Final Fantasy character jobs
|This article is missing information about Japanese class and ability names. (January 2010)|
In several installments of the Final Fantasy series of role-playing games by Square Enix, classes (jobs) are roles assigned to playable characters that determine the character's proficiencies. Classes can be loosely categorized into physical classes, which specialize in using weapons and techniques; magical classes, which are proficient in magic; and mixed classes, which combine elements of both classes in addition to other special abilities.
This article summarizes the most common character classes; many games in the series have featured unique classes that have not reappeared in subsequent games. For information on those classes, see the article regarding the game in which the class appeared. Job classes in Final Fantasy XI are featured in Final Fantasy XI character classes; those in Final Fantasy Tactics Advance are featured in List of jobs in Final Fantasy Tactics Advance.
- 1 History and development
- 2 Physical classes
- 3 Magical classes
- 4 Mixed classes
- 5 Reception
- 6 References
History and development
- In Final Fantasy, the player allocates permanent class selections to the four playable characters at the beginning of the game. Each of the six starting classes can be upgraded to a corresponding advanced class midway through the game.
- Characters in Final Fantasy II are molded according to their performance in battle. However, while jobs are not part of the game mechanics, they are part of the setting; the playable characters include a White Mage, a Dragoon and a Dark Knight, and the town of Mysidia is populated mostly by Black and White Mages.
- Final Fantasy III changed the formula by allowing the player to change a character's class, as well as acquire new and advanced classes.
- Final Fantasy IV introduced characters already locked into a class; abilities related to the character's class are learned as the character gains experience points. The only exception to this is Cecil, who changes class from a Dark Knight to a Paladin for story reasons.
- Final Fantasy V returned to the system used in Final Fantasy III, allowing players to change a character's class and acquire new and advanced classes. Furthermore, Final Fantasy V added ability slots, allowing a character with one class to use abilities learned with another class.
- In Final Fantasy VI, each playable character has a locked class from the beginning of the game, and a signature command, such as Dance, Lore or Mimic. However, the magicite system lets every character learn almost every magic and summoning spells.
- In Final Fantasy VII, characters were designed around traditional classes which affect base stats, stat growth and weapon type of the character (ex: Tifa was designed around the Monk class, giving here strong physical stats, low hp growth and hand to hand weapons). Due to the materia system letting the player assign any magic or special command (ex: Steal, Mimic) to any character, they can all be customised to play the same in battle; nevertheless, each character is differentiated by their stats and unique limit breaks.
- Final Fantasy VIII adopted a similar system as Final Fantasy VII, Although here it is linked the development of the game's Summoned Monsters (called Guardian Forces), by choosing which abilities they learn through combat and boosting character stats, damage and resistances by equipping spells to those abilities through a system called Junctioning.
- In Final Fantasy IX, characters have predetermined "dormant abilities" similar to Final Fantasy IV; however, the characters in Final Fantasy IX learn abilities by wearing equipment instead of gaining levels.
- Final Fantasy X introduced the "sphere grid"; characters began at certain areas of the grid, which represent traditional character classes by their statistical bonuses and abilities. Character classes were re-introduced in Final Fantasy X-2 as "dresspheres"; these classes are gradually acquired and can be changed at any point, including battle mode.
- The classes that appeared in Final Fantasy XI, the first MMORPG title in the series, have certain unique implementations that more closely follow MMORPG convention. Notably, in Final Fantasy XI a player can equip a secondary job, called a "subjob", and have half the abilities of that class. Extensive backstories are often given to the games' job classes to add to the setting's lore.
- In Final Fantasy XII, abilities are unlocked through the "License Board" system, which allows the player to mold characters into anything, without restriction of traditional classes. However, in the game's international version and in Final Fantasy XII: Revenant Wings, the growth system is modified to have more clearly defined classes.
- In Final Fantasy XIII, characters can switch class mid-battle and in the field, utilizing the Paradigm system. Final Fantasy XIII-2, in addition to Serah Farron and Noel Kreiss using a modified Paradigm system from the prior game, players can recruit monsters into their Paradigm Pack, where they fight along the player characters in battle in one of the Paradigm roles. Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII uses the Schema system, where the player assigns and customizes three Schemata to use in battle.
- In Final Fantasy XIV, player classes vary by what weapon they are wielding (i.e. wielding a sword turns that player into a Gladiator, while wielding knuckles turns the player into a Pugilist etc.). Additionally, abilities learned from other classes may be junctioned onto the player's current class (i.e. a Pugilist may use Red Lotus from the Gladiator class)
- In Final Fantasy Tactics and Final Fantasy Tactics Advance, classes are chosen by the player from one of several starting classes; however, characters must meet prerequisites before changing classes.
- In Final Fantasy: The 4 Heroes of Light all characters can use any piece of equipment or magic spell available at one point in time. However, equipping a different crown alters a character's battle performance to a certain extent, raising the power of some weapons, spells and abilities and decreasing those of others, as well as providing special abilities unique to that crown, so the concept of classes can still be used in this case.
Many Final Fantasy installments deviate from the class system by allowing flexibility in character growth, or featuring pre-determined jobs. In Final Fantasy VI, Final Fantasy VII, and Final Fantasy VIII, for example, characters begin with equipment and attack proficiencies similar to character classes, but the player can allocate magic and statistical bonuses. Final Fantasy character classes have also made cameo appearances as hidden players in Mario Hoops 3-on-3, Mario Sports Mix and as enemies in Kingdom Hearts II.
The following table summarizes the names of the jobs in the various Final Fantasy video games. The columns are sorted from pure physical (Fighting) jobs on the left to pure magical (Healing) classes to the right. Since jobs names can vary slightly between different versions of the same video game, the version where names are taken from is written under the video game title in the first column.
|12||Cecil (Dark Knight)
|Edward (Bard)||Palom (Black Mage)
|Rosa & Porom (White Mage)|
|Celes (Rune Knight)
Gau (Feral Youth)
|Terra (Magitek Elite)
|Strago (Blue Mage)
|FF VII||9||Tifa (Monk)
|Cloud (Mystic Knight)||Red XIII (Beast)
Cait Sith (Gambler/Puppet Master)
|-||Aeris (White Mage)||-|
|FF VIII||11||Squall (Warrior)
|Seifer (Mystic Knight)||Rinoa (Beastmaster/Berserker)||Edea (Black Mage)||Quistis (Blue Mage)
|FF IX||8||Zidane (Thief)
|Freya (Dragoon)||-||Vivi (Black Mage)||Quina (Blue Mage)
Garnet/Dagger (Summoner/White Mage)
|Eiko (White Mage/Summoner)|
|FF X||7||Wakka (Hunter/Gambler)
|Auron (Samurai)||Tidus (Warrior/Time Mage)
Kimarhi (Dragoon/Blue Mage)
|Lulu (Black Mage/Puppet Master)||Yuna (White Mage/Summoner)||-|
|Black Mage||Floral Fallal||White Mage|
International Zodiac Job System only
Berserker (called Breaker)
Samurai (called Mononofu)
Ninja (called Shikari)
Ulhan (Dragoon/Dark Knight)
|Red Mage||Black Mage||Time Mage||White Mage|
Physical classes are able to inflict damage through a variety of weapons and job-specific techniques. In general, these jobs have access to heavier weapons and armor than magical or mixed classes, giving them superior attack power and physical defense.
The Warrior (戦士 Senshi?), formerly translated as the Fighter, is portrayed as an expert of the sword and/or axe who uses some of the most powerful armors and weaponry. As such, it is a well-rounded physical combatant with high attack and defense statistics. Initially, the Knight was treated as an upgraded form of the Warrior class, but later games in the series began to use the two terms interchangeably. Recurring abilities shared by the Warrior/Fighter and Knight classes include various special attacks, the most common of which are the various "break" or "rend" abilities, each of which can either inflict specific stat-lowering debuffs or destroy a specific piece of enemy equipment. Recurring abilities of the Knight class include the ability to cast some lower level white magic spells and "Cover", which intercepts attacks against wounded allies. The Warrior has appeared in Final Fantasy, Final Fantasy III, Final Fantasy X-2, Final Fantasy Tactics Advance, and Final Fantasy XI; the Knight has appeared in Final Fantasy, Final Fantasy III, Final Fantasy IV, Final Fantasy V, Final Fantasy XII and Final Fantasy Tactics. Though she is not officially categorized as a Warrior, Final Fantasy XIII protagonist Lightning fights and attacks enemies with a sword-like gunblade whenever she takes on the "Commando" role. In Final Fantasy XIV: A Realm Reborn, the two-handed axe wielding Marauder class can equip the Warrior job soul crystal, becoming a powerful tank class with some self-healing and increased mitigation granted through special attacks. Many games in the series also feature specialized sword-wielding classes, such as Dark Knight, Paladin, Samurai, or Holy Knight.
The Monk (モンク Monku?) is a master of martial arts who favors barehanded fighting, sometimes supplemented with claws. In some games, they can use meditative techniques, which improve their power or heal their wounds. They can often counterattack against physical attacks as well. In early English localizations of the series, the Monk was known as the Black Belt; in Final Fantasy III, the Black Belt is an upgraded form of the Monk. The Monk has appeared as a class in Final Fantasy, Final Fantasy III, Final Fantasy IV (Yang Fang Leiden), Final Fantasy V, Final Fantasy VI (Sabin Rene Figaro), Final Fantasy IX (Amarant Coral), Final Fantasy XI, Final Fantasy XII International Zodiac Job System, Final Fantasy Tactics, Final Fantasy Tactics Advance, and Hataraku Chocobo. In addition, Josef (Final Fantasy II), Tifa Lockhart (Final Fantasy VII), Zell Dincht (Final Fantasy VIII) and Snow Villiers (Final Fantasy XIII) all fight hand-to-hand (Tifa can also use claws), as well as having hand-to-hand limit breaks or special attack (Snow's "Sovereign Fist"), in-keeping with the tradition of the monk class. Final Fantasy: 4 Heroes of Light also has the monk class, though it is called the Fighter crown, granting increased barehanded attack proficiency and some traditional abilities.
Samurai (侍 Samurai?) are Japanese-styled fighters who fight primarily with katana. Some abilities often associated with Samurai are "Coin Toss" (sometimes "Gil Toss", "GP Rain", or "Zeninage") which uses Gil to damage enemies, "Fast Draw" (also referred as "Fdraw", "Iainuki", "Zantetsu" or "Oblivion"/"Cleave") which is an attempt to defeat the enemy in a single attack, and "Blade Catch" ("Shirahadori"), a supplementary evasion skill. In Final Fantasy Tactics and Final Fantasy XI, they can hold their weapons with both hands for increased damage. Samurai are featured as classes in Final Fantasy V, Final Fantasy VI (Cyan Garamonde), Final Fantasy X-2, Final Fantasy XI, and Final Fantasy Tactics. In Final Fantasy Tactics, Samurai can unleash the "spirit" of certain katana with their "Draw Out" skill. In Final Fantasy X, the character Auron uses the abilities of both a samurai and a fighter. Also in Final Fantasy X, Yuna can summon Yojimbo, a samurai who when given the right amount of gil can attack with "Zanmato" (an instant kill move). In Final Fantasy Tactics A2, the Paravir class can be obtained for Humes. This Class very closely resembles the Samurai class, and uses a katana, as well as having many of the same support abilities as the Samurai class in the original Final Fantasy Tactics. Samurai is also a type of enemy in Kingdom Hearts II, with similar powers and appearance.
The Dragoon (竜騎士 Ryūkishi?) (also known as Dragon Knight or Lancer) uses spears and their "Jump" ability and usually wears heavy armour. Unlike their armor, the design for the Dragoons' helmets remain fairly constant from game to game. "Jump" typically does double damage when the user is wielding a spear, and removes the Dragon Knight from combat for one round. While jumping, Dragoons either thrust downward with their spears to skewer enemies, or toss the weapon at the foe from above. In Final Fantasy VI, the "Jump" skill is a special ability conferred by the "Dragoon Boots" relic. The English localizations of Final Fantasy IV, Final Fantasy XI and Final Fantasy Tactics Advance refer to Dragon Knights as Dragoons, and the English localization of Final Fantasy Tactics refers to them as Lancers. In addition, the characters Ricard Highwind (Final Fantasy II), Kain Highwind (Final Fantasy IV), Cid Highwind (Final Fantasy VII), Freya Crescent (Final Fantasy IX), and Llyud (Final Fantasy XII: Revenant Wings) are identified as Dragoons. Alexander Highwind Tycoon (Final Fantasy V), though not specifically stated to be a Dragoon, shares the common Highwind surname and wears armor resembling the traditional Dragoon garb. Ward Zabac (Final Fantasy VIII) is similar to a Dragoon because he fights with harpoon-style weapons and features an aerial limit break ("Jump"-like attacks). Kimahri Ronso (Final Fantasy X) uses spears for weapons and features an overdrive called "Jump". Final Fantasy XI  features the Dragoon as a playable job class; players are able to utilize several signature jump techniques, as well as summon a wyvern as support in combat. Oerba Yun Fang from Final Fantasy XIII also possesses characteristics of a Dragoon, as she wields a spear and can even perform a full ATB attack called "Highwind", a powerful Jump attack. In the Final Fantasy Tactics Advance series, only Bangaa characters can become Dragoons. During chapter 9 aboard "The Palamecia" in Final Fantasy XIII, a soldier-type enemy called PSICOM Dragoons appears, wearing the characteristic PSICOM armor with an additional hi-tech jetpack strapped to the back of the suit. Lightning can equip Dragoon garb in Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII, giving her access to the job's traditional Lancet ability. Dragoon is also a type of enemy in Kingdom Hearts II, with similar powers and appearance. In Final Fantasy XIV: A Realm Reborn, this class is the epitome and upgraded Job of the Lancer Class which specializes in devastating spear attacks which include "Jumping" with and throwing their spear. This is one of the most powerful single target DPS roles in the game.
The Thief (シーフ Shīfu?) is generally a swift and nimble fighter whose main weapon includes daggers or short swords. They usually have very high speed, accuracy and evasion but moderate strength, health & defense. "Steal" is their trademark ability; it allows them to transfer an item or piece of equipment held by an enemy to the player's inventory. Sometimes, they can attain the skill "Capture" or "Mug", which allows items to be stolen during an attack. They can also disarm traps and detect hidden passages. The Thief has appeared as a class in Final Fantasy, Final Fantasy III, Final Fantasy V, FInal Fantasy VI, Final Fantasy X, Final Fantasy X-2, Final Fantasy XI, Final Fantasy Tactics, Final Fantasy Tactics Advance, and Hataraku Chocobo. The pirate Leila in Final Fantasy II joins the party attributes and weapon skills akin to a Thief's, in addition to fair magical ability and the Thunder spell. Locke Cole (Final Fantasy VI) and Zidane Tribal (Final Fantasy IX) were stated to be Thieves in their respective games, although Locke insists that he is a "treasure hunter." Yuffie Kisaragi (Final Fantasy VII) is identified as a "materia hunter," and she does steal the party's materia at one point during the game, as well as coming equipped with the "Steal" materia when she joins the party. In Final Fantasy X, Rikku can learn various theft-related moves, such as "Steal", "Pilfer Gil" etc., whilst in Final Fantasy X-2, she starts off with Thief as her default dressphere. In Final Fantasy XI, the thief has a unique ability, "Sneak Attack," that enables a single, enhanced strike when hitting the enemy from behind; "Trick Attack" will pin the attention of the enemy on an ally, if the ally stands between the thief and the enemy. Often, Sneak Attack and Trick Attack are combined (called "SATA"), in order to focus the enemy's attention on a "tank," such as a Paladin or Ninja. This gives the Thief a unique role in the MMO environment of Final Fantasy XI, known as "hate control." The thief class also appears in Final Fantasy: the 4 Heroes of Light as the Bandit crown. Party members with this can learn several theft abilities and an assassination move in "Deadly Blow": which might cause attacks to inflict instant death. Since they also possess strength and intellect on par with the Hero crown, they are a more combat oriented class than they normally are.
The Ninja (忍者 Ninja?, lit. Assassin) is generally both fast and powerful; however, to achieve this level of dexterity, Ninja are unable to wear heavy armor. They can equip Ninja-specific weapons, such as katanas, knives, and boomerangs. Ninja usually possess the "Throw" ability, which allows them to throw powerful, damage-dealing items like shuriken and weapons from the inventory at the enemy. In many games, Ninja possess the ability to hold a weapon in each hand, sometimes known as "Doublewield" or "Two Swords". There are various "Ninjutsu" effects that, depending on the game, appear as magic, throwable items, or commands. In the original Final Fantasy, the Ninja class is a class change of the Thief. This association between the Thief and Ninja classes is a constant trend in latter Final Fantasy games. Edge in Final Fantasy IV has the "Steal" skill as well as "Ninjutsu" abilities; in Final Fantasy Tactics Advance, mastering skills in the Thief jobclass is a prerequisite to acquiring the Ninja class. Ninja also appear in Final Fantasy III, Final Fantasy V, Final Fantasy VI (Shadow), Final Fantasy Tactics, and Final Fantasy XI. In the original Final Fantasy III, the Ninja is the ultimate melee job, while in the DS and iOS remakes, they are still fast and strong, but their defensive abilities and endurance levels are drastically reduced. Specific to Final Fantasy XI, "Ninja shares more in common with a spellcaster than a physical job with the line of Ninjutsu spells." Current trends in Final Fantasy XI, however, have seen players emphasize both the Ninja's iconic dual-weapon focused melee expertise as well as its Ninjutsu magic's ability to debuff and avoid damage; therefore, the game's incarnation of the Ninja is more of a Tank than in any previous game. In Final Fantasy XIV: A Realm Reborn, the Ninja job takes the role of DPS, using dual daggers, the ability to poison, and a line of Mantra abilities that will have to be used in specific successful combinations in order to provide additional effects. Yuffie from Final Fantasy VII has certain Ninja characteristics, although she is primarily a Thief. Amarant Coral from Final Fantasy IX possesses the Ninja signature move, "Throw", but also possesses many characteristics of the Monk character class. Hope Estheim from Final Fantasy XIII has some characteristics of a Ninja, as he fights with boomerangs that he throws to attack enemies whenever he takes on the Commando role. The Ninja class is also available in Final Fantasy: The 4 Heroes of Light. As standard, someone with the Ninja crown helps the party evade monster encounters and can create copies of themselves. They can also learn "Counter", allowing them to use counterattacks if an attack misses and "Lightning Fists", which acts like a classic Hunter ability. This crown is therefore hard to obtain. Ninja has also appeared in Mario Sports Mix.
Dark Knights (ダークナイト Dāku Naito?, lit. Darkness Knight) (also 暗黒騎士 Ankoku Kishi) class tends to focus on dark magic which targets the health of an enemy. Their special attacks usually involve draining their own health — or, in some cases, sacrificing themselves — to inflict extremely heavy damage. Dark Knights are usually among the most powerful damage dealers in their respective titles, but also typically suffer from a notable lack in defense, though this is often circumvented by their life absorbing abilities and heavy armor. Dark Knights are typically portrayed as either warriors of evil, or tortured figures who draw upon their own torment and suffering in order to power their abilities. Some of the most notable Dark Knights in the series include Leon (Final Fantasy II), Cecil Harvey (Final Fantasy IV), Goffard Gafgarion (Final Fantasy Tactics) and Zeid (Final Fantasy XI). Dark Knights are also found in Final Fantasy III, Final Fantasy X-2, and Final Fantasy XI. In Final Fantasy XI, they are a damage dealing class with the highest base attack in the game, but have relatively weak black magic spells other than their dark magic. They do not appear in Final Fantasy VIII and Final Fantasy IX, but their trademark "Darkside" ability is learnable, by Steiner in the latter game. In Final Fantasy XII, the "Soul Eater" ability and the "Arcane" class of magic are learnable. In Final Fantasy Tactics: The War of the Lions, characters can use the Dark Knight class, although it is referred to as Fell Knight. Dark Knights are also available in Final Fantasy: the 4 Heroes of Light though the crown is called Dark Fencer. This crown grants increased sword proficiency and the Dark Knight's classic "Darkside" ability: characters with this crown can also learn an upmarket version called "Darker Side" which hurts all enemies and the vengeance ability Eye for an Eye which increases attack power the lower the user's HP is.
Paladins (パラディン Paradin?), the opposites of Dark Knights, are virtuous knights devoted to the good of the people; these "knights in shining armor" tend to wield low-level white magic. The Paladin can use "Cover" to temporarily redirect damage from an ally to itself. Notable Paladins in the series include Cecil Harvey (Final Fantasy IV), General Beatrix (Final Fantasy IX), Agrias Oakes, and Delita Hyral (both of whom are referred to as Holy Knights in Final Fantasy Tactics). In Final Fantasy III they are simply referred to as Knights, but they do still possess the "Cover" skill and have access to low rank white magic. In Final Fantasy XI, they rely on curative magic and high defense bonuses to aid their parties in battle, they also have the highest sword and shield skills. Sentinels in Final Fantasy XIII fulfill a role of protecting allies from enemy attacks; Snow Villiers, the character who is most proficient in the Sentinel Role, has a coat named "Paladin" which improves his Sentinel guard abilities. Final Fantasy XIII-2 has the Paladin role exclusive to Lightning in the "Requiem of the Goddess" DLC as an enhanced version of the Commando role. Paladins also appear in Final Fantasy Tactics Advance in which they can master the powerful "Holy Blade" ability, which deals extreme Holy-based damage to a single target, often resulting to an instant kill. The "Cover" ability is also available in two games which don't feature Paladins; in Final Fantasy VI through a Relic called "True Knight", and in Final Fantasy VII through the "Cover" materia . Also, in Final Fanatsy VI Celes Chere learns many support spells as she levels up, and her Runic ability lets her direct most magic attacks away from her allies, restoring her own MP and resulting in her teammates not taking any damage, though it will only work if she has a sword equipped. Final Fantasy: The 4 Heroes of Light features the Paladin crown, which grants the Cover ability and increased shield proficiency as standard, as well as tremendous HP and strength. Party members with this crown can also learn the Viking's "Provoke" ability (though it is called "Bait") allowing them to direct damage away from their teammates, "Avenge", an ability that raises the user's attack power the more the user is targeted for enemy attack and "Last Stand", which allows the paladin to hang on for several rounds with 1 HP. While in "Final Fantasy XIV: A Realm Reborn" paladins epitomize the role by having the "cover" ability. They are found wearing heavy plate armor, wielding a sword and shield (granting them the ability to block partial damage on physical attacks), and using some "white magic" having access to a few Conjuror spells (being far less effective than a White Mage or Scholar), giving them formidable defensive power. Taking on the role of a tank, a paladin in FFXIV:ARR focuses on mitigating damage while protecting allies.
The Hunter (狩人 Kariudo?, lit. Hunter) (sometimes called Archer, Ranger, or Gunner) is a physical class specializing in long-ranged weapons—such as bows, crossbows and occasionally guns. The class frequently possesses the "Aim" command, which performs an attack with greatly increased accuracy, and a command localized as "Barrage", "Rapid Fire" or "X-Fight", which makes several attacks for reduced damage, generally against random targets. Aside from their bow attacks, some Hunters have personal buff abilities, such as "Charge", which increases the damage that arrows inflict. They can cause status effects with specialized arrows, and sometimes can detect, capture, or hide from enemies. They have appeared as a class in Final Fantasy III, Final Fantasy V, Final Fantasy XI, Final Fantasy XII International Zodiac Job System, Final Fantasy Tactics, and Final Fantasy Tactics Advance. There are many variations on this class. Some White Mages and Warriors throughout the series can also use bows. Rosa from Final Fantasy IV, for example, is a White Mage with the "Aim" ability. The Hunter class is not present in Final Fantasy VI, however their "X-Fight" command can be learned. In Final Fantasy Tactics, the Engineer, Mediator, and Chemist classes have the ability to shoot long-range guns. The Sniper is an upgraded class of the Archer in Final Fantasy Tactics Advance, and can use more advanced moves like "Doubleshot". Barret Wallace and Vincent Valentine from Final Fantasy VII fight with a gun-arm and a gun, respectively, like Hunters, and the "Double Cut" materia can be used to gain the "Barrage"/"Rapid Fire"/"X-Fight" command, which is localized as "4x Cut". Irvine Kinneas from Final Fantasy VIII wields a variety of rifles, and his Limit Break, "Shot", allows him to fire a volley of a variety of bullets with various effects. Laguna Loire, also from Final Fantasy VIII, wields a machine gun and his Limit Break, "Desperado", has him swing from a rope and unleash a barrage of gunfire, followed by an explosion from a hand grenade, which deals damage to all enemies. In Final Fantasy X-2, Yuna starts off with the Gunner as her default dressphere. Wakka from Final Fantasy X is another variation on the class, as he fights with a blitzball he can throw to attack enemies from long distances rather than the usual bow, crossbow, or gun, and he, too, can use the "Aim" ability. The playable race known as Gria in Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift are able to become Hunters, whilst the Seeq have the Ranger class available to them. Sazh Katzroy from Final Fantasy XIII has some characteristics of the Hunter, as he uses guns to attack enemies from long distances whenever he takes on the "Commando" role, in which he majors. Ranger is also a character class in Final Fantasy: The 4 Heroes of Light but without multi-attack capabilities. However, they do possess the "Target" command, a "Covering Fire" ability that damages all opponents in the following round and even an assassination ability called Smashing Blow which deals heavy damage to one target and may kill minor enemies, with lower accuracy and a high cost of 4 Action Points. In Final Fantasy XIV, the Archer is a starting class and can be turned into the Bard job. Both use a bow to deal damage, that is also a harp used to play songs to benefit team members.
The Viking (ヴァイキング Vaikingu?) class is a very rare class that has only appeared in Final Fantasy III (both the original Famicom version and the Nintendo DS remake) and Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift. It consists of characters who wield axes and hammers as their weapons, which they can swing with great ease. Vikings possess great physical strength and typically have a large amount of health. In the DS version of Final Fantasy III, the class comes with the special ability "Provoke," which increases the chance of a targeted enemy attacking the Viking. All characters may take on the Viking job class in both versions of Final Fantasy III, while only Seeq can be Vikings in Final Fantasy Tactics A2. In addition, while there are no official Vikings in Final Fantasy X, Tidus may learn "Provoke" on the Sphere Grid. In Final Fantasy XI, the Warrior class learns "Provoke" at level 5. Characters who take on the "Sentinel" role in Final Fantasy XIII (such as Snow Villiers and Oerba Yun Fang, who initially major in the role) can also learn powerful defensive moves like the "Provoke" ability to take the focus off their allies, who then heal them as Medics, and they can even immediately counterattack their enemies after defending against their attacks. In Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift, Vikings also have access to a few stealing abilities, and some Thunder and Water-elemental magic as well. In Final Fantasy IX, Cinna is an early and temporary party member who wields a Hammer and has a Steal Command. In Final Fantasy XIV: A Realm Reborn, the Provoke ability is learned by the Gladiator class, but the Marauder class is this roles current incarnation. Able to wield heavy axes with deadly force as their Pirate/Viking fore-bearers, Marauders provide the second tanking class. They have no access to magic without using spells from other classes (which becomes impossible once upgraded to Warrior) and their defense is less than a Gladiator/Paladin. However, a Marauders damage output is far better and they have a greater ability to "keep aggro" through their increased damage and multi-target attack "Overpower". Warriors later train in abilities to use the damage they do to their opponents to heal them slightly while they fight.
The Berserker (バーサーカー Bāsākā?) is a pure physical class focusing on high strength to defeat their opponents. Typically, Berserkers, like the Vikings of Final Fantasy III, use axes and hammers, though some use their bare hands. In most appearances, the Berserker, unlike the Viking, is in a permanent "Berserk" status, and as such not able to use commands other than "Attack". They first appeared in Final Fantasy V, as a job class which became available after acquiring the pieces of the Water Crystal. Umaro from Final Fantasy VI is a Berserker. In Final Fantasy VII 's Vincent Valentine's Limit Breaks place him into a Berserker state, as he morph him into a powerful, yet uncontrollable creature. Final Fantasy VIII 's Rinoa Heartily attains a limit break that also places her in a similar state, but here she will only cast spells with their effects amplified. In Final Fantasy X-2 the Berserker is represented by the Berserker dressphere. Berserkers are controllable this time, but can use the "Berserk" command to increase their power in exchange for less control. The Berserker class is also available as a job for the Seeq race in Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift. Berserker is also a type of enemy in Kingdom Hearts II, with similar powers and appearance.
Mystic Knights (魔法剣士 Mahōkenshi?, lit. Magic Fencer) are warriors that can cast magic on their swords to perform attacks with the power of the spell for several rounds. They have also been called Magic Knights, Mageknights, Biskmatars, and Sorcerers. Although their magic power is weaker than that of Mages, Mystic Knights tend to use less magic points (and generally pierce "Reflect", which can hinder certain Mages' offense). In Final Fantasy V, the Mystic Knight can use any magic previously learned on their sword. The skill itself is called "Magic Sword" in Final Fantasy V and "Spellblade" in Final Fantasy V Advance. In Final Fantasy VII, the "Added Effect" materia can be used in a combo slot with a Magic materia such as "Bio" or "Transform", and the "Elemental" materia with other magic Materia such as "Ice" or "Fire" to give the players' weapon those attributes. Likewise, the same effect can be obtained in Final Fantasy VIII through the use of the Junction system, adding elemental or status-inflicting spells to their respective attack junctions. The Mystic Knight's ability appears in Final Fantasy IX in the form of the combo between Adelbert Steiner and Vivi Orunitia, where Vivi casts a spell on Steiner's sword, who attacks the enemy at the same time. In Final Fantasy X-2, the Warrior dressphere carries elemental physical attacks that use magic points. In Final Fantasy XI, Red Mages have "En-" spells and Rune Fencers use Runes, which imbue their weapons with the properties of elements, similar to the Mystic Knight's ability. Lightning, Snow Villiers, Sazh Katzroy, and Oerba Yun Fang from Final Fantasy XIII can physically attack enemies with their weapons while causing elemental damage with some of their attacks whenever they take on the "Ravager" role. The same is true of Serah Farron and Noel Kreiss when they likewise take on the Ravager role in Final Fantasy XIII-2. Mystic Knights also appear, albeit under the name "Spell Fencer", in Final Fantasy: The 4 Heroes of Light where they can imbue their weapon with the attribute of an elemental spell in their command list (though light or darkness attributes cannot be added). The character Krinjh features as a Spell Fencer in this game, though his class is unchangeable.
The Onion Knights (オニオンナイト Onion Naito?) are warriors with distinctive, onion-like helmets. In Final Fantasy III, they have an initially low stat growth rate which steeply increases as they approach the maximum level of 99. In the original version of Final Fantasy III, they are the starting class, can use all equipment, and cannot cast spells or use other special abilities. In the Nintendo DS remake, they are an optional class obtainable through a sidequest and have gained the ability to use black and white magic of all levels. However, they cannot use other classes' new, class-specific equipment. In Final Fantasy Tactics: The War of the Lions, the Onion Knight can use any weapon, its stats are initially low, but increase based on the number of other jobs a character has mastered. In Dissidia Final Fantasy, the Onion Knight character can use sword-based attacks and black magic spells.
The Machinist (からくり士 Karakurishi?), Gadgeteer, Tinker or Engineer job is focused on using mechanical devices. In Final Fantasy IV, Cid carries tools and can use the "Peep" command. In Final Fantasy VI, Edgar Figaro, has the "Tool" command, which allows him to use tools to damage and/or debuff enemies. In Final Fantasy XII International Zodiac Job System, the Machinist job can wield guns and measures, wear light armor and cast some high level time spells and low level green spells. In Final Fantasy Tactics, Engineers can wield guns and have the "Aimed Shot" command, which includes three attack abilities: "Arm Shot", which prevents attacks and spells, "Leg Shot", which prevents movement, and "Seal Evil", which can petrify undead targets. The Engineer job is exclusive to the recruitable character Mustadio Bunansa and the NPC Barich Fendsor. Final Fantasy Tactics Advance includes a Gadgeteer job and Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift includes a Tinker job; Gadgeteers have the "Pandora" command and Tinkers have the similar "Clockwork" command. Each "Pandora" or "Clockwork" ability performs a specific effect, such as healing, applying a specific buff or buffs or applying a specific debuff, and randomly targets either all members of the enemy team or all members of the Engineer's own team. Both jobs use fist and claw weapons and are exclusive to the Moogle race.
The Freelancer (すっぴん Suppin?, roughly translates as "face without makeup"), also localized as Bare or Natural, is usually the default job in the games in which it appears. In Final Fantasy V, the Freelancer can use any piece of equipment, and starts out with no stat bonuses or penalties and no special abilities. However it inherits the highest stat bonuses and most passive abilities from other jobs a character masters, and, unlike other jobs, it has two slots for commands or special abilities. Lightning, Snow Villiers, Oerba Dia Vanille (Vanille acts as a freelancer at the beginning despite already being a l'Cie), Sazh Katzroy, and Hope Estheim from Final Fantasy XIII take on the Freelancer job until they are made into l'Cie. In the Nintendo DS remake of Final Fantasy III, the Freelancer has replaced the Onion Knight as the default job. Freelancers have average stats, can use most equipment and can cast first level black and white magic spells. In Final Fantasy X-2 International + Last Mission, characters change to the Bare job if all available Dresspheres have been disabled in the Yadonoki Tower bonus dungeon. Bare characters have low stats and no special abilities. In Final Fantasy Fables: Chocobo's Dungeon, the Natural job has average stats and learns mostly offense-oriented, chocobo-themed abilities. In Final Fantasy III and Final Fantasy V, characters with the Freelancer job wear their default outfits. In Final Fantasy X-2 International + Last Mission, characters with the Bare job are unarmed and in their underwear. In Final Fantasy Fables: Chocobo's Dungeon, Chocobo, the protagonist, wears a red pouch around his neck while using the Natural job. In Final Fantasy: the 4 heroes of Light, Freelancer is the default class: in this case it has no special abilities and cannot be upgraded but doesn't cause the party to lose gems upon defeat.
The Gunner (銃使い Jyuutsukai?), sometimes localized as Fusilier, is a class focused on the use of firearms. Each version of the class includes a command for performing special attacks with a gun. The class was first introduced to the series in Final Fantasy Tactics Advance, and has also been featured in Final Fantasy VII (Barret Wallace and Vincent Valentine), Final Fantasy VIII (Laguna Loire and Irvine Kinneas), Final Fantasy X-2, Final Fantasy XIII (Sazh Katzroy) and Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift. In Final Fantasy Tactics Advance and Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift, the special command is "Gunmanship", and the attacks deal elemental damage, or have a chance of inflicting a specific debuff on the target. In Final Fantasy X-2, the class's signature command is called "Gunplay", and most of the special attacks deal physical damage to a single target, with bonuses such as debuffs or extra damage against certain monster types. In Final Fantasy Tactics Advance and Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift, the class is exclusive to the Moogle race.
Magical classes specialize in casting magic, including traditional white and black magic, as well as more esoteric forms of magic, such as geomancy. Magical classes are generally restricted to lighter equipment, such as rods, staves and robes, giving them weak attack power and physical defense, however their armor often provides high magical defense, and their equipment often provides bonuses to magic-related stats.
One of the most iconic classes of the Final Fantasy series, the Black Mage (黒魔道士 Kuromadōshi?) is a magic user specializing in attack magic, or Black Magic, generally focusing on fire, ice and lightning. Their weapons are generally restricted to rods and daggers. They are usually depicted wearing distinctive costumes consisting of a blue or black robe and a large conical, wide-brimmed hat which obscures their face, with two yellow eyes shining from within the shadow. The outfit of the Black Mages is similar to the generic appearance of a wizard (female characters sometimes have bows on their hats). In the original Final Fantasy, the Black Wizard lacked the hat and obscured face that became the defining features of the Black Mage in later games. However, in the WonderSwan remake and Final Fantasy Origins his appearance was altered so that he looked like a traditional Black Mage. In Final Fantasy IX, the Black Mage Village is a forested hamlet where many mass-produced Black Mages have become self-aware. Final Fantasy IX is the only game that features Black Mages as a distinct race, although the Yukes of Final Fantasy Crystal Chronicles are very similar in their inhuman appearance and magical ability. In the English localization of Final Fantasy Tactics, Black Mages were called Wizards.
The Black Mage is available as a class in:
- Final Fantasy
- Final Fantasy III
- Final Fantasy IV (Rydia, who is also a Summoner and loses the ability to cast White Magic halfway through the game, and Palom)
- Final Fantasy V
- Final Fantasy IX (Vivi Orunitia)
- Final Fantasy X (Lulu);
- Final Fantasy X-2 (Lulu)
- Final Fantasy XI
- Final Fantasy XII
- Final Fantasy XII: Revenant Wings (Kytes)
- Final Fantasy XIII (any character who takes on the role of Ravager possess the qualities of Black Mages, using offensive magic on their enemies)
- Final Fantasy Tactics;
- Final Fantasy Tactics Advance;
- Final Fantasy: The 4 Heroes of Light(here, anyone who equips the Black Mage crown can use black magic for one less Action Point and with greater power thanks to a high Intellect stat: they can also learn "Magic Might", an attack that resembles Ultima and damages all opponents heavily and "Mirror", which basically imbues everyone with "Reflect", breaking the tradition a little bit)
- Final Fantasy XIV: A Realm Reborn
In Kingdom Hearts, some of Donald Duck's rods have the figurehead of a Black Mage. Statues of Black Mages are seen in various places at the magic academy in Geo in Legend of Mana. A Black Mage is a playable character in Chocobo Racing. Black Mages also appear in Dice de Chocobo, Chocobo Land: A Game of Dice, Mario Hoops 3-on-3 and Mario Sports Mix, while enemy Black Mages appear in Chocobo's Dungeon 2. The Black Mages was the name of Final Fantasy music composer Nobuo Uematsu's band, who play remixes of Final Fantasy music.
A White Mage (白魔道士 Shiromadōshi?) uses White Magic, which emphasizes defensive spells such as replenishing party members' health with spells such as "Cure", reviving the fallen with spells such as "Raise" or "Life", and curing status conditions with spells such as "Esuna". Typically having a weak and limited repertoire of attack spells and an inability to use heavy weaponry or armor, their primary use is support for other members of a battle party. However, when faced with a considerable number of Undead enemies, White Mages become even more useful, as their curative spells deal heavy damage against them rather than healing. White Mages' weapons are generally restricted to staves, maces, and similar weapons such as flails and hammers; the relic weapon for the White Mage in Final Fantasy XI is the mythical hammer Mjölnir. Usually their only offensive skill is the magic "Holy", which deals heavy damage to a target, regardless of whether or not the target is undead. They often cast "Holy"-element spells, which are typically effective against undead or demonic enemies. Because of the limited use of the class in combat, the White Mage has occasionally been integrated with the Summoner class. The White Mage is typically depicted as wearing a white cloak or robe, which has long sleeves, and a hood that covers the Mage's hair. Another feature of the robe is the red, triangular patterns on the cuffs of the sleeves and bottoms of the robes. In some games, female White Mages wear the hood over their hair, while male White Mages normally do not wear the hood at all. In Final Fantasy XI, the hood is a separate piece from the robe and they can be worn independently, regardless of gender.
White Mages have appeared as a class in:
- Final Fantasy
- Final Fantasy II (Minwu)
- Final Fantasy III
- Final Fantasy IV (Rosa Farrell and Porom are referred to as 'White Mage' in the original English translation)
- Final Fantasy V
- Final Fantasy VII (Aerith Gainsborough's defensive and restoring limit breaks, and her staff place her in the White Mage tradition)
- Final Fantasy IX (Garnet Til Alexandros XVII and Eiko Carol incorporate characteristics of the White Mage class and the Summoner class; Garnet also dons the classic White Mage garb as a disguise near the beginning of the game)
- Final Fantasy X (Yuna's area of the Sphere Grid almost exclusively contains abilities normally attributed to white mages)
- Final Fantasy X-2
- Final Fantasy XI
- Final Fantasy XII
- Final Fantasy XIII (any character who takes on the role of "Medic" or "Synergist" may use white magic spells)
- Final Fantasy XIV
- Final Fantasy Tactics (in the English localization White Mages are referred to as Priests)
- Final Fantasy Tactics Advance
- Final Fantasy: The 4 Heroes of Light In this case, the White Mage crown grants a high Spirit stat, abilities that allow recovery spells to affect everyone at once for one time, the Bard's "Hide" ability, "Miracle", which heals everyone at once and removes status ailments and allows white magic to be used for one less Action Point.
Some White Mage NPCs appear in various towns in Final Fantasy IV, and Shelinda from Final Fantasy X and Final Fantasy X-2 is also a White Mage NPC. Shirma, a pink-haired female White Mage, is the partner of Boco in Chocobo's Dungeon 2, a playable character in Chocobo Racing and makes another appearance in Final Fantasy Fables: Chocobo Tales. She is also one of the central characters in Final Fantasy Fables: Chocobo's Dungeon. A White Mage is also playable in Dice de Chocobo, Chocobo Land: A Game of Dice, Mario Hoops 3-on-3, and Mario Sports Mix.
A Devout or Seer (司祭 Shisai) is the natural evolution of a White Mage as they gain higher levels of healing and white magic like "Seal" and "Holy". Like White Mages, Devouts typically wield weapons such as staves, maces, hammers and flails, typically wear light armour such as robes and hats, and generally cannot use shields. Devouts have appeared in Final Fantasy III, Final Fantasy Dimensions and Bravely Default: Flying Fairy.
A Magus or Warlock is a black magic based version of the Devout which uses higher levels of black magic with "Flare" and "Death" being good examples. They virtually have the same armor and weapon choices as Black Mages since they are an evolution of them. Magi have appeared along with Devouts in Final Fantasy III, Final Fantasy Dimensions and Bravely Default: Flying Fairy.
Summoners (召喚士 Shōkanshi?), also localized as Caller, use Summoning Magic, which calls on powerful entities known as "Call Beasts" (Final Fantasy IV), "Espers" (Final Fantasy VI and Final Fantasy XII), "Guardian Force" (Final Fantasy VIII), "Eidolons" (Final Fantasy IX, Final Fantasy XIII, and the DS version of Final Fantasy IV), "Aeons" (Final Fantasy X), "Avatars" (Final Fantasy XI), "Primals" ("Final Fantasy XIV"), or simply "Summon Monsters" (most other games in the series). These entities attack enemies, protect the party, or render other forms of aid. Summoners often use commands such as "Summon," but in the original translation of Final Fantasy IV, the command was instead known as "Call". As a magic-using class, summoners are typically shown to be physically frail as a trade-off for high magical potency, and can traditionally equip only light armaments such as clothing and robes. Summoners often use staves or rods as weapons, although in some games they can also use whips; their potential in the use of melee weaponry is downplayed significantly in favor of their ability to use magic. Many summoners feature a horn on the forehead and green robes. Rydia of Final Fantasy IV, Garnet Til Alexandros XVII and Eiko Carol of Final Fantasy IX, and Yuna of Final Fantasy X are identified as Summoners, though there is usually also a strong White Mage element to the character. In some games that lacked Summoners, various means of equipping the summon ability are provided. In Final Fantasy III, the lower-class name for a Summoner is Evoker. Notable recurring "Summons" include Ifrit, Shiva, Ramuh, Bahamut, and Odin. It should be noted that Bravely Default's summoned beasts are an entirely new set with none of the recurring ones appearing in this case.
Summoners have appeared in:
- Final Fantasy III
- Final Fantasy IV (Rydia)
- Final Fantasy V
- Final Fantasy VI (any character can become a Summoner by equipping Espers)
- Final Fantasy VII (any character can become a Summoner by equipping materia)
- Final Fantasy VIII
- Final Fantasy IX (Garnet Til Alexandros XVII and Eiko Carol)
- Final Fantasy X (Yuna)
- Final Fantasy XI
- Final Fantasy XII
- Final Fantasy XIII (Eidolons live within the brands of the l'Cie who summon them, and each l'Cie has an Eidolon unique only to him or her)
- Final Fantasy Tactics
- Final Fantasy Tactics Advance
- Final Fantasy XIV: A Realm Reborn (Summons become available after defeating them. They are represented much smaller, and act as pets in combat.)
- Bravely Default: Flying Fairy
The Time Mage (時魔道士 Tokimadōshi?) is a specialized wizard with the ability to manipulate the space-time continuum so as to speed up, slow down, or completely halt the passage of time, control celestial bodies, and influence the pull of gravity. Time Mages can typically wield rods and/or staves. They are commonly depicted wearing tall, pointed wizard hats adorned with star and moon decorations.
Time Mages have appeared as playable jobs in:
- Final Fantasy V
- Final Fantasy XII: International Zodiac Job System
- Final Fantasy Tactics
- Final Fantasy Tactics Advance
- Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift
- Hataraku Chocobo
- Bravely Default: Flying Fairy
Time magic has also appeared in:
- Final Fantasy IV, Rosa is able to learn Slow and Haste as she levels up, and Rydia has learned Stop upon returning to the party. Tellah and Fusoya can also wield these spells.
- Final Fantasy VII, any character can cast Time Magic equipping the Time Magic Materia.
- Final Fantasy IX, Haste can be cast by Eiko and Slow, Stop, Demi and Meteor can be cast by Vivi. Interestingly by equipping an Emerald as Eiko's Accessory Item, her Eidolon Carbuncle, will cast Haste on the entire party rather than Reflect.
- Final Fantasy X, in which a variety of Time Mage spells exist in Tidus's section of the Sphere Grid.
- Final Fantasy XII, which includes seven levels of Time Magick [sic] is divided into seven levels.
- Final Fantasy XIII, in which the Haste spell is available to 5 of the 6 playable characters through the "Synergist" role, and 4 of the 6 playable characters have access to at least one spell from the Slow series through the "Saboteur" role.
Scholar (学者 Gakusha?) is a magic-based class introduced in Final Fantasy III, which use 'books', physical weapons with element-based damage and which are equally powerful from the front or back rows. In the original version of Final Fantasy III, Scholars can check an enemy's hit points or weakness. In the Nintendo DS remake, they can cast low level Black and White Magic spells, the effects of any items they use in battle are doubled, and their "Study" ability allows them to check an enemy's hit points and weakness, as well as removing the target's buffs. In Final Fantasy XI, Scholars have access to both the curative White Mage spells and the elementally powerful Black Mage spells, but do not have access to most of the enfeebling or enhancing spells from either job's spell line (although many of these can be acquired depending on the sub-job selected). They have spells that influence the weather effect that a character is under, and can cast powerful elemental "Damage Over Time" (DOT) spells that inflict small amounts of damage over regular intervals for a period of time. They also build up "charges" which are used to power effects that cause spells to be cast more efficiently or more powerfully. While books cannot be equipped in Final Fantasy XI, the book theme from Final Fantasy III is retained, as a book appears floating before the Scholar whenever a charge is used.
In Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift, the Scholar class is exclusive to the Nu Mou race and functions substantially differently from previous implementations. Scholars have the "Lore" ability, which allows them to cast a number of spells. Many "Lore" spells inflict a specific type of damage, such as "Ice" or "Thunder", against all units on the field, whilst other "Lore" spells include "Mad Science", which inflicts a random buff on a single target, and "Study", which reveals the target's equipment, treasure and gil. Four Heroes of Light sees a different take on this: scholars are skilled with books and learn abilities that allow them to attack an enemy's status attributes (such as attack strength and physical defense) directly.
Scholars are included as a job option for the Arcanist class in Final Fantasy XIV: A Realm Reborn, where the implementation is again very different. These Scholars, who trace their origin to the ruined city-state of Nym, are primarily a healing and support class who will rely on "fairy" pets. Scholars will focus on damage mitigation and other supportive abilities, as opposed to the "straight heals" nature of the Conjurer/White Mage. Though, when spec'ed correctly can be a potent source of long term damage with their early Arcanist abilities (i.e. Bio, Miasma, etc).
- Final Fantasy XI
- Final Fantasy XIV
Although inflicting negative status effects is typically the province of Black Mages and providing protective status effects is typically the province of White Mages, the Green Mage (緑魔道士 Midori Madōshi?) is occasionally a separate class specializing in both, with spells such as Protect, Shell, Sleep, Silence and Blind. They can cast single/multiple variants of spells such as "Poison", "Sleep" and "Blind" and their reversals, as well as newer effects such as "Leap" (increasing mobility). Green Magic does not include spells that cause hit point damage, with the exception of some "Damage Over Time" spells; nor does the class typically include curative spells. Like most magic users they have relatively low HP (though higher than that of a Black Mage in general) but greater attack power than other caster classes, as they wield maces and hammers. As can be expected, the typical uniform for a Green Mage is dyed green.
Green Mages or Green Magic appear in:
- Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift (exclusive to the Viera race)
- Final Fantasy XII (Although not technically a class, Green Magick can be acquired through the licence board)
Additionally, similar classes and / or abilities are present in other games in the series:
- In Final Fantasy XIII, the Saboteur role focuses on weakening enemies by applying harmful status effects, while the Synergist role focuses on strengthening allies by applying beneficial status effects.
- Final Fantasy Tactics and its remake, Final Fantasy Tactics: The War of the Lions, include the Oracle or Mystic class, which specializes in casting negative status effects and dispelling positive ones.
- Final Fantasy: The 4 Heroes of Light allows characters to change to the Shaman job by wearing the Shaman crown. In this game, spells that inflict status ailments such as poison or sleep are classed as 'dark magic', which is the Shaman's specialty. Party members with the Shaman crown can use these spells for one less Action Point and can learn special abilities such as Ritual, which expends an action point to make the next Dark spell target all enemies, Hex, which expends two action points to make the next Dark spell target all enemies at increased power, and Spellbound, which prevents anyone, friend or foe, from taking actions for several turns.
The Sage (賢者 or セージ Kenja or Sēji?) is a combination mage who can cast both black and white magic spells, like Red Mages (and often share their drawbacks of smaller magic point pools and / or lower magical stats than black or white mages). Unlike Red Mages, however, Sages eschew physical combat in favor of increased spellcasting proficiency, and while they tend to have better magic stats and maximum MP than Red Mages, they are also usually restricted to light armor and weak weapons such as staves, wands and occasionally maces.
Sages appear in:
- Final Fantasy III, in which they can cast any black, white or summon spell. In the original Famicon version, they have the highest MP growth of any class, and their stat growth rates match the higher of the two rates for the Devout and Magus jobs, and they cast the same version of Summon spells as the Summoner job. In the DS and iOS remakes, their stats and MP growth rates are lower, particularly for higher level spells (however they still have more mid to high level MP than the Black or White Mage jobs, and more low level MP than the Devout or Magus jobs), and they cast the (random and generally weaker) Conjurer versions of Summon spells instead of the Summoner versions (which produce fixed, and generally more powerful, effects).
- Final Fantasy IV (Tellah the Sage can learn and use most white and black magic spells, and can even use some rather potent spells of his own in the DS version if he uses "Recall", and Fusoya the Lunarian shares a lot of the characteristics of a Sage, eschewing heavy weapons and armor and casting all white and black magic spells. Both have low stats and MP compared to mages and summoners of similar levels.)
- Final Fantasy IV: The After Years: Leonora the Epopt Trainee is, for all intents and purposes, a Sage. She wields black and white magic in battle, the former of which she learned from Palom, and has better statistics overall than Tellah and Fusoya. However, she is still weaker at the individual skill sets than specialized casters, and is restricted to light armor.
- Final Fantasy VIII (Selphie Tilmitt's Limit Break Slot allows the player to cast any random spell from the game, excluding Blue Magic, numerous times as well as certain magic used exclusively in her limit break. Selphie's stats also reflect those typical of a sage, versus more focused Mage like a Sorceress.)
- Final Fantasy Tactics Advance: Sages are exclusive to Nu Mou. They wield maces, and can cast the following spells with the Sagacity skill: Drain, Blind, Water, Aero, Raise, Giga Flare, Bio (a powerful poison spell) and Ultima Blow (a powerful mace attack).
- Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift (Sages wield maces and share some spells with the Green Mage, White Mage and White Monk classes, as well as having some exclusive spells; the class is exclusive to the Nu Mou race. They have lower MP and magic stat growth rates than black or white mages.)
- Final Fantasy: the 4 Heroes of Light.: Sages have intellect stats and offensive magic skill ratings nearly as high as those of black mages, and spirit stats and recovery magic skill ratings nearly as high as those of white mages. Sages have four exclusive special abilities: Spell Again, which allows the Sage to expend all AP (action points) to cast several spells in quick succession (similar to Dualcast), Diligence and Betterment, buffs which reduce the AP cost of Black Magic and White Magic spells respectively, and Good and Evil, which summons beams of light to simultaneously heal the party and inflict heavy holy-elemental damage upon foes. The temporary party member Torte is also a Sage, however, unlike the four permanent party members, his job cannot be changed.
The Alchemist (錬金術士(精錬術士) Renkinjyutsushi (Seirenjyutsushi)?), or Chemist (薬師/アイテム士 Yakushi/Aitemushi, lit. "Dispenser/Item User") class is generally focused on consumable restorative items. In Final Fantasy V, Chemists possess the passive "Pharmacology" ability, which doubles the potency of consumable restorative items such as Potions and Ethers, and the "Drink" command, which allows a Chemist to use special drinks for personal buffs. Chemists can gain three more commands during the game: "Mix", which combines two items to generate various effects depending on the items used, "Recover", which removes debuffs from the party, and "Revive", which revives the party with a small number of health points. Final Fantasy X has Rikku's Overdrive use the "Mix" command, which mixes two items to produce a great number of offensive, defensive and restorative effects. In Final Fantasy X-2, Alchemists also possess the "Mix" command, which functions much like it does in Final Fantasy V. Alchemists can also learn abilities used through the "Stash" command, which mimic the effects of consumable restorative items without consuming them; and can learn the "Chemist", "Elementalist" and "Physicist" passive abilities, which double the potency of restorative, elemental damage and non-elemental damage items respectively. In Final Fantasy Tactics, Chemists possess the "Items" command, which makes it possible to use various consumable restorative items, and the "Throw Items" ability, which increases the range of these items. The ability to use each type of item must be learned separately. In Final Fantasy Tactics Advance and Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift, the Alchemist job is exclusive to the Nu Mou race. Alchemists can learn powerful damaging non-elemental damage spells such as "Flare", as well as other spells, such as "Rasp" (which reduces the target's magic points), "Astra" (which prevents the next status ailment from affecting the target), "Poison" (which poisons the target), and "Toad" (which transforms the target into a toad). Final Fantasy: the 4 Heroes of Light takes the following approach: Alchemists and Chemists (called Salve Makers) are separate classes, but both deal with items. Alchemists can use attack items to great effect, can create many effects with their "Smelt" ability, change one item into another type through "Experiment", or even create an attack item mid-battle with "Forge". The Salve Maker crown deals with recovery items: characters with it can use recovery items without worrying about AP costs and can use "Dispensary" to use these items without affecting stock either. They can also use the ability "Level Serum" to raise the party's level by one for the battle and "Poison Pill" to make recovery items damage their enemies (seeq Rangers in Final Fantasy Tactics A2 have an action ability called Mirror Items which provides this effect and status ailments as well, depending on the item used).
These classes can use both adequate physical attacks and magic or magic-related attacks. Generally, these classes can equip heavier weapons and armor than magical classes, although their selection tends to be limited compared to that of pure physical classes.
Red Mages (赤魔道士 Akamadōshi?) are members of a hybrid class, able to cast spells associated with either Black or White Mages, as well as wield swords. However, the jack-of-all-trades quality of their profession makes them less powerful at each individual skill than the classes which specialize in them. In general, they are only able to cast low-mid level spells, but make up for this deficiency by casting more quickly. For example, they are often associated with the ability to cast two spells in a single combat round (called "Dualcast" or "Doublecast"). Final Fantasy XI continues this tradition by granting players who play as Red Mages a "Fast Cast" job trait, significantly shortening the period of time required to cast any magic spell. They are also able to access the special ability "Chainspell," which allows the player to both cast and recast spells instantly for a short period of time. In dress, Red Mages are usually recognizable by a distinctive red hat tipped with a white feather.
Red Mages have appeared in:
- Final Fantasy
- Final Fantasy II (Scott wears a red outfit and joins with high sword skill and white and black magic spells)
- Final Fantasy III
- Final Fantasy V
- Final Fantasy VII: Crisis Core (Genesis is often considered as a Red Mage. He wields a Rapier, can cast low-mid tier magic and employ swordplay. He also wears a red coat, and his sword has the red color)
- Final Fantasy IX (Vivi Orunitia and Eiko Carol's trance abilities allow them to double cast black and white magic respectively, and Freya Crescent, although actually a Dragoon, wears a red hat tipped with a white feather. Non playable characters called Red Mages, donning the traditional red outfit with a hat, appear throughout the game.)
- Final Fantasy XI;
- Final Fantasy XII;
- Final Fantasy Tactics Advance (as a Viera job class)
- Hataraku Chocobo
- Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift (as a Viera job class)
Red mages do not appear in Final Fantasy IV (DS), Final Fantasy VI, Final Fantasy VII or Final Fantasy X; however, their signature "X-Magic"/"W-Magic"/"Doublecast" ability appears in all four games, and all playable characters can use both Black and White magic in the latter three games.
The Blue Mage (青魔道士 Aomadōshi?) is a mage who is able to replicate the special attacks of his/her opponents. The precise extent of and mechanism for this capacity differs from game to game. Most Final Fantasy games require that an enemy use the ability at least once during combat before the Blue Mage is able to use it. For example, Blue Mages in Final Fantasy V must be targeted by the ability to learn it; once the ability has been learned, however, any Blue Mage in the party may use it. Strago in Final Fantasy VI does not have to be targeted by the spell, but he does have to see it in action in order to learn the spell, and will therefore not learn any Blue Magic spells if he is blinded. Players who adopt the Blue Mage job in Final Fantasy XI have a random chance to learn abilities executed during combat, by absorbing the essence of felled opponents. Typically, Blue Mages learn a variety of abilities, making them very versatile. The Final Fantasy XI incarnation is also highly skilled in swords, making them a potentially deadly melee fighter, while having an arsenal of powerful spells at their disposal which can either be damaging, enfeebling, enhancing, or healing, making the Blue Mage potentially one of the most powerful and well rounded classes in the game. Some games in the series which do not explicitly offer the Blue Mage as a job class feature abilities or characteristics generally associated with Blue Mages.
Blue Mages have appeared in:
- Final Fantasy V
- Final Fantasy VI (Strago Magus)
- Final Fantasy VII (any character may copy certain abilities onto an equipped "Enemy Skill" materia, and cast them as magic)
- Final Fantasy VIII (Quistis Trepe)
- Final Fantasy IX (Quina Quen devours enemies to gain their abilities)
- Final Fantasy X (Kimahri Ronso may absorb skills via his "Lancet" ability)
- Final Fantasy X-2 (via the Gun Mage dressphere)
- Final Fantasy XI: Treasures of Aht Urhgan expansion pack
- Final Fantasy XII (lacks Blue Mage as a formal class, but the game's "Technicks" branch of abilities include several spells typically classified as blue magic)
- Final Fantasy Tactics Advance (only available to humans)
- Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift (Available only to humes)
Geomancers (風水士 Fūsuishi?) channel the powers of the surrounding environment; therefore, their abilities differ depending on their location. If in a forest, they will attack with vines and forest animals, if in a cave with rockslides, if in a desert with quicksand, and so on. Geomancers are featured either as a class or in loose association with a character's powers. In the Japanese versions, Geomancers are "風水士 (fūsuishi)," which specifically refers to Chinese geomancy or feng shui. The signature attack of a Geomancer has been called "Terrain" (Final Fantasy III), "Gaia" or "Earth" (Final Fantasy V), "Elemental" (Final Fantasy Tactics) and "Geomancy" (Final Fantasy Tactics A2). In the two first games, the Geomancers are depicted wearing green or blue fur-lined clothes and a fur-lined cap.
They appear in:
- Final Fantasy III
- Final Fantasy V
- Final Fantasy VI (the moogle Mog can use dances that have similar effects to the Geomancer)
- Final Fantasy XI (Seekers of Adoulin expansion)
- Final Fantasy XII (a member of the Garif tribe is identified as a Geomancer and grants access to a sidequest later in the game)
- Final Fantasy Tactics
- Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift (Geomancer is a job class for the Gria race)
Bards (吟遊詩人 Gin'yūshijin?) use songs to cause effects, often buffing the party or debuffing the opposition via the "Sing" command. They generally equip harps as weapons. Some Bard incarnations, including Edward Chris von Muir from Final Fantasy IV, have the ability to "Hide" from the enemy. This command is mainly used due to the Bard's low physical abilities. Bards in Final Fantasy XI have MP regeneration songs and stat boosting songs. In Final Fantasy Tactics, Bard is the only male-exclusive class available to generic units. In "Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift", the Bard job is exclusive to the Moogle Hurdy. In Final Fantasy Type-0, Deuce plays the flute in battle and acts as a bard, aiding her allies and debilitating her enemies using the melodies from her flute. Strangely, in Final Fantasy: the 4 Heroes of Light, one of the White Mage's special abilities is Hide, which is normally seen with bards.
The Bard class is seen in:
- Final Fantasy III
- Final Fantasy IV (Prince Edward Chris von Muir of Damcyan)
- Final Fantasy V
- Final Fantasy X-2 (does not have a Bard class, however its Songstress class combines aspects of the Bard and Dancer classes, with both a "Sing" command and a "Dance" command)
- Final Fantasy XI 
- Final Fantasy Tactics
- Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift (Only Hurdy has access to it)
- Final Fantasy: The 4 Heroes of Light (with separate Bard and Musician classes: bards have increased harp proficiency and musicians become stronger if a bard is one of their teammates)
- Final Fantasy XIV : A Realm Reborn (As a damage dealer and support mix. The bard's bow is also a harp, and can use attacks while playing songs.)
- Final Fantasy Type-0 (as Deuce)
Beastmasters (魔獣使い Majūtsukai?) (also known as Tamer or Trainer) can control or even capture and train monsters. Typically, the class wields whips. In Final Fantasy XI and Final Fantasy Tactics Advance, whips are not an available weapon type, instead, the Beastmaster classes specialize in axes and instruments, respectively.
The class (or a variation thereof) has appeared in:
- Final Fantasy V
- Final Fantasy VI (the "Fake Mustache" accessory allows Relm Arrowny to use the "Control" command in place of her usual "Sketch" command)
- Final Fantasy VII (any character can control certain enemies using the "Manipulate" materia)
- Final Fantasy VIII (Rinoa Heartilly's pet dog Angelo will perform random attacks when summoned as her Limit Break, which are learned from reading in-game books and traveling with Rinoa in the active party)
- Final Fantasy X Although monsters cannot be used to battle. Weapons can be given the capture ability to allow the player to capture monsters to sell to the owner of the monster arena. Through this the player can gain access to several optional superbosses and easy grinding for a price.
- Final Fantasy X-2
- Final Fantasy XI 
- Final Fantasy XIII-2 (Serah Farron has the ability to tame monsters to have them fight alongside her and Noel)
- Final Fantasy Tactics (the ability is adjusted for the job Mediator as learning an ability to communicate with and manipulate monsters)
- Final Fantasy Tactics Advance (restricted to the Nu Mou race)
- Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift (see above)
- Final Fantasy: The 4 Heroes of Light (as a hidden crown: whips are not available here)
Dancers (踊り子 Odoriko?) use special Dances to cause status effects or damage enemies on a battle field. In Final Fantasy V, there are four offensive dances, each with a single effect, one of which is performed randomly when the "Dance" command is selected. In Final Fantasy VI, the "Dance" command allows Mog to perform one of eight dances, each of which causes the player to lose control of the character, who will randomly perform one of the specific dance's four special abilities each turn. In Final Fantasy Tactics, Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift and Final Fantasy X-2, the "Dance" command allows one of several dances to be selected, each dance performs a single fixed effect. In 4 Heroes of Light, Rekoteh features as a Dancer. Like Torte, however, her class can't be changed. The Dancer crown also features increased dagger proficiency and many abilities to do with the party's Action Point scores, allowing them to recharge faster for a few rounds ("Dance" and "Perform") or provide an on-the-spot boost ("Applaud" and "Ovation") making this a potent class in that game.
The Dancer class appears in:
- Final Fantasy V
- Final Fantasy VI (Mog possesses the "Dance" command, which functions similar to a Geomancer's abilities)
- Final Fantasy X-2 (no specific Dancer class, however its Songstress class combines aspects of the Bard and Dancer classes, learning both songs and dances)
- Final Fantasy XI: WIngs of the Goddess expansion (Dancer uses TP (Tactical Points) to carry out dances which have varying effects and can be used as a front-line healer because of its restorative dances)
- Final Fantasy Tactics (Dancer is the only female-exclusive class available to generic units)
- Final Fantasy Tactics A2: Grimoire of the Rift (exclusive to Penelo)
- Hataraku Chocobo
- Final Fantasy: the 4 Heroes of Light
The Gambler (ギャンブラー Gyanburā?) uses a Slots system in battle. When the player selects the "Slots" command, three slots like those of a slot machine are presented on screen. Each slot is then stopped by the press of a button. Certain combinations produce beneficial effects such as healing the party or dealing great damage, or even death, to the enemies. However, this is usually balanced with combinations that have disadvantageous effects, such as reducing the party's health, or instant game over.
The Gambler class has appeared in:
- Final Fantasy VI (Setzer Gabbiani)
- Final Fantasy VII (Cait Sith's Limit Break attack features a slot machine or dice. Additionally, Tifa Lockhart's Limit Break used a slot system to determine which techniques in a string of powerful moves hit or miss)
- Final Fantasy VIII (Selphie Tilmitt uses "Slot" as her Limit Break
- Final Fantasy X (Wakka's Overdrive uses slots)
- Final Fantasy X-2 (the Lady Luck dressphere uses different Dice and Slots attacks)
- Final Fantasy XI (features the class Corsair, which uses a dice based game similar to Blackjack to enhance party members' proficiency in battle)
- Final Fantasy XII
- Final Fantasy Tactics Advance (the Gadgeteer class bears resemblance to the Gambler because it uses techniques that have an equal chance of affecting the party or the enemy (e.g., "Green Gear" has an equal chance of poisoning the player's party or the enemy's party). However, Gadgeteers do not use a slot system.
- Crisis Core: Final Fantasy VII (the "DMW" is a slot-reel system in battle; matching number or character panels can activate a variety of special effects, such as Limit Breaks and "Invincible")
Gambler is also a type of enemy in Kingdom Hearts II, with similar powers and appearance.
They appear in many different versions throughout the series:
- Final Fantasy V (Mimes can equip most types of equipment, but they are restricted to lighter weapons, such as rods, staves, knives and boomerangs. Like Freelancers, they automatically inherit most passive special abilities and all stat bonuses from other jobs the character has mastered. In addition to replacing their "Fight" command with the "Mimic" command, they also sacrifice their "Item" command for an extra custom ability slot, for a total of 3, 1 more than Freelancers and 2 more than any other job in the game.)
- Final Fantasy VI (Gogo is a Mimic who possesses the class' signature "Mimic" command, and can be given up to three other commands)
- Final Fantasy VII (characters equipped with the "Mime" materia can mimic the most recent action performed by another party member)
- Final Fantasy X (players can learn a miming move called "Copycat")
- Final Fantasy Tactics - The Mime has very high pre-requisites, requiring a character to gain levels in most of the game's other jobs. Mimes have the Mimic special ability, which prevents them from being controlled directly. Instead, they automatically attempt to copy the movements and commands of all other party members (with a small chance of failure). Movement and abilities use relative two-dimensional co-ordinates, for example, if a Black Mage casts a spell centered on a square three squares north and one square west, the Mime will cast the same spell, targeted three squares north and one square west of the Mime (as opposed to targeting the same tile). Mimes cannot Mimic certain special abilities (specifically, those restricted to character-specific special jobs), cannot engage in impossible actions (such as walking over impassable terrain, using abilities on invalid targets, or engaging in actions prohibited by status ailments), cannot mimic reaction abilities, and cannot mimic other Mimes. Mimics cannot use any equipment.
- Dissidia Final Fantasy (the hero representing Final Fantasy V, Bartz Klauser, uses the other player's attacks as his own, and his general appearance is based on the Mime job class)
Puppet Masters employ a toy puppet in combat. The puppet itself can have various skills, usually from other jobs, such as Paladin, Black Mage, White Mage and Ranger. Usually these skills are modified to fit with the Puppet Theme. Puppet Master was not a specific class in any games previous to Final Fantasy XI, although some abilities and characters do fit under the basic description of Puppet Master, for example Lulu from Final Fantasy X uses a puppet toy as a weapon, and to assist in her spell casting; In something of a twist in Final Fantasy IV: The Interlude and Final Fantasy IV: The After Years feature Calca and Brina. Rather than being in control of a doll or puppet, they are dolls.
The Memorist job was introduced in Final Fantasy Dimensions. Memorists are somewhat similar to Freelancers and Mimes. Memorists have two special abilities: The Memorandom command temporarily allows the Memorist to choose from a randomly selected set of four commands which the character has already unlocked by gaining levels in other jobs, and Recollect is a passive ability which allows the player to assign and distribute the Memorist's attribute points.
In a review of the Final Fantasy Anthology compilation, IGN praised Final Fantasy V's "incredibly engrossing" job system. The gameplay of Final Fantasy Tactics Advance was lauded for retaining elements from Final Fantasy Tactics while offering freedom to players to develop characters as they wish;
However, some reviewers thought the character jobs in Final Fantasy Tactics Advance are too many and overlap one another, reaching a point where certain abilities are rendered redundant.
- Square Electronic Arts, ed. (1997). Final Fantasy Tactics North American instruction manual. Square Electronic Arts. pp. 13, 24. SCUS-94221.
- Square Enix Co., ed. (2003). Final Fantasy Origins North American instruction manual. Square Enix Co. p. 5. SLUS-01541.
- Square Enix Co., ed. (2003). Final Fantasy Origins North American instruction manual. Square Enix Co. p. 23. SLUS-01541.
- Final Fantasy III Official Website. Square Enix. Retrieved February 17, 2007.
- Square Enix Co., ed. (1999). Final Fantasy Anthology North American instruction manual. Square Enix Co. pp. 17–18. SLUS-00879GH.
- Square Electronic Arts, ed. (2001). Final Fantasy Chronicles North American instruction manual. Square Electronic Arts. pp. 6–9. SLUS-01360.
- Square Enix Co., ed. (1999). Final Fantasy Anthology North American instruction manual. Square Enix Co. pp. 47–48. SLUS-00879GH.
- Square Electronic Arts, ed. (1997). Final Fantasy VII North American instruction manual. Square Electronic Arts. pp. 32–34. SCUS-94163.
- Square Electronic Arts, ed. (1999). Final Fantasy VIII North American instruction manual. Square Electronic Arts. pp. 24–35. SLUS-00892GH.
- The Evolution of Final Fantasy. IGN. Retrieved February 11, 2006.
- Square Electronic Arts, ed. (2000). Final Fantasy IX North American instruction manual. Square Electronic Arts. pp. 16–19. SLUS-01251.
- Square Enix Co., ed. (2003). Final Fantasy X-2 North American instruction manual. Square Enix Co. p. 13.
- Final Fantasy XI Official Site. Playonline.com. Retrieved February 9, 2007.
- BradyGAMES, ed. (2006). Final Fantasy XII Official Strategy Guide. DKPublishing. pp. 18–19. ISBN 0-7440-0837-9.
- Final Fantasy XII introduces a new way to experience RPGs. CBS News. Retrieved February 11, 2006.
- Square Electronic Arts, ed. (1997). Final Fantasy Tactics North American instruction manual. Square Electronic Arts. pp. 24–26. SCUS-94221.
- Final Fantasy Tactics Official Website Square-Enix.com. Retrieved February 18, 2007.
- Square Enix Co., ed. (1999). Final Fantasy Anthology North American instruction manual. Square Enix Co. p. 19. SLUS-00879GH.
- Final Fantasy Origins review. IGN. Retrieved February 11, 2007.
- Square Enix Co., ed. (1999). Final Fantasy Anthology North American instruction manual. Square Enix Co. pp. 44–46. SLUS-00879GH.
- Square Enix Co., ed. (1999). Final Fantasy Anthology North American instruction manual. Square Enix Co. p. 20. SLUS-00879GH.
- Final Fantasy XI Official Website: Job Descriptions. PlayOnline. Retrieved February 10, 2006.
- Knight, Sheila (2003). "Tetsuya Nomura 20s". FLAREgamer. Retrieved April 13, 2006.
- Square Electronic Arts, ed. (1997). Final Fantasy VII North American instruction manual. Square Electronic Arts. pp. 7–11. SCUS-94163.
- Final Fantasy X Official Site. Square Enix.com. Retrieved February 10, 2006.
- Terra: You're Locke, right? Edgar told me about you. Is it true you're a thief? / Locke: That's TREASURE HUNTER! (Final Fantasy VI)
- Amarant: Listen to you. I lost to some spineless thief. / Zidane: The sly eagle doesn't kill at whim. (Final Fantasy IX)
- BradyGAMES, ed. (2006). Final Fantasy XII Official Strategy Guide. DKPublishing. pp. 284–286. ISBN 0-7440-0837-9.
- Square Electronic Arts, ed. (2000). Final Fantasy IX North American instruction manual. Square Electronic Arts. p. 18. SLUS-01251.
- Square Enix Co., ed. (1999). Final Fantasy Anthology North American instruction manual. Square Enix Co. p. 21. SLUS-00879GH.
- Square Electronic Arts, ed. (1999). Final Fantasy VIII North American instruction manual. Square Electronic Arts. p. 25. SLUS-00892GH.
- BradyGAMES, ed. (2006). Final Fantasy XII Official Strategy Guide. DKPublishing. p. 44. ISBN 0-7440-0837-9.
- "Final Fantasy Jobs: Blue Mage". Ffcompendium.com. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- Square Electronic Arts, ed. (1999). Final Fantasy VIII North American instruction manual. Square Electronic Arts. p. 21. SLUS-00892GH.
- Square Enix Co., ed. (1999). Final Fantasy Anthology North American instruction manual. Square Enix Co. p. 22. SLUS-00879GH.
- Reyes, Francesca (1999). "Final Fantasy Anthology IGN Review". PSX.IGN.com. Retrieved 27 July 2006.
- Kasavin, Greg (2003-09-08). "Final Fantasy Tactics Advance Review". GameSpot.com. Retrieved 2007-07-24.
- Metts, Jonathan (2003-10-13). "Final Fantasy Tactics Advance Review". Nintendoworldreport.com. Retrieved 2007-07-24.