Black Sea Shipyard
Coordinates: The Black Sea Shipyard (Ukrainian: Чорноморський суднобудівний завод; Russian: Черноморский судостроительный завод) is located in Mykolaiv, Ukraine and is the largest shipyard with near direct access to the Black Sea. It is most often referred to as the Nikolayev South Shipyard and was known as Soviet Shipyard No. 444.
The shipyard constructed the Moskva-class helicopter ships, Kiev-class and Kuznetsov-class aircraft carrying cruisers, naval auxiliaries, commercial ships, and submarines. They also began construction on the abortive Stalingrad-class battlecruiser cancelled after Stalin's death in 1953.
Today, the shipyard is a major enterprise consisting of shipbuilding, machine-building, and metallurgy. The shipyard has its own design center with a qualified engineering staff and modern computer equipment. Their integrated shipbuilding system (FORAN) includes computer-aided design (CAD), engineering (CAE), and manufacturing (CAM) of vessels.
On August 27, 1789, Prince Grigori Aleksandrovich Potemkin signed an order to construct a shipyard at the mouth of the river Inhul. The shipyard, simply called New Shipyard on the Ingul river, was to serve for the repair of the Russian Navy ships in the Russo-Turkish war.
Later[when?] Potemkin ordered the shipyard to be named Nikolaev, to commemorate the fall of the Turkish fortress Ozi-Cale (today Ochakiv) to the Russian troops under his command on December 6, 1788, on the day of Saint Nicholas (patron saint of seafarers)– according to the Russian Orthodox Church calendar.
Early in the Soviet era, the shipyard was renamed to the Andre Marti (South) Yard (Shipyard No. 198). During these early years, the yard constructed surface warships and Dekabrist-class submarines.
In January 1938, the Chairman of the People’s Commissar Council, declared the following:
Our mighty Soviet power must have such sea and ocean fleet that would comply with her interests and would be worthy of our great mission.—V.M. Molotov
It was then the government introduced the 10-year Big Shipbuilding Program. The plan included the construction of battleships and heavy cruisers which would represent the ocean might and strength of the country.
On October 19, 1940, the government decided to terminate battleship and heavy cruiser construction. It was ordered to concentrate all their efforts on small-size and medium-size warships building. However, the completion of ships of various classes, laid before, continued. On the whole, the Soviet shipbuilding was once again re-directed for submarines and light surface ships construction. Nevertheless, By the 1950s, an estimated 65 Whiskey-class submarines, the Sverdlov-class light cruisers, and the Stalingrad-class battlecruiser were built.
During the 1960s, the Moskva-class helicopter carriers and the Kiev-class VSTOL aircraft carrying cruisers were constructed. The Kiev-class Admiral Gorshkov was launched in 1982 and later in 1985 the Admiral Kuznetsov was launched. The Admiral Kuznetsov's hull design is based on the Admiral Gorshkov but is larger with a full load displacement, 58,500 tons as compared to Admiral Gorshkov's 40,400 tons. KH-11 satellite photographs of the construction of the Admiral Kuznetsov were leaked to Jane's Defense Weekly in 1985 by Samuel Loring Morison, a naval intelligence analyst with the U.S. Navy.
Commercial ships and naval auxiliaries were, and continue to be constructed there. Commercial ships are primarily dry-cargo ships, fish-factory ships, and large trawlers. In the late 1970s, the shipyard constructed two large trawlers for the State Committee of Fisheries of Ukraine.
Facilities and Services
The State joint stock company Chernomorsudoproekt is one of the leading ship design firms in Ukraine. The firm was founded in 1956 around the design personnel of Nikolayev shipbuilding enterprises. The enterprise has built and exported vessels to Sweden, Bulgaria, Norway, Romania, Great Britain, Germany, Portugal, Kuwait, India and Greece.
The shipyard has two main areas covering 500 acres (2.0 km2). The first slipway (No.0) has end-launch building ways and blocking docks. The second is a horizontal building slip (No.1) with a covered launch.
|Slipway No. 0||330 meters (1,080 ft)||40 meters (130 ft)||Two gantry cranes each capable of lifting up to 900 tons|
|Slipway No. 1||400 meters (1,300 ft)||18 meters (59 ft)||Horizontal, launching effected with the help of floating dock|
|Floating dock||120 meters (390 ft)||41.5 meters (136 ft)||Up to 7,500 tons|
|3 quays||860 meters (2,820 ft) total||-||Portal cranes with a lifting capacity of 25-40 tons|
The largest slipway (No.0) is capable of constructing tankers, bulk carriers, supply vessels, and roll-on/roll-off ships. There is also a high-capacity pre-slipway area of 14,000 square meters (150,000 sq ft), where blocks up to 1,500 metric tons (1,500 long tons; 1,700 short tons) can be assembled.
The second slipway (No.1) is a flow-position line, which is located in the sheltered slipway and is actually a closed-loop autonomous production line. Launching of vessels is effected with the help of the floating dock. The final fitting-out is performed near the South outfitting quay which is 546 meters (1,791 ft).
The shipyard consists of several work-shops to include: the slipway work-shop, assembly and welding work-shop, plating work-shop, and an outfitting work-shop. The assembly and welding work-shop is capable of manufacturing flat and volumetric sections up to 180 metric tons (180 long tons; 200 short tons).
According to their public website, the shipyard also includes:
- Specialized services to include the manufacturing of propeller shafts with length up to 30 meters (98 ft) and the manufacturing of unit-cast and welded anchor chains.
- A multi-branch network of 43 kilometers (27 mi) of railways and 29 kilometers (18 mi) of roads.
- Tug boats capable of 60 ton bollard pull which can provide escort services to tankers up to 70,000 DWT in the narrow waters.
- Moskva-class helicopter carriers: 2 (whole class)
- Kiev-class aircraft carriers: 4 (whole class, transformed from Moscow)
- Kuznetsov-class aircraft carriers: 2 (whole class, modified Kiev class)
- Ulyanovsk-class aircraft carriers: 2 (one canceled while under construction, one canceled before construction commenced)
- Stalingrad-class battlecruiser: 1 (along with Baltic Shipyard and Sevmash)
- Sverdlov-class cruisers: 4
- Volodymyr-class corvette: 1
There were many notable vessels constructed in this shipyard. The table below lists many of these vessels to include when they were laid and launched.
|Potemkin||1898||1904||Based on Tri Sviatitelia||Battleship|
|Krab||1908?||1912||-||Submarine mine layer|
|Imperatritsa Ekaterina Velikaya||1911||1914||Imperatritsa Mariya||Dreadnought battleship|
|Voroshilov||1936||1939||Kirov (Project 26)||Cruiser|
|Sovetskaya Ukraina||1938||Destroyed||Sovetsky Soyuz (Project 23)||Battleship|
|Dzerzhinsky||1948||1950||Sverdlov (Project 68B)||Cruiser|
|Stalingrad||1949||Cancelled||Stalingrad (Project 82)||Battlecruiser|
|Admiral Nakhimov||1950||1951||Sverdlov (Project 68B)||Cruiser|
|Mikhail Kutuzov||1951||1952||Sverdlov (Project 68B)||Cruiser|
|Moskva||1962||1965||Moskva (CVHG)||Helicopter carrier|
|Leningrad||1962||1965||Moskva (CVHG)||Helicopter carrier|
|Akademik Sergei Korolev||?||1970||Korolev (SESS)||Space Control-Monitoring|
|Kiev||1970||1972||Kiev (CVHG)||Aircraft carrier|
|Minsk||1972||1975||Kiev (CVHG)||Aircraft carrier|
|Novorossiysk||1975||1978||Kiev (CVHG)||Aircraft carrier|
|Admiral Gorshkov||1978||1982||Kiev (CVHG)||Aircraft carrier|
|Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov||1983||1985||Kuznetsov (CV)||Heavy aircraft carrier|
|Varyag||1985||1988||Kuznetsov (CV)||Heavy aircraft carrier|
Notes: NATO class only shown if applicable; classes of vessels launched before 1949 are provided as originally designated. Most vessel names provided is the name given when launched–some ships may have since been renamed. The table uses the following shipbuilding terms:
- Laid - in shipbuilding refers to when construction began on the keel. The keel is generally the first part of a ship's hull to be constructed, and laying the keel, or placing the keel in the cradle in which the ship will be built, is often a momentous event in a ship's construction—so much so that the event is often marked with a ceremony, and the term lay the keel has entered the language as a phrase meaning the beginning of any significant undertaking.
- Launched - refers to when a new ship is conveyed from the building site to water. There are three principal methods of conveyance but only two of which are called "launching." Oldest, most familiar, and most widely used is the end-on launch, in which the vessel slides, usually stern first, down an inclined slipway. The second method is the side (or horizontal) launch, whereby the ship enters the water broadside. The third method is float-out, used for ships that are built in basins or dry docks and then floated by admitting water into the dock. Nowadays, the shipyard is capable launching from slipway No.0 and doing a float-out from slipway No.1.
- List of ships of Russia by project number
- List of Soviet and Russian submarine classes
- Admiral Makarov National University of Shipbuilding
- Norman Polmar, Guide to the Soviet Navy, Fourth Edition (1986), United States Naval Institute, Annapolis Maryland, ISBN 0-87021-240-0
- Milan L. Hauner, Stalin's big-fleet program (Spring 2004), Naval War College Review, Online
- Official Chernomorsky Shipbuilding Yard Website
- Nikolaev [Mykolayiv] GlobalSecurity Website, (Accessed: 6/9/2008)
- Chernomorsky Plant, GlobalSecurity.org Website, (Accessed 6/4/2008)
- Black Sea Fleet Information Resource Online
- Originally Baku, later sold to India as INS Vikramaditya
- Originally Leonid Brezhnev, renamed in 1990
- Originally Riga, sold incomplete to the PRC, commissioned as Liaoning
- Chernomorsky Plant, Federation of American Scientists Website
- Shipbuilding, Online Report/Publication (Accessed 6/5/2008), Embassy of Ukraine to the United States