved hardrock mining in Black Hawk, Central City, and Idaho Springs from ruin. Other smelters were built nearby. Black Hawk's advantageous location on North Clear Creek made it the center of ore processing for the area, and it became known as the City of Mills.[10]

The Colorado Central Railroad extended its line to the town in 1872.[8] A restored depot and locomotive are on display on the east side of downtown. Black Hawk was also serviced by the two-foot gauge Gilpin Tramway which climbed from Black Hawk to the mines above Central City. Many historic buildings in the town have been restored following the opening of the casinos in 1991.

Gambling boom[edit]

The town has been in heated competition for gambling revenue with the nearby town of Central City since casinos opened in both towns in 1991. Development of the area down Clear Creek from the historic Black Hawk townsite lining State Highway 119 has flourished. Gamblers from Denver pass the Blackhawk casinos before they arrive at Central City, and, as a result, Black Hawk has realized much more revenue from gambling than Central City. Gambling in Black Hawk also benefits from less restrictive building codes; while Central City until recently limited building heights to 53 feet to preserve the historic character of the town, Black Hawk has no such limits. In an attempt to close the competitive gap, Central City built the Central City Parkway from I-70 near Idaho Springs as an alternative route, leading guests first to Central City, and then to Black Hawk. The Parkway opened November 19, 2004. However, Black Hawk continues to have three times the number of casinos, and generates more than seven times the gambling revenue that Central City does.[11]

Although the 1990 statewide referendum allowing casino gambling in Black Hawk was promoted as a way to promote historic preservation in Black Hawk, critics have charged that it has had the opposite effect, and that the historic appearance of Black Hawk has been sacrificed to allow construction of the large casinos.[1][2][3][4][dead link]

Tax from the gambling revenue provides funding for the State Historical Fund, administered by the Colorado Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation.[12]

Bicycling ban controversy[edit]

In February 2013, the Colorado Supreme Court overturned a city-wide ban on bicycle traffic through Black Hawk, ruling that the city had failed to comply with state traffic law.[6] In 2010, the city of Black Hawk banned bicycle use on most of the streets in the city. The ban was prompted by a surge in traffic following the change in maximum casino betting limits from $5 to $100. Black Hawk City Manager Michael Copp said that the city council, which passed the new law, believed it was best for the casinos and their patrons. The penalty for riding a bicycle through Black Hawk was a $68 fine.[13][14] Bicycle advocacy groups challenged the bike ban, with the case ultimately going to the Colorado Supreme Court.[15][16] State Highway 119 and County Road 279 in Black Hawk are part of the Great Parks Bicycle Route and the Peak to Peak Scenic Byway touring route.

Geography[edit]

Black Hawk is located at 39°48′11″N 105°29′32″W / 39.80306°N 105.49222°W / 39.80306; -105.49222 (39.803149, −105.492265).[17]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.5 square miles (3.9 km2).

Demographics[edit]

Historic homes in the gulch above downtown Black Hawk
Historical population
Census Pop.
1870 1,068
1880 1,540 44.2%
1890 1,067 −30.7%
1900 1,200 12.5%
1910 668 −44.3%
1920 253 −62.1%
1930 253 0.0%
1940 289 14.2%
1950 166 −42.6%
1960 171 3.0%
1970 217 26.9%
1980 232 6.9%

As of the census[18] of 2000, there were 118 people, 54 households, and 28 families residing in the city. The population density was 80.9 people per square mile (31.2/km²). There were 79 housing units at an average density of 54.2 per square mile (20.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 84.75% White, 3.39% African American, 0.85% Native American, 5.93% from other races, and 5.08% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.17% of the population.

There were 54 households out of which 18.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.7% were married couples living together, 5.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 46.3% were non-families. 33.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.69.

In the city the population was spread out with 17.8% under the age of 18, 5.9% from 18 to 24, 33.1% from 25 to 44, 34.7% from 45 to 64, and 8.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 131.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 131.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $44,583, and the median income for a family was $52,500. Males had a median income of $29,688 versus $20,833 for females. The per capita income for the city was $25,985. None of the population and none of the families were below the poverty line.

Education[edit]

Black Hawk Public Schools are part of the Gilpin County School District RE-1. The district has one elementary school and one high school, Gilpin County Elementary School and Gilpin County Undivided High School.[19]

Tina Goar is the Superintendent of Schools.[20]

There are approximately 380 students enrolled in the district. [21]

Attractions[edit]

Lace House, built 1860's, now a museum

Personalities[edit]

Notable people born or residing in Black Hawk include:

  • Nathaniel P. Hill – Brown University chemistry professor, Black Hawk smelter magnate, U.S. Senator.
  • William Frederick Cody "Buffalo Bill" – briefly a resident of Black Hawk while searching for gold near the town for two months.
  • John H. Gregory – made famous first gold strike in north Clear Creek on May 6, 1859, later setting camps in Black Hawk.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Active Colorado Municipalities". State of Colorado, Department of Local Affairs. Retrieved 2007-09-01. 
  2. ^ "Colorado Municipal Incorporations". State of Colorado, Department of Personnel & Administration, Colorado State Archives. 2004-12-01. Retrieved 2007-09-02. 
  3. ^ "City Manager". City of Black Hawk. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  4. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  5. ^ "ZIP Code Lookup" (JavaScript/HTML). United States Postal Service. Retrieved September 3, 2007. 
  6. ^ a b Webb v. Black Hawk, 2013 CO 9
  7. ^ "City of Black Hawk Colorado". City of Black Hawk Colorado. Retrieved 2012-05-07. 
  8. ^ a b Paul K. Sims and others (1963) Economic Geology of the Central City District, Gilpin County, Colorado, US Geological Survey, Professional Paper 359, p.7-8.
  9. ^ A. H. Koschman and M. H. Bergendahl (1968) Principal Gold-Producing Districts of the United States, US Geological Survey, Professional Paper 610, p.86.
  10. ^ James E. Fell, Jr. (1979) Ores to Metals, Lincoln: Univ. Nebraska Press, p.27-54.
  11. ^ Andy Vuong, "eased gambling, building rules give Central City second chance," Denver Post, July 1, 2009, p.1A.
  12. ^ State Historical Fund, Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, Colorado Historical Society, USA.
  13. ^ Pidd, Helen (2010-06-18). "That's all, spokes: Colorado town of Black Hawk bans cyclists". The Guardian (London: Guardian News and Media Limited). Retrieved June 20, 2010. 
  14. ^ Bicycles Banned in Black Hawk KMGH Denver 2010-06-07 Retrieved 2010-06-08.
  15. ^ BANDA, P. SOLOMON (2010-06-17). "Casino city bans riding bikes through town". MSNBC/Associated Press. Retrieved June 20, 2010. 
  16. ^ "An Illegal Bike Ban – Road Rights". Retrieved 2010-06-25. 
  17. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  18. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  19. ^ "Black Hawk Schools". GreatSchools, Inc. Retrieved 2012-05-07. 
  20. ^ "SCHOOL DISTRICTS/BUILDINGS AND PERSONNEL". Colorado Department of Education. Retrieved 2012-05-07. 
  21. ^ "Gilpin County School District Re – 1". Trulia Inc. Retrieved 2012-05-07. 

External links[edit]