Black raspberry

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Not to be confused with blackberry.

Black raspberry is a common name for three species of the genus Rubus:

A black raspberry is a small fruit (botanically an aggregate fruit) that weighs between one and two grams. Almost all commercial production of black raspberries is from developed cultivars of Rubus occidentalis. Oregon accounts for over 90% of black raspberry production in the United States.

Black raspberry plants yield significantly less fruit than their red counterparts and also commonly suffer from a raspberry mosaic disease complex that gives them shorter lifespans than other cane berry plants. Because of this, they can be costly to produce on a large scale.

Uses[edit]

Food[edit]

Because black raspberries can be harvested only for around three weeks during the year, usually starting at the beginning of July, their fresh market presence is limited. Mostly, black raspberries are made into jams, individually quick frozen, freeze-dried, or otherwise processed. Black raspberries contain less sugar and more fiber than most other berries.[citation needed] They can also be found as an ingredient in ice creams and soft drinks due to their unique name and the flavor of the berry.

Cancer research[edit]

Black raspberries have been investigated in relation to the treatment and/or prevention of colon cancer, esophageal cancer, and skin cancer.[1][2][3][4][5][6]

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Kresty, Laura A.; Morse, Mark A.; Morgan, Charlotte; Carlton, Peter S.; Lu, Jerry; Gupta, Ashok; Blackwood, Michelle; Stoner, Gary D. (2001). "Chemoprevention of Esophageal Tumorigenesis by Dietary Administration of Lyophilized Black Raspberries". Cancer Research 61 (16): 6112–9. PMID 11507061. 
  2. ^ Huang, Chuanshu; Huang, Yi; Li, Jingxia; Hu, Wenwei; Aziz, Robeena; Tang, Moon-shong; Sun, Nanjun; Cassady, John; Stoner, Gary D. (2002). "Inhibition of Benzo(a)pyrene Diol-Epoxide-induced Transactivation of Activated Protein 1 and Nuclear Factor κB by Black Raspberry Extracts". Cancer Research 62 (23): 6857–63. PMID 12460899. 
  3. ^ Huang, C.; Li, J; Song, L; Zhang, D; Tong, Q; Ding, M; Bowman, L; Aziz, R; Stoner, GD (2006). "Black Raspberry Extracts Inhibit Benzo(a)Pyrene Diol-Epoxide-Induced Activator Protein 1 Activation and VEGF Transcription by Targeting the Phosphotidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Pathway". Cancer Research 66 (1): 581–7. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-1951. PMID 16397275. 
  4. ^ Stoner, G. D.; Dombkowski, A. A.; Reen, R. K.; Cukovic, D.; Salagrama, S.; Wang, L.-S.; Lechner, J. F. (2008). "Carcinogen-Altered Genes in Rat Esophagus Positively Modulated to Normal Levels of Expression by Both Black Raspberries and Phenylethyl Isothiocyanate". Cancer Research 68 (15): 6460–7. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-0146. PMC 3015106. PMID 18676871. 
  5. ^ Stoner, G. D. (2009). "Foodstuffs for Preventing Cancer: The Preclinical and Clinical Development of Berries". Cancer Prevention Research 2 (3): 187–94. doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-08-0226. PMC 2769015. PMID 19258544. 
  6. ^ Wang, L.-S.; Arnold, M.; Huang, Y.-W.; Sardo, C.; Seguin, C.; Martin, E.; Huang, T. H.- M.; Riedl, K. et al. (2010). "Modulation of Genetic and Epigenetic Biomarkers of Colorectal Cancer in Humans by Black Raspberries: A Phase I Pilot Study". Clinical Cancer Research 17 (3): 598–610. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-1260. PMC 3076314. PMID 21123457. 

External links[edit]