Black Virgin Mountain

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Black Virgin Mountain
Núi Bà Đen
Vietnamese cart with Nui Ba Den in background.jpg
Vietnamese cart with Black Virgin Mountain in the background
Elevation 996 m (3,268 ft)[1]
Translation Nui Ba Den (Vietnamese)
Location
Black Virgin Mountain is located in Vietnam
Black Virgin Mountain
Black Virgin Mountain
Tay Ninh Province, Vietnam
Coordinates 11°22′N 106°10′E / 11.367°N 106.167°E / 11.367; 106.167Coordinates: 11°22′N 106°10′E / 11.367°N 106.167°E / 11.367; 106.167
Geology
Type Extinct Volcano
Climbing
Easiest route Hiking

Black Virgin Mountain (Vietnamese: Núi Bà Đen meaning "Black Lady Mountain", Khmer: Phnom Chol Baden) is a mountain in the Tay Ninh Province of Vietnam. To the Vietnamese the mountain is the center of a myth about Bà Đen, a local deity of Khmer origin. During the Vietnam War the area around the mountain was very active as the Ho Chi Minh Trail ended a few kilometers west across the Cambodian border. As such there were many battles and American and Vietnamese soldiers based in the region remember the prominent landmark.[1] After the war the mountain turned from a battle ground to being famous for the its beautiful temples and theme park.

Geography[edit]

Núi Bà Đen aerial view, 1971

At 996 metres (3,268 ft), the extinct volcano rises from the flat Mekong Delta jungle and farmland. The mountain is almost a perfect cinder cone with a saddle and a slight bulge on her northwest side. The mountain is honeycombed with caves and is covered in many large basalt boulders.[2]

History[edit]

Buddhist temple
Linh Sơn Thiên Thạch pagoda on the Bà Đen mountain, Tây Ninh province, Vietnam.

Pre-Vietnam War[edit]

Variations of the legend of Núi Bà Đen exist. The oldest Khmer myth involves a female deity, "Neang Khmau" who left her footprints on the mountain rocks. The Vietnamese myth centers around a woman, Bà Đen, falling in love with a soldier and then through betrayal or suicide Bà Đen dies on the mountain.[3] It has special significance to the Vietnamese Buddhist population and has a famous shrine about two thirds of the way up the mountain.[4] Also, to the Cao Dai sect the mountain has special religious significance and its temple, the Tay Ninh Holy See, is close to the mountain.[5]

During World War II the mountain was occupied by the Japanese and it was occupied by the Viet Minh, the French and the Viet Cong.[6]

Vietnam War[edit]

View from the top of the mountain c. 1967 or 1968

The Mekong Delta is generally a flat region with the exception of the Black Virgin Mountain. The mountain commands everything in its sight and was therefore a strategic location for both sides during the war. In 1964 the mountain top was assaulted by special forces and the peak was held by American forces as a radio relay station.[6][7] Supplied by helicopter for much of the war the Americans controlled the top and the Viet Cong (VC) controlled the bottom and surrounding plain.[7][8] In 1968 the station was once overrun by the VC, who killed all 23 Americans manning the station.[9]

In January 1969 the mountain was extensively searched by 1st Brigade elements of the 3rd Battalion, 22nd Infantry regulars, 4th Battalion, 23rd Infantry, and tanks from the 2nd Battalion, 34th Armour. In the tunnels that honeycombed the mountain they found arms caches, and engaged VC units stationed on the mountain.[10] Throughout the war the VC returned to the mountain and its cave bases.

Colonel Donald Cook was the first Marine captured in the Vietnam war. For a time he was held near Black Virgin mountain.[11] In 1973 the mountain was closed as an American base.[8] During the closing days of the war when the mountain was abandoned by Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) troops, the local population left the region afraid of the approaching communist soldiers.[5]

Tourist attraction[edit]

Cableway going up a mountain
Cableway to pagodas atop Bà Đen mountain, Tây Ninh province, Vietnam

The mountain is famed for its beautiful temples and theme park. Visitors may hike up trails but many people take the Núi Bà Đen gondola lift to the top of the temple complex.[12] Many of the trails up the mountain are very dangerous when wet.

Common fruit orchids on the mountain and in the neighborhood are custard apple, which is called the mountain custard apple by the local citizens, banana or cashew. These are the local agricultural specialties.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Heinemann 2006, p. 238
  2. ^ Shacklette, Don (2010). "Nui Ba Den - The Black Virgin Mountain". Coastal Peaks Roasters. Retrieved April 22, 2010. 
  3. ^ Heinemann 2006, pp. 239–240
  4. ^ Mrozek 1999, p. 71
  5. ^ a b McNamara & Hill 2003, p. 77
  6. ^ a b Rottmann, Larry (August 7, 1967). "Vol 2 No. 31 Tropic Lightning News". Tropic Lightning News. Retrieved April 22, 2010. 
  7. ^ a b Sinsigalli 2002, p. 37
  8. ^ a b Tinnel 2002
  9. ^ Juge 2004, p. 28
  10. ^ Cecil 2003, p. 125
  11. ^ Price 2007, p. 129
  12. ^ Laningham, Van (2010). "Núi Bà Đen". pauahtun.org. Retrieved April 22, 2010. 

Bibliography[edit]