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Black supremacy is a racist ideology stemming from the presupposition that Black people are superior to people of other racial backgrounds and therefore, Black people should politically dominate non-Black people. Like other racial supremacist ideologies and related social movements, it is based on a notion of biological race. In that sense, all forms of racial supremacy are essentialist ideologies that conflict with constructionist views of race. Despite these commonalities, according to most scholars of race, variants of racial supremacy differ significantly because, historically, they have wielded structural power and shaped popular and political discourses to different degrees. For example, some forms of racial supremacy have remained ideologies shared by a small faction and others have been structurally implemented on a broad social scale (see Social structure and Racism) by a majority.
- 1 Active organizations
- 2 Black supremacist theories
- 3 Relationship to White supremacy
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Nation of Islam
In the 1930s, the Nation of Islam emerged, coming to prominence during the 1960s, when charismatic minister (Black civil right activist) Malcolm X became a spokesman for the movement. The group's founders, "Master Fard" Muhammad and Elijah Muhammad, preached the Doctrine of Yakub, which held that the Original Man was an "Asiatic Black man". White people, it contended, were "grafted" from Black people 6,000 years ago by an ancient Black scientist named Yakub.
The belief in sacrificial killing and ritualistic murder was part of the early Nation of Islam doctrine. Fard thought explicitly that it was the duty for every Muslim to offer as sacrifice four "Caucasian devils". A portion of Fard's lesson reads as follows:
Why does Fard Mohammad and any Moslem murder the devil? What is the duty of each Moslem in regard to four devils? What reward does a Moslem receive by presenting the four devils at one time? — Because he is one hundred percent wicked and will not keep and obey the laws of Islam. His ways and actions are like a snake of the grafted type. So Mohammad learned that he could not reform the devils, so they had to be murdered. All Moslems will murder the devil because they know he is a snake and also if he be allowed to live, he would sting someone else. Each Moslem is required to bring four devils, and by bringing and presenting four at one time his reward is a button to wear on the lapel of his coat, also a free transportation to the Holy City of Mecca.—Master Fard Mohammad, Lesson #1.
Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan later argued that the lessons about murdering devils was only a metaphor designed to "rally NOI members to 'slay whites' psychological and social grip on them" but Fard's lessons on the murder of white people in at least one instance were taken literally and verbatim:
One afternoon in the early 1970s, when Ali K. Muslim, then Charles 41x, was guarding the temple, a man carrying a sack asked to meet a temple official. The man, thoroughly confused about Elijah Muhammad's teachings, believed that if he killed four white "devils" he would win a trip to the Holy Land. He had come to redeem his prizes. In the sack, Ali K. Muslim says, were four severed heads.
This teaching also culminated in the creation of the Death Angels, a small splinter group of the Nation of Islam. Between 1972 and 1974, the Death Angels murdered 14 white people in the San Francisco Bay Area. These murders later would become known as the Zebra murders because the police used Radio Z to communicate about the case.
Elijah Muhammad also preached black self-reliance, black separatism, cooperative economics, strict moral and physical discipline, and opposition to black-white miscegenation. Since its founding, the NOI has gone through reorganizations and internal conflicts, but even as it moves closer to the mainstream of Islamic belief and practice, the NOI leadership has not rejected formally any of Fard's doctrines. It opposes any changes in the major beliefs and programs that were instituted by Fard Muhammad and Elijah Muhammad, including the annual "Savior's Day".
Members of the NOI have been publicly criticized by the leadership for making anti-Semitic, anti-Catholic anti-white and anti-homosexual statements, and for urging the murder of such people. Farrakhan has been banned from entering the UK since 1986 because of his "racist and anti-Semitic views".
Most historians and social scientists[not specific enough to verify] classify the Nation of Islam as a black nationalist, or black separatist, organization. The Southern Poverty Law Center headed by Morris Dees placed the Nation of Islam on its list of hate groups.
Nation of Yahweh
The Nation of Yahweh is a Black supremacist religious group that is an offshoot of the Black Hebrew Israelites line of thought, and was founded by Yahweh ben Yahweh, meaning "God the Son of God" in Hebrew, formerly known as Hulon Mitchell Jr. At its height, the Nation of Yahweh controlled an $8 million empire of properties, including a Miami headquarters known as the Temple of Love and temples in 22 states. Followers of the Nation of Yahweh view Black people as the only "true Jews" and believe that White Jews are the spawn of Satan. According to the Crime Library, followers of the Nation of Yahweh formed a secret group called "The Brotherhood". To become a member of The Brotherhood, applicants had to kill a "White devil" and bring Mitchell a body part - an ear, nose or finger - as proof of the kill. Several Nation of Yahweh members were convicted of conspiracy in more than a dozen anti-White murders, among them Robert Rozier, a former pro football player and member of the secret Brotherhood, who admitted to the killing of seven White people. Mitchell started a private school for his followers and held sex classes for boys and men in which he showed them movies of white women having sex with animals to dissuade them from lusting after white females.
New Black Panther Party for Self-Defense
The New Black Panther Party (NBPP), whose formal name is the New Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, is a U.S.-based Black supremacist organization founded in Dallas, Texas in 1989.
The Israelite Church of God in Jesus Christ
The Israelite Church of God in Jesus Christ (ICGJC), formerly known as the Israeli Church of Universal Practical Knowledge, is a Black Hebrew Israelite Christian group which accepts the Old and New Testaments as well as the Apocrypha, as inspired Scripture, and which believes that specific people of African and West Indian descent are the lost 12 tribes of Israel and are the true racial and Biblical Jews. They have historically claimed racial superiority to Caucasians, and claim to have divine favor and inspiration. ICGJC World Headquarters is located in New York City, New York, United States.
The ICGJC and its various splinter groups can be loosely grouped together as sects which advocate a King-James-Version-only approach to the Bible (i.e. they only endorse the KJV as scripture), and the belief that Caucasians are Edomites. The Israelite Church is nontrinitarian, but believes that Jesus Christ is God's divine Son and Messiah, and Redeemer for sinful Israelites. The ICGJC also holds to strong apocalyptic views of the end of the world.
Tribu Ka, Génération Kémi Séba
Tribu Ka was founded in 2004 by Stellio Capo Chichi ("Kémi Séba"), dubbed as "the French Farrakhan", in Paris. The group identified itself as following Louis Farrakhan's ideology but their thinking was also described as a mix of antisemitic Kemetism and Guénonian Islam. After an investigation of racist incitement, Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy dissolved Tribu Ka on July 26, 2006 but it reformed under the name Génération Kémi Séba. In April 2008, a Parisian court verdict judged Génération Kémi Séba was the refoundation of the dissolved group Tribu Ka. In June 2009, Interior Minister Brice Hortefeux ordered the dissolution of the group Jeunesse Kémi Séba, founded to replace Génération Kémi Séba.
United Nuwaubian Nation of Moors
The United Nuwaubian Nation of Moors was founded by Dwight York. The Nuwaubians believe in black people's superiority to white people, that white people are "devils," devoid of both heart and soul, that the color of white people is the result of leprosy and genetic inferiority, and that the ancestors of white people are the sexual partners of dogs and jackals.
Among the different species of Apeman you have the black-haired Lar. This is where you get the word ‘lord,’ or master from. The Lares, plural for Lar, were recognized for their intelligence. These Lares were the head monkeys or spiritual monkeys, well known. This is where the word ‘monks’ comes from. Certain beings used the species known as the Baboon (part hyena, jackal and monkey) together with Orangutans for breeding. This resulted in your Behaymaw (called the beast of the field) type of carnivorous man called Mankind, one of the many species of Caucasians.
White people are said in one myth to have been originally created as a race of killers to serve Black people as a slave army.
The Caucasian has not been chosen to lead the world. They lack true emotions in their creation. We never intended them to be peaceful. They were bred to be killers, with low reproduction levels and a short life span. What you call Negroid was to live 1,000 years each and the other humans 120 years. But the warrior seed of Caucasians only 60 years. They were only created to fight other invading races, to protect the God race Negroids. But they went insane, lost control when they were left unattended. They were never to taste blood. They did, and their true nature came out.… Because their reproduction levels were cut short, their sexual organs were made the smallest so that the female of their race will want to breed with Negroids to breed themselves out of existence after 6,000 years. It took 600 years to breed them, part man and part beast.
Black supremacist theories
Some black supremacists justify supremacist assertions by assigning superior properties to melanin based on pseudo-science and distortions of scientific fact or speculation. This body of belief is known generally as "Melanin theory". The central idea of the Melanin theory is that the levels of melanin in dark skin naturally enhance intelligence and emotional, psychic and spiritual sensitivity. Such claims have made inroads among some African Americans within academia.
Relationship to White supremacy
Due to some overlapping separatist ideologies, some Black supremacist organizations have found a small number of common goals with White supremacist or other extremist organizations. In 1961 and 1962 George Lincoln Rockwell, the leader of the American Nazi Party, for example, was invited to speak by Elijah Muhammad at a Nation of Islam rally.
It should be noted that Black supremacy and White supremacy are not analogous, because the nature of their development, circulation, and social magnitude vary significantly. Although both ideologies maintain a belief in superior and inferior races, White Supremacy, and its various permutations, derives from a specific history of scientific racism that provided the rational foundations for, and the moral principles guiding: New Imperialism and the colonization of Africa and parts of Asia and Oceania; the Atlantic Slave Trade; Apartheid in South Africa; Jim Crow laws in the United States; eugenics; and a number of social and political structures implemented by White-led governments and collectives. Also, for many centuries, the tenets of White Supremacy (i.e., that a racial hierarchy exists with those identified as White at the top and those raced as Black at the bottom) were reflected in "common-sense" ideas about difference among the majority of citizens in Western Europe, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand (as well as in regions annexed by European nations and the United States).  Sociologist, Joe Feagin explains that the "rationalization of racial oppression by racist ideology" is the means through which systemic racism (of which White persons can not be victims because an inherent bias towards whiteness is what globally constitutes systemic racism) is internalized and unintentionally reproduced by many individuals.  This cultural "naturalization" of White supremacist ideology (i.e., the process through which a constructed notion becomes "natural" and "true")  and its prevalence as scientific "fact" for nearly two centuries makes it a significantly different phenomenon from Black supremacy, which emerged as a reaction against White supremacy, systemic racism, and Eurocentrism. Some argue that most political and popular discourses today carry the residue of scientific racism and White supremacy by inferring the superiority, neutrality, or normativity of White cultural forms and practices through an over-representation of such forms and practices.
- Muhammad, Elijah. "The Making of Devil".
- Tsoukalas, Steven (2001). The Nation of Islam - Understanding the "Black Muslims". P&R Publishing. pp. 23–24.
- Gardell, Mattias (1996). In the Name of Elijah Muhammad: Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press. p. 56.
- Magida, Arthur J. (1996). Prophet of Rage: A Life of Louis Farrakhan and His Nation. New York: HarperCollins. p. 52.
- Barbosa, Steven (1993). American Jihad: Islam after Malcolm X. New York: Doubleday. pp. 115–116.
- Lubinskas, James. "Remembering the Zebra Killings". Front Page Magazine. 30 August 2001.
- Hodge, Damon. "Alien Nation: Louis Farrakhan, Phone Home". Las Vegas Weekly. undated.
- Gudel, Joseph P. and Larry Duckworth. "Hate Begotten of Hate". Christian Research Institute'. 1993.
- "Farrakhan Again Spews Hate in Saviours' Day Speech " Anti-Defamation League. 28 February 2006.
- "Snarling at the White Man". Southern Poverty Law Center Intelligence Report. Fall 2000.
- "Nation of Islam ". 2001.
- "Farrakhan British ban stays ". British Broadcasting Corporation. 30 April 2002.
- "U.S. Hate Groups in 2005. Southern Poverty Law Center. 2005. Retrieved 25 December 2006.
- "Nation of Yahweh " Apologetics Index. undated.
- "Popularity and Populism ". Southern Poverty Law Center Intelligence Report. Winter 2001.
- Scheeres, Julie. "The Yahweh Ben Yahweh Cult ". The Crime Library. undated.
- "'Ready for War'". Intelligence Report. Southern Poverty Law Center. Fall 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-22.
- Black Hebrew Israelites (BHI) - Religious Tolerance. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
- "ICGJC World Headquarters". Israelite Church of God in Jesus Christ. Retrieved 2012-04-15.
- Qui est le Farrakhan français ?, Jeune Afrique, 31 July 2006.
- French gang leader sentenced[dead link] Jewish Telegraphic Agency
- "Sarkozy visits Jewish neighborhood after threat from Black extremists". European Jewish Press. 2006-05-31. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
- "Leader of Black anti-Semitic group arrested in France". European Jewish Press. 2007-02-09. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
- Lichfield, John (2006-05-31). "French youths fight police and attack mayor's house". The Independent (London). Retrieved 2010-04-26.
- "Le Weltanschauung de la Tribu Ka, Stéphane François, Damien Guillame, and Emmanuel Kreis
- Tribu Ka: un an de prison avec sursis pour reconstitution de ligue dissoute
- Dissolution du groupuscule "Jeunesse Kemi Seba"
- France - Dissolution of ""Jeunesse 'Kémi Séba" ("'Kémi Séba Youth")
- Moser, Bob. "'Savior' in a Strange Land". Southern Poverty Law Center Intelligence Report. Fall 2002.
- York, Malachi Z. A Wake Up Call
- York, Malachi Z. El Ishtakhlaag: The Creation Tablet 9 (p. 95-98)
- York, Malachi Z. "This is your message Najwa and Davina, Kirsten" (letter) 10 November 2004
See also Amunnubi Raakhptah’s 9 Principles in the Human Being where he writes (p. 33): "The First Thing That All Nubuns Or Their Offspring Nubian Must Know Is That The Caucasoids Did Not And Still Don’t Produce Any Data On Negroids. Nothing You Read About In The Medical Field Applied To Negroids. It All Pertains To The Chemical Make Up Of The Caucasoid Bodies. Nothing In The Mental Field Of The Psychiatrist Pertains To The Negroids. The Caucasoids Cannot Evaluate Our Mental Stability, Or Try To Decipher Why We Do What We Do Because We Do Not Think Or Feel The Way They Do. Nor Do The Caucasoids Know Anything About Us Spiritually. The Caucasoids Are Carnivorous Mammals, Who Are Flesh Eating Killers By Nature. Mongoloids And Others Are Human, Also Mammals Because They Are Mixed. Some Are Carnivores And Some Are Herbivores By Nature. And We Are Deities, Herbivores By Nature Who Are Their Mothers And Fathers. The Caucasoid Were All Grafted From Us, And Mixed With Other Beast To Make Their Beast Like Nature."
- Skeptinq, Ortiz de Montellano, B. R. 1993. "Afrocentricity, Melanin, and Pseudoscience," Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 36, 33-58 3.^ Ortiz de Montellano, Bernard R. (17 Dec 2006); "Afrocentric Pseudoscience: The Miseducation of African Americans". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (New York Academy of Sciences) 775: 561–572. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1996.tb23174.x. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119242630/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0.
- Suzar."Other Astounding Properties of Melanin undated.
- Mehler, Barry. "African American Racism in the Academic Community." First published in The Review of Education 15 # 3/4 (Fall 1993); revised and republished as "Addressing the Problem of African-American Racism in Academia," in Martyrdom and Resistance (Nov.-Dec. 1993); slightly revised for posting (undated)
- "The Messenger Passes". Time magazine. March 10, 1975. Retrieved 2007-08-19.
- Cf. Patricia Hill Collins, Black feminist thought: knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment (2nd ed., 2000), Glossary, p. 300: "Scientific racism was designed to prove the inferiority of people of color"; Simon During, Cultural studies: a critical introduction (2005), p. 163: "It [sc. scientific racism] became such a powerful idea because ... it helped legitimate the domination of the globe by whites"; David Brown and Clive Webb, Race in the American South: From Slavery to Civil Rights (2007), p. 75: "...the idea of a hierarchy of races was driven by an influential, secular, scientific discourse in the second half of the eighteenth century and was rapidly disseminated during the nineteenth century".
- Omi, Michael; Winant, Howard (1994). Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1990s, 2nd ed. New York: Routledge.
- Feagin, Joe B. (2000). Racist America: Roots, current realities, and future reparations. New York: Routledge.
- Omi, Michael; Winant, Howard (1994). Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1990s, 2nd ed. New York: Routledge.
- Scientists Find A DNA Change That Accounts For White Skin (Washington Post Staff Writer - Friday, December 16, 2005; A01) Biotechnology
- Institute for the Study of Academic Racism (ISAR): African American Racism in the Academic Community
- The real jews are black
- TIME Magazine Teaching Reverse Racism
- Uncommon Ground: The Black African Holocaust Council and Other Links Between Black and White Extremists