Black Hawk (Sauk leader)

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Black Hawk
Chief Black Hawk3.jpg
An illustration of Black Hawk, from History of the Indian Tribes of North America
Born Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak
1767
Saukenuk, Illinois
Died October 3, 1838 (aged 70–71)
Davis County, Iowa
Monuments Black Hawk Statue, Black Hawk State Historic Site
Nationality Sauk
Other names Black Sparrow Hawk
Occupation War captain; band leader
Known for Black Hawk War

Black Hawk, born Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak, (1767 – October 3, 1838) was a war leader and warrior of the Sauk American Indian tribe in what is now the Midwest of the United States. Although he had inherited an important historic medicine bundle from his father, he was not a hereditary civil chief. Black Hawk earned his status as a war chief or captain by his actions: leading raiding and war parties as a young man, and a band of Sauk warriors during the Black Hawk War of 1832.

During the War of 1812, Black Hawk had fought on the side of the British against the United States, hoping to push the latter's settlers away from Sauk territory. Later he led a band of Sauk and Fox warriors, known as the British Band, against European-American settlers in Illinois and present-day Wisconsin in the 1832 Black Hawk War. After the war, he was captured by U.S. forces and taken to the eastern U.S. He and other war leaders were taken on tour of several cities.

Shortly before being released from custody, Black Hawk told his story to an interpreter; aided also by a newspaper reporter, he published Autobiography of Ma-Ka-Tai-Me-She-Kia-Kiak, or Black Hawk, Embracing the Traditions of his Nation... in 1833 in Cincinnati, Ohio. The first Native American autobiography to be published in the United States, his book became an immediate bestseller and has gone through several editions. Black Hawk died in 1838 (at age 70 or 71) in what is now southeastern Iowa. He has been honored by an enduring legacy: his book, many eponyms, and other tributes.

Early life[edit]

Black Hawk, or Black Sparrow Hawk (Sauk Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak [Mahkate:wi-meši-ke:hke:hkwa], "be a large black hawk")[1] was born in 1767 in the village of Saukenuk on the Rock River (present-day Rock Island, Illinois).[2] Black Hawk's father Pyesa was the tribal medicine man of the Sauk people.[3] The Sauk used the village in the summer for raising corn and as a burial site. During the winter, they moved across the Mississippi to present-day Iowa for winter hunts and fur trapping.

Little is known about Black Hawk's youth. He was said to be a descendant of Nanamakee (Thunder), a Sauk chief who, according to tradition, met an early French explorer, possibly Samuel de Champlain.[4] At age 15, Black Hawk accompanied his father Pyesa on a raid against the Osage. he won approval by killing and scalping his first enemy.[5] The young Black Hawk tried to establish himself as a war captain by leading other raids. He had limited success until, at age 19, he led 200 men in a battle against the Osage, in which he personally killed five men and one woman.[6] Soon after, he joined his father in a raid against Cherokee along the Meramec River in Missouri. After Pyesa died from wounds received in the battle, Black Hawk inherited the Sauk medicine bundle which his father had carried, giving him an important role in the tribe.[7]

War leader[edit]

After an extended period of mourning for his father, Black Hawk resumed leading raiding parties over the next years, usually targeting the traditional enemy, the Osage. Black Hawk did not belong to a clan that provided the Sauk with hereditary civil leaders, or "chiefs". He achieved status through his exploits as a warrior and by leading successful raiding parties. Men like Black Hawk are sometimes called "war chiefs", but historian Patrick Jung writes, "It is more accurate to call them 'war leaders' since the nature of their office and the power that it wielded was much different from that of a civil chief."[8] Twenty-first century historians such as John W. Hall have suggested the term "war captain" for this role.[9]

War of 1812[edit]

Plans of the original Fort Madison, 1810. Black Hawk participated in the 1809 and 1812 sieges; the fort fell to British-supported Indians in 1813.

During the War of 1812, Black Hawk, now 45, served as a war leader of a Sauk band at their village of Saukenuk, which fielded about 200 warriors. He supported the invalidity of Quashquame's Treaty of St. Louis (1804) between the Sauk and Fox nations and then-Governor William Henry Harrison of the Indiana Territory that ceded territory, including Saukenuk, to the United States.[10] The Sauk and Fox are consensus-based decision makers and those representatives sent to the meeting with the US government did not have the power to cede tribal territory although Quashquame did. The lack of the consensus aspect by each the Sauk and Fox councils the treaty could never be considered valid by Black Hawk and other traditionalists.[11] Black Hawk took part in skirmishes against US forces at the newly constructed Fort Madison in the disputed land; this was the first time he fought directly against the U.S. Army.[12]

During the War of 1812, forces of Great Britain and its colonies in present-day Canada were engaged against those of the United States, with major battles on the Great Lakes and surrounding remote lands. The British depended upon alliances with the Native American population to wage war in this area since the British were occupied with Napoleon in Europe. Colonel Robert Dickson, an English fur trader, amassed a sizable force of Native Americans at Green Bay to assist the British in operations around the Great Lakes. Most were from the Potawatomi, Ho-Chunk, Kickapoo, and Ottawa tribes. Black Hawk and his band of about 200 Sauk warriors were included in this group of allies.

Dickson commissioned Black Hawk at the rank of brevet Brigadier General,[10] with command over all native allies at Green Bay and presented him with a silk flag, a medal, and a written certificate of good behavior and alliance with the British. The war leader preserved the certificate for 20 years; it was found by US forces after the Battle of Bad Axe, along with a flag similar in description to that Dickson gave to Black Hawk.[10]

During the war, Black Hawk and Native warriors fought in several engagements with Major-General Henry Procter on the borders of Lake Erie.[11] Black Hawk was at the Battle of Frenchtown, Fort Meigs, and the attack on Fort Stephenson.[13][14] The United States repulsed the British and the Indian Confederacy led by Tecumseh, with high casualties suffered by the British and their allies.

Black Hawk despaired over the many lives lost due to European attack methods; soon after, he quit the war to return home. Back in Saukenuk, he found that his rival Keokuk had become the tribe's war chief.[10] Black Hawk rejoined the British effort toward the end of the war, fighting alongside British forces in campaigns along the Mississippi River near the Illinois Territory.[13] At the Battle of Credit Island and by harassing U.S. troops at Fort Johnson, Black Hawk helped to push the Americans out of the upper Mississippi River valley.[15]

Black Hawk fought in the Battle of the Sink Hole (May 1815), leading an ambush on a group of Missouri Rangers. Conflicting accounts of the action were given by the Missouri leader John Shaw[16] and by Black Hawk.[17]

After the end of the War of 1812, Black Hawk signed a peace treaty in May 1816 that re-affirmed the treaty of 1804. Later he said he was not aware of this stipulation.[11]

Black Hawk War[edit]

Main article: Black Hawk War
Plaster life cast of Black Hawk, original ca. 1830, at Black Hawk State Historic Site.

As a consequence of the 1804 treaty, the Sauk and Fox tribes had ceded their lands in Illinois and in 1828 removed west of the Mississippi. Black Hawk and other tribal members disputed the treaty, as noted above, and said leaders had signed it without full tribal authorization.[18] Angered by the loss of his birthplace, between 1830 and 1831 Black Hawk led a number of incursions across the Mississippi River to Illinois. He was persuaded to return west each time without bloodshed.

In April 1832, encouraged by promises of alliance with other tribes and with Britain, he moved his so-called "British Band" of more than 1500 people, both warriors and non-combatants, into Illinois.[18] Finding no allies, he tried to return to Iowa, but the undisciplined Illinois militia provoked open attack and the Battle of Stillman's Run.[19] A number of other violent engagements followed. The governors of Michigan Territory and Illinois mobilized their militias to hunt down Black Hawk's Band. The conflict became known as the Black Hawk War.

When Black Hawk entered Illinois in April, his British Band was composed of about 500 warriors and 1,000 old men, women, and children.[20][21] The group included members of the Sauk, Fox and Kickapoo tribes. They crossed the river near the mouth of the Iowa River and followed the Rock River northeast. Along the way, they passed the ruins of Saukenuk and headed for the village of Ho-Chunk prophet White Cloud.[22]

As the war progressed, factions of other tribes joined, or tried to join Black Hawk. Other Native Americans and settlers carried out acts of violence for personal reasons amidst the chaos of the war.[23][24] In one example, a band of hostile Ho-Chunk intent on joining Black Hawk's Band attacked and killed the party of Felix St. Vrain in what Americans knew as the St. Vrain massacre.[25] This act was an exception as most Ho-Chunk sided with the United States during the Black Hawk War.[25] The warriors who attacked St. Vrain's party had acted independently of the Ho-Chunk nation.[25] From April to August, Potawatomi warriors also joined with Black Hawk's Band.[26]

The war stretched from April to August 1832, with a number of battles, skirmishes and massacres on both sides. When the Illinois and Michigan Territory militias caught up with Black Hawk's "British Band" following the Battle of Wisconsin Heights, they had a final confrontation at Bad Axe. At the mouth of the Bad Axe River, pursuing soldiers, their Indian allies, and a U.S. gunboat killed hundreds of Sauk and Potawatomi men, women and children.[27] On August 27, 1832, Black Hawk and Wabokieshiek surrendered at Prairie du Chien to Indian agent Joseph Street.[28][29]

Tour of the East[edit]

Calumet (or "peace pipe") used by Black Hawk, on display at Black Hawk State Historic Site.

Following the war, with most of the British Band killed and the rest captured or disbanded, the defeated Black Hawk was held in captivity at Jefferson Barracks near Saint Louis, Missouri together with Neapope, White Cloud, and eight other leaders.[26] After eight months, in April 1833 they were taken east, as ordered by U.S. President Andrew Jackson. The men were taken by steamboat, carriage, and railroad, and met with large crowds wherever they went. Jackson wanted them to be impressed with the power of the United States. Once in Washington, D.C., they met with Jackson and Secretary of War Lewis Cass. Afterward, they were delivered to their final destination, prison at Fortress Monroe in Norfolk, Virginia.[26] They were held only a few weeks at the prison, during which they posed for portraits by different artists.

On June 5, 1833, the men were sent west by steamboat on a circuitous route that took them through many large cities. Again, the men were a spectacle everywhere they went, and were greeted by huge crowds of people in cities such as Baltimore, Philadelphia and New York, .[26] In the west, closer to the battle sites and history of conflict, the reception was much different. For instance, in Detroit, a crowd burned and hanged effigies of the prisoners.[26]

First autobiography by Native American[edit]

Near the end of his captivity in 1833, Black Hawk told his life story to Antoine LeClaire, a government interpreter. Edited by the local reporter J.B. Patterson, Black Hawk's account was the first Native American autobiography published in the United States.[30] The Autobiography of Ma-Ka-Tai-Me-She-Kia-Kiak, or Black Hawk, Embracing the Traditions of his Nation, Various Wars In Which He Has Been Engaged, and His Account of the Cause and General History of the Black Hawk War of 1832, His Surrender, and Travels Through the United States. Also Life, Death and Burial of the Old Chief, Together with a History of the Black Hawk War was published in 1833 in Cincinnati, Ohio.[2][13] The book immediately became a best seller and has gone through numerous editions.[13]

Assessment as Sauk leader[edit]

Although not a hereditary chief, Black Hawk filled a leadership void within the Sauk community. When Quashquame ceded much of the Sauk homeland in 1804 to the United States, including the main village Saukenuk, he was viewed as ineffective. Black Hawk wrote in his autobiography:

It subsequently appeared that they had been drunk the greater part of the time while at St. Louis. This was all myself and nation knew of the treaty of 1804. It has since been explained to me. I found by that treaty, that all of the country east of the Mississippi, and south of Jeffreon was ceded to the United States for one thousand dollars a year. I will leave it to the people of the United States to say whether our nation was properly represented in this treaty? Or whether we received a fair compensation for the extent of country ceded by these four individuals? I could say much more respecting this treaty, but I will not at this time. It has been the origin of all our serious difficulties with the whites.[2]

Black Hawk

Because of his role in the disputed 1804 treaty, the tribe reduced its support of Quashquame and made him a minor chief. "Quasquawma, was chief of this tribe once, but being cheated out of the mineral country, as the Indians allege, he was denigrated from his rank and his son-in-law Taimah elected in his stead."[31] Although Quashquame and Black Hawk were at odds, the younger man did not directly challenge the civil chief. They apparently remained on good terms as Black Hawk rose in importance and Quashquame faded. Quashquame avoided confrontation with the U.S., while Black Hawk did not. After Black Hawk led an aborted takeover of Fort Madison in the Spring of 1809, Quashquame worked to restore relations with the US Army the next day.[32]

Quashquame told Gen. William Clark during a meeting in 1810 or 1811:

My father, I left my home to see my great-grandfather, the president of the United States, but as I cannot proceed to see him, I give you my hand as to himself. I have no father to whom I have paid any attention but yourself. If you hear anything, I hope that you will let me know, and I will do the same. I have been advised several times to raise the tomahawk. Since the last war we have looked upon the Americans as friends, and I shall hold you fast by the hand. The Great Spirit has not put us on the earth to war with the whites. We have never struck a white man. If we go to war it is with the red flesh. Other nations send belts among us, and urge us to war. They say that if we do not, the Americans will encroach upon us, and drive us off our lands.[33]

During the run up to the War of 1812, the US viewed Quashquame as loyal, or at least neutral. They knew Black Hawk led those Sauk warriors allied with the British. Quashquame led all Sauk non-combatants during the war, and they retreated to Saint Louis. Black Hawk thought this was an ideal arrangement:

... all the children and old men and women belonging to the warriors who had joined the British were left with them to provide for. A council had been called which agreed that Quashquame, the Lance, and other chiefs, with the old men, women and children, and such others as chose to accompany them, should descend the Mississippi to St. Louis, and place themselves under the American chief stationed there. They accordingly went down to St. Louis, were received as the friendly band of our nation, were sent up the Missouri and provided for, while their friends were assisting the British![2]

A rift developed among the Sauk after the war. In 1815 Quashquame was part of a large delegation who signed a treaty confirming a split between the Sauk along the Missouri River and the Sauk who lived along the Rock River at Saukenuk.[34] The Rock River group of Sauk was commonly known as the British Band; their warriors were the core of those Sauk who participated in the Black Hawk War. About 1824, Quashquame sold a large Sauk village in Illinois to a trader Captain James White. White gave Quashquame "a little 'sku-ti-apo' [liquor] and two thousand bushels of corn" for the land, which later was developed as Nauvoo, Illinois.[35] This land sale likely aggravated Black Hawk and other Sauk who wanted to maintain their claim on Illinois.

As Quashquame was eclipsed by his son-in-law Taimah as the Sauk chief favored by the U.S., his compromise position lost standing compared to Black Hawk's resistance. When Caleb Atwater wrote about his visit to Quashquame in 1829, he depicted the leader as feeble, more interested in art and leisure than politics, but still advocating diplomacy over conflict.[36] In the summer of 1830, Black Hawk began his incursions into the disputed territory of Illinois, which eventually leading to the Black Hawk War.

Black Hawk's frequent rival was Keokuk, a Sauk war chief held in high esteem by the U.S. government. Officials believed that he was calm and reasonable, willing to negotiate, unlike Black Hawk. Black Hawk despised Keokuk, and viewed him as cowardly and self-serving, at one point threatening to kill him for not defending Saukenuk.[37] After the Black Hawk War, US officials designated Keokuk as the main Sauk leader and would only deal with him.

Last days[edit]

Putative Black Hawk grave at Iowaville Cemetery. There are conflicting accounts about what happened to his remains.
Black Hawk Memorial Plaque at Iowaville Cemetery

After his tour of the east, Black Hawk lived with the Sauk along the Iowa River and later the Des Moines River near Iowaville[38] in what is now southeast Iowa. At the end of his life, he tried to reconcile both with American settlers and with his Sauk rivals, including Keokuk.

In an 1838 address at Fort Madison in the year of his death, he said the following:

It has pleased the Great Spirit that I am here today— I have eaten with my white friends. The earth is our mother— we are now on it, with the Great spirit above us; it is good. I hope we are all friends here. A few winters ago I was fighting against you. I did wrong, perhaps, but that is past—it is buried—let it be forgotten.

Rock River was a beautiful country. I liked my towns, my cornfields and the home of my people. I fought for it. It is now yours. Keep it as we did— it will produce you good crops.

I thank the Great Spirit that I am now friendly with my white brethren. We are here together, we have eaten together; we are friends; it is his wish and mine. I thank you for your friendship.

I was once a great warrior; I am now poor. Keokuk has been the cause of my present situation; but I do not attach blame to him. I am now old. I have looked upon the Mississippi since I have been a child. I love the great river. I have dwelt upon its banks from the time I was an infant. I look upon it now. I shake hands with you, and as it is my wish, I hope you are my friends.
—--Address by Black Hawk, July 4, 1838, at Fort Madison.[39]

Black Hawk died on October 3, 1838 after two weeks of illness. He was buried on the farm of his friend James Jordan on the north bank of the Des Moines River in Davis County.

In July 1839, his remains were stolen by James Turner, who prepared his skeleton for exhibition. Black Hawk's sons Nashashuk and Gamesett went to Governor Robert Lucas of Iowa Territory, who used his influence to bring the bones to security in his offices in Burlington. With the permission of Black Hawk's sons, the remains were held by the Burlington Geological and Historical Society. When the Society's building burned down in 1855, Black Hawk's remains were destroyed.[40]

An alternative account is Governor Lucas passed Black Hawk's bones to Enos Lowe, a Burlington physician, who was said to leave them to his partner, Dr. McLaurens. After McLaurens moved to California, workers were reported to have found the bones at his house. They buried the remains in a potter's grave in Aspen Grove Cemetery in Burlington.[41]

There is a marker for him[42] in the Iowaville Cemetery on the hill over the river, although it is unknown if any of his remains are there.

Legacy[edit]

The Eternal Indian, a sculpture by Lorado Taft inspired by Black Hawk.

Through interpreter Antoine LeClair, Black Hawk dictated an autobiography titled Life of Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak (or, Life of Black Hawk), originally published in 1833.[43]

A sculpture by Lorado Taft overlooks the Rock River in Oregon, Illinois. Entitled The Eternal Indian, this statue is commonly known as the Black Hawk Statue.[44] In modern times Black Hawk is considered a tragic hero and numerous commemorations exist.[13] These are mostly in the form of eponyms; many roads, sports teams and schools are named after Black Hawk. Among the numerous wars in United States history, however; the Black Hawk War is one of few named for a person.[45]

According to a widespread myth, the Olympic gold medal-winning athlete Jim Thorpe was said to be descended from Black Hawk.[46]

The Wisconsin born African American spiritualist and trance medium Leafy Anderson claimed that Black Hawk was one of her major spirit guides. This spirit's guidance and protection are sought by the members of many churches within the loosely allied Spiritual Church Movement which she founded.[47][48][49] Special "Black Hawk services" are held to invoke his assistance, and busts or statues representing him are kept on home and church altars by his devotees.[47]

Examples of eponyms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Bright, William (2004). Native American Place Names of the United States, Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, pg. 66.
  2. ^ a b c d Black Hawk; LeClair, Antoine, interpreter; Patterson, J. B., editor, Autobiography of Ma-Ka-Tai-Me-She-Kia-Kiak, or Black Hawk, Embracing the Traditions of his Nation, Various Wars In Which He Has Been Engaged, and His Account of the Cause and General History of the Black Hawk War of 1832, His Surrender, and Travels Through the United States. Also Life, Death and Burial of the Old Chief, Together with a History of the Black Hawk War, J. B. Patterson, Oquawka, IL: reprint 1882, Retrieved 20 September 2007
  3. ^ Stevens, Frank Everett (18 May 1743). "Black Hawk War, Part 02 -- Black Hawk and His Times". myeducationresearch.org. The Pierian Press. Retrieved 2011-05-24. 
  4. ^ Roger L. Nichols, Black Hawk and the Warrior's Path (Arlington Heights, Illinois: Harlan Davidson, 1992; ISBN 0-88295-884-4), 4, 12.
  5. ^ Nichols, 14.
  6. ^ Nichols, 16.
  7. ^ Nichols, 16–17.
  8. ^ Jung, 55.
  9. ^ See for example John W. Hall, Uncommon Defense: Indian Allies in the Black Hawk War (Harvard University Press, 2009), p. 2.
  10. ^ a b c d Smith, William Rudolph. The History of Wisconsin: In Three Parts, Historical, Documentary, and Descriptive, (Google Books), B. Brown: 1854, pp. 221–406. Retrieved 20 September 2007.
  11. ^ a b c Lewis, James. ""Background: The Black Hawk War of 1832", Abraham Lincoln Digitization Project, Northern Illinois University. Retrieved 20 September 2007.
  12. ^ McKusick, Marshall B. (2009). "Fort Madison, 1808-1813". In William E. Whittaker. Frontier Forts of Iowa: Indians, Traders, and Soldiers, 1682–1862. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. pp. 55–74. ISBN 978-1-58729-831-8. 
  13. ^ a b c d e Trask, Kerry A. Black Hawk: The Battle for the Heart of America, (Google Books), Henry Holt: 2006, p. 109, 308, (ISBN 0805077588), pp. 220-221. Retrieved 26 October 2007.
  14. ^ Lewis, James. "The Black Hawk War of 1832: FAQ," Abraham Lincoln Digitization Project, Northern Illinois University. Retrieved 26 October 2007.
  15. ^ Nolan, David J. (2009). "Fort Johnson, Cantonment Davis, and Fort Edwards". In William E. Whittaker. Frontier Forts of Iowa: Indians, Traders, and Soldiers, 1682–1862. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. pp. 85–94. ISBN 978-1-58729-831-8. 
  16. ^ Stevens, Walter B. (1921). Centennial History of Missouri (The Center State) One Hundred Years in the Union. St. Louis: S. J. Clarke. 
  17. ^ Black Hawk (1916 (orig. 1834)). Milo M. Quaife, ed. Life of Black Hawk, Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak. Chicago: Lakeside Press. pp. 66–68. 
  18. ^ a b Lewis, James. "The Black Hawk War of 1832," Abraham Lincoln Digitization Project, Northern Illinois University. Retrieved August 1, 2007.
  19. ^ "May 14: Black Hawk's Victory at the Battle of Stillman's Run," Historic Diaries: The Black Hawk War, Wisconsin State Historical Society. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
  20. ^ Harmet, "Apple River Fort," p. 13.
  21. ^ Lewis, James. "Introduction," The Black Hawk War of 1832, Abraham Lincoln Digitization Project, Northern Illinois University. Retrieved 20 September 2007.
  22. ^ Lewis, "Introduction."
  23. ^ ""May 21, Indian Creek, Ill.: Abduction of the Hall Sisters", Historic Diaries: The Black Hawk War, Wisconsin State Historical Society. Retrieved 20 September 2007.
  24. ^ Matile, Roger. "The Black Hawk War: Massacre at Indian Creek," Ledger-Sentinel (Oswego, Illinois), 31 May 2007, Retrieved 20 September 2007
  25. ^ a b c ""The Killing of Felix St. Vrain", Historic Diaries: Black Hawk War, Wisconsin Historical Society, Retrieved 20 September 2007
  26. ^ a b c d e Lewis, James. "The Black Hawk War of 1832", Abraham Lincoln Digitization Project, Northern Illinois University, p. 2D. Retrieved 20 September 2007.
  27. ^ McCann, Dennis. "Black Hawk's name, country's shame lives on", Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel, April 28, 2007. Retrieved July 30, 2007.
  28. ^ Jung, p. 182.
  29. ^ Trask, pp. 294–95.
  30. ^ "Black Hawk Remembers Village Life Along the Mississippi," History Matters: The U.S. Survey Course on the Web, George Mason University. Retrieved 20 September 2007.
  31. ^ Atwater, Caleb. Remarks Made of A Tour to Prairie du Chien: Thence to Washington City, in 1829. Columbus, OH: Isaac N. Whiting, 1831
  32. ^ Van der Zee, Jacob (1913) "Old Fort Madison: Some Source Materials", Iowa Journal of History and Politics Vol. 11.
  33. ^ Johnson, W.F. (1919) History of Cooper County, Missouri. Topeka: Historical Publishing Co., p. 62.
  34. ^ Indian Treaties 1795 to 1862 Vol. XX - Sauk & Fox L.S. Watson (ed.) 1993
  35. ^ Campbell, James W. (1884) "Address of Capt. Jas. W. Campbell.", in Report of the Organization and First Reunion of the Tri-State Old Settlers' Association of Illinois, Missouri and Iowa, edited by J. H. Cole and J. M. Schaffer, pp. 33–38, Keokuk: IA, Tri-State Printing
  36. ^ Caleb Atwater (1829) Remarks Made of A Tour to Prairie du Chien: Thence to Washington City (published 1831, pp. 60-62)
  37. ^ Trask, Kerry (2006) Black Hawk: The Battle for the Heart of America. Henry Holt. pp. 75-80.
  38. ^ Andreas Atlas of Iowa", 1903, "Van Buren Co. Early History" and "Davis Co. Early History"
  39. ^ Antrobus, Augustine M. (1915) History of Des Moines County, Iowa: And Its People, Vol. 1, p. 141 S.J. Clarke, Chicago.
  40. ^ "Makataimeshekiakiak: Black Hawk and his War". Davenport Public Library. Retrieved 2007-03-30. 
  41. ^ "BLACK HAWK'S VARNISHED BONES.; THEY ARE BELIEVED TO BE LYING UNMARKED IN A POTTER'S FIELD.". New York Times. September 25, 1891. Retrieved 4 December 2009. 
  42. ^ Chief Blackhawk (1760 - 1838) - Find A Grave Memorial
  43. ^ Wisconsin Historical Society
  44. ^ Oregon Sculpture Trail, The Eternal Indian, City of Oregon. Retrieved 28 September 2007.
  45. ^ Shannon, B. Clay. Still Casting Shadows: A Shared Mosaic of U.S. History, (Google Books), iUniverse, New York: 2006, p. 215, (ISBN 0595397239). Retrieved 26 October 2007.
  46. ^ County Chronicles: A Vivid Collection of Fayette County, Pennsylvania Histories, (Google Books), Mechling Bookbindery: 2004, pp. 129–30, (ISBN 0976056348). Retrieved 4 October 2007.
  47. ^ a b Jason Berry (1995). The Spirit of Blackhawk: a Mystery of Africans and Indians. University Press of Mississippi. 
  48. ^ Jacobs, Claude F.; Kaslow, Andrew J. (1991). The Spiritual Churches of New Orleans Origins, Beliefs, and Rituals of an African-American Religion. The University of Tennessee Press. ISBN 1-57233-148-8. 
  49. ^ Smith, Michael (1992). Spirit World: Pattern in the Expressive Folk Culture of New Orleans. Pelican Publishing. ISBN 978-0-88289-895-7. 
  50. ^ "History", Chicago Blackhawks
  51. ^ Southwest Wisconsin Conference
  52. ^ [1]

External links[edit]