|Ripe, ripening and unripe blackberries on the same plant|
|Subgenus:||Rubus (formerly Eubatus)|
The blackberry is an edible fruit produced by many species in the Rubus genus in the Rosaceae family, hybrids among these species within the Rubus subgenus, as well as hybrids between the Rubus and Idaeobatus subgenera. What distinguishes blackberries from its raspberry relatives is whether the torus (receptacle) picks with the fruit, a blackberry, or remains on the plant when picked leaving a hole in the fruit, a raspberry. The term 'bramble', a word meaning any impenetrable scrub, has traditionally been applied specifically to the blackberry or its products, though in the United States it applies to all members of the Rubus genus. In the western US, the term caneberry is used to refer to blackberries and raspberries as a group rather than the term bramble.
The (usually) black fruit is not a true berry; botanically it is termed an aggregate fruit, composed of small drupelets. It is a widespread and well-known group of over 375 species, many of which are closely related apomictic microspecies native throughout the temperate Northern Hemisphere and South America.
Growth and anatomical description 
In its first year, a new stem, the primocane, grows vigorously to its full length of 3–6 m (in some cases, up to 9 m), arching or trailing along the ground and bearing large palmately compound leaves with five or seven leaflets; it does not produce any flowers. In its second year, the cane becomes a floricane and the stem does not grow longer, but the lateral buds break to produce flowering laterals (which have smaller leaves with three or five leaflets). First and second year shoots usually have numerous short curved very sharp prickles that are often erroneously called thorns. These prickles can tear through denim with ease, and make the plant very difficult to navigate around. Prickle-free cultivars have been developed. Recently the University of Arkansas has developed primocane fruiting blackberries that grow and flower on first year growth much as the primocane-fruiting (also called fall bearing or everbearing) red raspberries do.
Unmanaged mature plants form a tangle of dense arching stems, the branches rooting from the node tip on many species when they reach the ground. Vigorous and growing rapidly in woods, scrub, hillsides and hedgerows, blackberry shrubs tolerate poor soils, readily colonizing wasteland, ditches and vacant lots.
The drupelets only develop around ovules that are fertilized by the male gamete from a pollen grain. The most likely cause of undeveloped ovules is inadequate pollinator visits. Even a small change in conditions, such as a rainy day or a day too hot for bees to work after early morning, can reduce the number of bee visits to the flower, thus reducing the quality of the fruit. Incomplete drupelet development can also be a symptom of exhausted reserves in the plant's roots, or infection with a virus such as Raspberry bushy dwarf virus.
Blackberry leaves are food for certain caterpillars; some grazing mammals, especially deer, are also very fond of the leaves. Caterpillars of the concealer moth Alabonia geoffrella have been found feeding inside dead blackberry shoots. When mature, the berries are eaten and their seeds dispersed by several mammals, such as the red fox and the Eurasian badger, as well as by small birds.
Blackberries grow wild throughout all parts of the United Kingdom and Ireland. They are an important element in the ecology of those countries. Harvesting the berries is a popular pastime in these countries. However, it is also considered an invasive weed, sending down its strong suckering roots amongst garden hedges and shrubs. In some parts of the world, such as in Australia, Chile, New Zealand and the Pacific Northwest of North America, some blackberry species, particularly Rubus armeniacus (syn. R. procerus, 'Himalaya') and Rubus laciniatus ('Evergreen'), are naturalised and considered an invasive species and a serious weed.
The blackberry tends to be red during its unripe ("green") phase, leading to an old expression that "blackberries are red when they're green".
In various parts of the United States, wild blackberries are sometimes called "Black-caps", a term more commonly used for black raspberries, Rubus occidentalis.
As there is forensic evidence from the Iron Age Haraldskær Woman that she consumed blackberries some 2500 years ago, it is reasonable to conclude that blackberries have been eaten by humans over thousands of years.
The soft fruit is popular for use in desserts, jams, seedless jelly and sometimes wine. It is often mixed with apples for pies and crumbles. Black berries are also used to produce candy.
Health benefits 
||This section needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. (November 2012)|
Blackberries have a high abundance of healthy antioxidants and nutrients such as anthocyanins, salicylic acid, ellagic acid, and fiber. Recent research on berries has shifted focus away from antioxidants as there is ample evidence that the antioxidants in berries do not get into the bloodstream and act as radical scavengers. However, there is evidence that they are important in cardiovascular health. Anthocyanins are antioxidants found in blackberries that are responsible for giving blackberries their rich and dark color. This concentrated pigment of blackberries is acknowledged with decreasing the rate at which the memory deteriorates. [full citation needed][unreliable source?]
Blackberries contain a compound called salicylic acid. This compound found in blackberries has been used for centuries for its medicinal qualities. Salicylic acid has been proven to numb bodily pains and treat unusually high body temperature, or fevers.[full citation needed] Salicylic acid may have similar properties to aspirin that aid in protecting the body against heart disease.
Arguably, the most beneficial property of the blackberry is its profusion of ellagic acid. Ellagic acid is a phytochemical, meaning it is only found in certain plants. In experimental studies, ellagic acid is used to treat tumors in mice; the result being ellagic acid is reliable for causing the death of particular cancer cells.[full citation needed] Researchers believe that ellagic acid may also work to reduce the harmful effects of estrogen that create breast cancer cells.[full citation needed]
Blackberries have both soluble and insoluble fiber. One cup of blackberries (144 g) has an average of 7.6 g of fibre and contain half the daily recommended dose of vitamin C, which protects the immune system and can lower the risk of developing certain cancers. Fiber is important in maintaining a healthy digestive system as it pushes toxins and other excess waste through the intestines and supports healthy and conventional bowel movements.[full citation needed][unreliable source?] One of the soluble fibres found within blackberries is pectin. Pectin helps lower harmful cholesterol levels which lowers ones’ chances of heart disease.
Blackberries have few calories. Blackberries are more nutritious compared to other berries making it one of the best berries one can consume.
Nutrients and antioxidant qualities 
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||181 kJ (43 kcal)|
|- Sugars||4.88 g|
|- Dietary fiber||5.3 g|
|Vitamin A||214 IU|
|- beta-carotene||128 μg (1%)|
|- lutein and zeaxanthin||118 μg|
|Thiamine (vit. B1)||0.02 mg (2%)|
|Riboflavin (vit. B2)||0.026 mg (2%)|
|Niacin (vit. B3)||0.646 mg (4%)|
|Pantothenic acid (B5)||0.276 mg (6%)|
|Vitamin B6||0.03 mg (2%)|
|Folate (vit. B9)||25 μg (6%)|
|Vitamin C||21 mg (25%)|
|Vitamin E||1.17 mg (8%)|
|Vitamin K||19.8 μg (19%)|
|Calcium||29 mg (3%)|
|Iron||0.62 mg (5%)|
|Magnesium||20 mg (6%)|
|Manganese||0.646 mg (31%)|
|Phosphorus||22 mg (3%)|
|Potassium||162 mg (3%)|
|Sodium||1 mg (0%)|
|Zinc||0.53 mg (6%)|
|Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are relative to
US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
The blackberry is known to contain polyphenol antioxidants, naturally occurring chemicals that can upregulate certain beneficial metabolic processes in mammals. The astringent blackberry root is sometimes used in herbal medicine as a treatment for diarrhea and dysentery.
Blackberries rank highly among fruits for antioxidant strength, particularly due to their dense contents of polyphenolic compounds, such as ellagic acid, tannins, ellagitannins, quercetin, gallic acid, anthocyanins and cyanidins.
Blackberries have an ORAC value (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) of 5347 per 100 grams, including them among the top-ranked ORAC fruits. Another report using a different assay for assessing antioxidant strength placed blackberry at the top of more than 1000 antioxidant foods consumed in the United States.
Nutrient content of seeds 
Blackberries contain numerous large seeds that are not always preferred by consumers. The seeds contain some oil which is rich in omega-3 (alpha-linolenic acid) and -6 fats (linoleic acid), as well as some protein, dietary fiber, carotenoids, ellagitannins and ellagic acid.
Commercial cultivation 
Worldwide, Mexico is the leading producer of blackberries with nearly the entire crop being produced for export into the off-season fresh markets in North America and Europe. The Mexican market is almost entirely from the cultivar 'Tupy' (often spelled 'Tupi' but the EMBRAPA program in Brazil from which it was released prefers the 'Tupy' spelling.). In the US, Oregon is the leading commercial blackberry producer in the world, producing 42.6 million pounds on 6,180 acres (25.0 km2), in 1995 and 56.1 million pounds on 7,000 acres (28 km2) in 2009.
Numerous cultivars have been selected for commercial and amateur cultivation in Europe and the United States. Since the many species form hybrids easily, there are numerous cultivars with more than one species in their ancestry.
'Marion' (marketed as "marionberry") is an important cultivar that was selected from seedlings from a cross between 'Chehalem' and 'Olallie' (commonly called "olallieberry") berries. 'Olallie' in turn is a cross between loganberry and youngberry. 'Marion', 'Chehalem' and 'Olallie' are just three of many trailing blackberry cultivars developed by the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) blackberry breeding program at Oregon State University in Corvallis, Oregon.
The most recent cultivars released from this program are the prickle-free cultivars 'Black Diamond', 'Black Pearl' and 'Nightfall' as well as the very early ripening 'Obsidian' and 'Metolius'. 'Black Diamond' is now the leading cultivar being planted in the Pacific Northwest. Some of the other cultivars from this program are 'Newberry', 'Waldo', 'Siskiyou', 'Black Butte', 'Kotata', 'Pacific' and 'Cascade'.
Trailing blackberries are vigorous, crown forming, require a trellis for support, and are less cold hardy than the erect or semi-erect blackberries. In addition to the United States' Pacific Northwest, these types do well in similar climates such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Chile, and the Mediterranean countries.
Semi-erect, prickle-free blackberries were first developed at the John Innes Centre in Norwich, UK, and subsequently by the USDA-ARS in Beltsville, Maryland. These are crown forming, very vigorous, and need a trellis for support. Cultivars include 'Black Satin' 'Chester Thornless', 'Dirksen Thornless', 'Hull Thornless', 'Loch Ness', 'Loch Tay', 'Merton Thornless', 'Smoothstem' and 'Triple Crown'. Recently, the cultivar 'Cacanska Bestrna' (also called 'Cacak Thornless') has been developed in Serbia and has been planted on many thousands of hectares there.
The University of Arkansas has developed cultivars of erect blackberries. These types are less vigorous than the semi-erect types and produce new canes from root initials (therefore they spread underground like raspberries). There are prickly and prickle-free cultivars from this program, including 'Navaho', 'Ouachita', 'Cherokee', 'Apache', 'Arapaho' and 'Kiowa'. They are also responsible for developing the primocane fruiting blackberries such as 'Prime-Jan' and 'Prime-Jim'.
In raspberries, these types are called primocane fruiting, fall fruiting, or everbearing. 'Prime-Jim' and 'Prime-Jan' were released in 2004 by the University of Arkansas and are the first cultivars of primocane fruiting blackberry. They grow much like the other erect cultivars described above, however the canes that emerge in the spring, will flower in mid-summer and fruit in late summer or fall. The fall crop has its highest quality when it ripens in cool mild climate such as in California or the Pacific Northwest.
'Illini Hardy' a semi-erect prickly cultivar introduced by the University of Illinois is cane hardy in zone 5, where traditionally blackberry production has been problematic, since canes often failed to survive the winter.
Blackberry production in Mexico has expanded enormously in the past decade. While once based on the cultivar 'Brazos', an old erect blackberry cultivar developed in Texas in 1959, the Mexican industry is now dominated by the Brazilian 'Tupy' released in the 1990s. 'Tupy' has the erect blackberry 'Comanche' and a "wild Uruguayan blackberry" as parents. Since there are no native blackberries in Uruguay, the suspicion is that the widely grown 'Boysenberry' is the male parent. In order to produce these blackberries in regions of Mexico where there is no winter chilling to stimulate flower bud development, chemical defoliation and application of growth regulators are used to bring the plants into bloom.
Diseases and pests 
As a result of blackberries belonging to the same genus as raspberries, they share the same diseases including anthracnose which can cause the berry to have uneven ripening and sap flow may also be slowed. They also share the same remedies including the Bordeaux mixture, a combination of lime, water and Copper(II) sulfate. The rows between blackberry plants must be free of weeds, blackberry suckers and grasses which may lead to pests or diseases. Fruit growers are selective when planting blackberry bushes as wild blackberries may be infected and gardeners are recommended to purchase only certified disease-free plants.
The spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii is a serious pest of blackberries. Unlike its vinegar fly relatives which are primarily attracted to rotting or fermented fruit, D. suzukii attacks fresh, ripe fruit by laying eggs under the soft skin. The larvae hatch and grow in the fruit, destroying the fruit's commercial value.
Folklore in the United Kingdom is told that blackberries should not be picked after Old Michaelmas Day (11 October) as the devil has claimed them, having left a mark on the leaves by urinating on them or pecking them. There is some value behind this legend as wetter and cooler weather often allows the fruit to become infected by various molds such as Botryotinia which give the fruit an unpleasant look and may be toxic.
See also 
- Black raspberry, a North American fruit sometimes confused with blackberries.
- Kotata Berry, USDA-ARS release in cooperation with Oregon State University.
- List of Lepidoptera that feed on Rubus
- Redberry mite, a common pest of North American blackberry crops.
- Shorter Oxford English dictionary, 6th ed. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. 2007. p. 3804. ISBN 0199206872.
- Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
- Gerard Krewer, Marco Fonseca, Phil Brannen, Dan Horton, 2004. Home Garden:Raspberries, Blackberries Cooperative Extension Service/The University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences
- Blamey, M. & Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. ISBN 0-340-40170-2.
- David L. Green 1996-2010. The Pollination Home Page
- Fedriani, JM, Delibes, M. 2009. Functional diversity in fruit-frugivore interactions: a field experiment with Mediterranean mammals. Ecography 32: 983 - 992.
- Dyer, M. (2010). What Are The Health Benefits Of Blackberries?
- Mackowiak, P. (2000). Brief History of Antipyretic Therapy
- Ahn D, Putt D, Kresty L, Stoner GD, Fromm D, Hollenberg PF. (1996). "The effects of dietary ellagic acid on rat hepatic and esophageal mucosal cytochromes P450 and phase II enzymes". Carcinogenesis 17 (4): 821–828. doi:10.1093/carcin/17.4.821. PMID 8625497.
- Lesca, P. (1983). Protective effects of ellagic acid and other plant phenols on benzo[a]pyrene-induced neoplasia in mice.
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- McEvoy, K. (2010). Medicinal Benefits of Blackberries.
- Berry Health Benefits Network. Retrieved from: http://berryhealth.fst.oregonstate.edu/health_healing/fact_sheets/blackberry_facts.htm
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- Wada L, Ou B (June 2002). "Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Oregon caneberries". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50 (12): 3495–500. doi:10.1021/jf011405l. PMID 12033817.
- Hager TJ, Howard LR, Liyanage R, Lay JO, Prior RL (February 2008). "Ellagitannin composition of blackberry as determined by HPLC-ESI-MS and MALDI-TOF-MS". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56 (3): 661–9. doi:10.1021/jf071990b. PMID 18211030.
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- Bushman BS, Phillips B, Isbell T, Ou B, Crane JM, Knapp SJ (December 2004). "Chemical composition of caneberry (Rubus spp.) seeds and oils and their antioxidant potential". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52 (26): 7982–7. doi:10.1021/jf049149a. PMID 15612785.
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- Evergreen blackberry, Oregon Raspberry and Blackberry Commission
- Marionberry, Oregon Raspberry and Blackberry Commission
- Thornless processing blackberry cultivars, Horticultural Crop Research, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture
- Vincent, Christopher I. (2008). Yield Dynamics of Primocane-fruiting Blackberries Under Hightunnels and Ambient Conditions, Including Plant Growth Unit Estimations and Arthropod Pest Considerations. ProQuest. p. 2. ISBN 0549964754. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- Antunes, L.E.C. & Rassieira, M.C.B. (2004). Aspectos Técnicos da Cultura da Amora-Preta. ISSN 1516-8840.
- Bradley, Fern Marshall; Ellis, Barbara W.; Martin, Deborah L. (2010). The Organic Gardener's Handbook of Natural Pest and Disease Control: A Complete Guide to Maintaining a Healthy Garden and Yard the Earth-Friendly Way. Rodale, Inc. p. 51. ISBN 1605296775. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- "Growing Raspberries & Blackberries". cals.uidaho.edu. p. 29. Retrieved 2012-11-13.
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- Waite, Merton Benway (1906). Fungicides and their use in preventing diseases of fruits. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. p. 243. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
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- Squire, David (2007). The Garden Pest & Diseases Specialist: The Essential Guide to Identifying and Controllong Pests and Diseases of Ornamentals, Vegetables and Fruits. New Holland Publishers. p. 39. ISBN 1845374851. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- Historic-UK.com Michaelmas Facts
- Black Country Bugle - Michaelmas History and Traditions
Further reading 
Allen, D.E. and Hackney, P. 2010. Further fieldwork on the brambles (Rubus fruticosus L. agg.) of North-east Ireland. Irish Naturalists' Journal 31: 18–22.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Blackberry|
|Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on|
- BBC h2g2 article on Blackberries
- Botanical Information from Mark's Fruit Crops, by Mark Rieger
- USDA Plants Classification Report
- From Idea to Supermarket:The Process of Berry Breeding Article on berry breeding including pictures of blackberry emasculation and pollination