Black River, Jamaica
Waterloo Guest House
|• Estimate (2009)||4,261|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
Black River is the capital of St. Elizabeth Parish, in southwestern Jamaica. It developed as a port around the mouth of the river of the same name. Today the city is a centre of environmental tourism and a gateway to the Treasure Beach resort area. Treasure Beach and Crane Beach are to the south-east with Luana Beach to the west. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, it was a thriving sugar port and a market for African slaves.
Growing prosperity in the sugar and lumber trade led to the construction of several warehouses. Some have been adapted as restaurants or as bases for eco-tours of the river.
Black River is one of the oldest European towns in the island of Jamaica, being shown on John Sellers' 1685 map. It was designed by the Leyden brothers of England, three wealthy men who were substantial land proprietors in the area.
In 1773 Black River replaced Lacovia, 19 miles to the north-east, as the capital of St. Elizabeth. Soon after it became the main commercial, economic and transshipment centre of the parish. By the early 1900s, it was second only to Kingston in importance.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, Black River was a busy seaport for the lucrative logwood trade and for exports of rum, pimento and cattle skins from the nearby Holland, Vineyard and Fullerswood estates. The Logwood tree trunks were floated down the Black River to the port to be shipped to England for making of dyes.
Slaves from Africa and other Caribbean islands were landed here and sold at auction at Farquharson Wharf (originally Town Wharf). This wharf still stands. In 2007, the United Kingdom celebrated the 200th anniversary of the Slave Trade Act 1807, which ended the African slave trade in its colonies. A monument was installed at Black River in 2007 to memorialize the slaves killed in the Zong massacre of 1781, when more than 132 slaves were thrown overboard at sea near here. They were sacrificed purportedly to save the remainder and the crew because of a shortage of water. The Zong finally landed at Black River. Its owners later sued for insurance claims for the slaves who had been killed, and the case was litigated in 1783 in Britain. Abolitionists publicized it, and the case became a catalyst for continuing work to abolish slavery. Slavery was abolished in 1833.
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