The Black Sea Germans are distinct from the Volga Germans, who were separate both geographically and culturally, although both groups moved to the Russian Empire at about the same time and for the same reasons and both groups are referred to as Germans from Russia.
A refugee trek of Black Sea Germans during the Second World War in Hungary, July 1944
Black Sea Germans, prior to World War II, were subjected to forced starvation, closure of German-language churches and schools were forced to change their language of instruction from German to Russian or Ukrainian. The 45,000 Germans in Crimea (along with other Black Sea Germans) were forced into exile in Siberia and Kazakhstan, many in forced labor camps. Black Sea Germans began to resettle in Greater Germany in 1940 as a part of Hitler's Heim ins Reich policy. Remaining Germans fled to Germany and Poland as the Red Army advanced in 1944.