||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (June 2011)|
per la Sicurezza Nazionale
Blackshirts with Benito Mussolini during the March on Rome on 27 October 1922
|Formed||23 March 1923|
|Preceding organization||Fasci Italiani di Combattimento|
|Dissolved||29 July 1943|
|Minister responsible||Benito Mussolini, Duce|
|Part of a series on|
The Blackshirts (Italian: camicie nere, CCNN, or squadristi) were fascist paramilitary armed squads in Italy during the period immediately following World War I and until the end of World War II. Blackshirts were officially known as the Voluntary Militia for National Security (Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale, or MVSN).
Inspired by the military prowess and black uniforms of the Arditi, Italy's elite storm troops of World War I, the Fascist Blackshirts were organized by Benito Mussolini as the military tool of his political movement. The founders of the paramilitary groups were nationalist intellectuals, former army officers and young landowners opposing peasants' and country labourers' unions. Their methods became harsher as Mussolini's power grew, and they used violence and intimidation against Mussolini's opponents.
- 1 History
- 2 Organization
- 3 Blackshirt Division organization
- 4 Spanish Civil War
- 5 World War II
- 6 Ranks
- 7 Legacy
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 External links
The Blackshirts were established as the squadristi in 1919 and consisted of many disgruntled former soldiers. It was given the task of leading fights against their bitter enemies – the Socialists. They may have numbered 200,000 by the time of Mussolini's March on Rome from 27 to 29 October 1922. In 1922 the squadristi were reorganized into the milizia and formed numerous bandiere, and on 1 February 1923 the Blackshirts became the Volunteer Militia for National Security (Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale, or MVSN), which lasted until the Italian Armistice in 1943. The Italian Social Republic, located in the areas of northern Italy occupied by Germany, reformed the MVSN into the Republican National Guard (Guardia Nazionale Repubblicana, or GNR).
Benito Mussolini was the leader, or Commandant-General, of the blackshirts, but executive functions were carried out by the Chief of Staff, equivalent to an army general. The MVSN was formed in imitation of the ancient Roman army, as follows:
The terms after the first are not words common to European armies (e.g., the Italian battaglione has cognates in many languages). Instead, they derive from the structure of the armies of ancient Rome.
- Zona (zone) = division
- Legione (legion) = regiment, each legion was a militia unit consisting of a small active cadre and a large reserve of civilian volunteers.
- Coorte (cohort) = battalion
- Centuria (centuria) = company
- Manipolo (maniple) = platoon
- Squadra (squad) = squad
These units were also organized on the triangular principle as follows:
- 3 squadre = 1 manipolo (maniple)
- 3 manipoli = 1 centuria (centuria)
- 3 centuriae = 1 coorte (cohort)
- 3 coorti = 1 legione (legion)
- 3 legioni = 1 divisioni (field division)
- 3 or more legioni = 1 zona (zone - an administrative division)
The MVSN original organization consisted of 15 zones controlling 133 legions (one per province) of three cohorts each and one Independent Group controlling 10 legions. In 1929 it was reorganized into four raggruppamenti, but later in October 1936 it was reorganized into 14 zones controlling only 133 legions with two cohorts each, one of men 21 to 36 years old and the other of men up to 55 years old, plus special units in Rome, on Ponza Island and the black uniformed Moschettieri del Duce ("The Leader's Musketeers", Mussolini's Guard) and the Albanian Militia (four legions) and Colonial Militia in Africa (seven legions).
Special militias were also organized to provide security police functions, these included:
- Anti-aircraft and Coastal Artillery Militia, a combined command which controlled two militias:
- Anti-Aircraft Militia
- Coastal Artillery Militia
- Forestry Militia
- Frontier Militia
- Highway Militia
- Port Militia
- Posts and Telegraph Militia
- Railway Militia
- University Militia
During the 1935-36 Abyssinian Campaign seven CCNN Divisions were organized:
- 1st (23rd of March) CCNN Division
- 2nd (28th of October) CCNN Division
- 3rd (21 April) CCNN Division
- 4th (3 January) CCNN Division
- 5th (1 February) CCNN Division
- 6th (Tevere) CCNN Division
The first six Divisions were sent to Ethiopia and participated in the war.
- 7th (Cirene) CCNN Division - The 7th CCNN Division "Cirene" was never deployed overseas or even fully equipped before it was disbanded.
Blackshirt Division organization
Organization of Blackshirt Divisions (3 October 1935)
- Divisional HQ
- 3 x Legions each with:
- 1 x Artillery Battalion (Army) with 3 batteries (65/17)
- 1 x Engineers company (mixed Army and Blackshirts)
- 2 x Replacements Battalions (1 Infantry, 1 Mixed)
- 1 x Medical Section
- 1 x Logistics Section (food)
- 1 x Pack-Mules unit (1600 mules)
- 1 x Mixed Trucks unit (80 light trucks)
The Blackshirts Rifle Battalions had three rifle companies but no MMG company. The rifle companies had three platoons (three squads with one LMG each). Each Legion had a MMG company with four platoons of three weapons each (plus two spare ones). The Blackshirts replacements battalions were organized as the Blackshirts Rifle Battalions, but its platoon were overstrength (60 men each) and with only 1 x LMG in each platoon.
Organization of Blackshirt Divisions (10 June 1940)
- Division Command
- 2 Black Shirt Legions - each
- 3 Battalions
- 1 81mm Mortar Company
- 1 Accompanying Battery 65mm/17 Mtn guns
- 1 Machine Gun Battalion
- 1 Artillery Regiment:
- 2 Artillery Groups
- 1 Artillery Group
- 2 AA Batteries 20mm
- 1 Mixed Engineering Battalion
- 1 Ambulance Section Sanita
- 3 Field Hospitals (Planned when available)
- 1 Supply Section
- 1 Section Mixed Transport
Spanish Civil War
Three CCNN Divisions were sent to participate in the Spanish Civil War as part of the Corpo Truppe Volontarie. The Blackshirt (Camicie Nere, or CCNN) Divisions contained regular soldiers and volunteer militia from the Fascist Party. The CCNN divisions were semi-motorised.
- 1st CCNN Division "Dio lo Vuole" ("God Wills it")
- 2nd CCNN Division "Fiamme Nere" ("Black Flames")
- 3rd CCNN Division "Penne Nere" ("Black Feathers")
The 3rd CCNN Division was disbanded and consolidated with the 2nd CCNN Division in April 1937 after their defeat at Guadalajara. After the campaigns in Northern Spain in October 1937, the 2nd CCNN Division was consolidated with the 1st CCNN and renamed the XXIII de Marzo Division "Llamas Negras".
World War II
In 1940 the MVSN was able to muster 340,000 first-line combat troops, providing three divisions (1st, 2nd and 4th - all three of which were lost in the North African Campaign) and, later in 1942, a fourth division ("M") and fifth division Africa were forming.
Mussolini also pushed through plans to raise 142 MVSN combat battalions of 650 men each to provide a Gruppo di Assalto to each army division. These Gruppi consisted of two cohorts (each of three centuriae of 3 manipoli of 2 squadre each) plus Gruppo Supporto company of two heavy machine gun manipoli (with three HMG each) and two 81 mm mortar manipoli (with 3 Mortars each).
Later 41 Mobile groups were raised to become the third regiment in Italian Army divisions as it was determined through operational experience that the Italian arm's binary divisions were too small in both manpower and heavy equipment. These mobile groups suffered heavy casualties due to being undermanned, under equipped and under trained. The three divisions were destroyed in combat in North Africa. The MVSN fought in every theater where Italy did.
Mussolini as Comandante Generale was made Primo Caporale Onorario (First Honorary Corporal) in 1935 and Adolf Hitler was made Caporale Onorario (Honorary Corporal) in 1937. All other ranks closely approximated those of the old Roman army as follows:
- Comandante Generale = General (Commander-in-chief)
- Luogotenente Generale Capo di S.M. = First Lieutenant General of the S.M. (Chief of Staff)
- Luogotenente Generale = Lieutenant General
- Console Generale = Brigadier General
- Console Comandante = Colonel (Commander of a Legion)
- Primo Seniore = Lieutenant Colonel
- Seniore = Major (Commander of a Cohort)
- Centurione = Captain (Commander of a Centuria)
- Capomanipolo = First Lieutenant
- Sottocapomanipolo = Second Lieutenant
- Aspirante Sottocapomanipolo = Officer Cadet
- Primo Aiutante = Master Warrant Officer
- Aiutante Capo = Chief Warrant Officer
- Aiutante = Warrant Officer
- Primo Capo Squadra = First Sergeant
- Capo Squadra = Sergeant (Squad/Section Leader)
- Vicecapo Squadra = Corporal (Vice Squad Leader)
- Camicia Nera Scelta = Black Shirt Private First Class
- Camicia Nera = Black Shirt Private
The ethos and sometimes the uniform were later copied by others who shared Mussolini's political ideas, including Adolf Hitler in Nazi Germany, who issued brown shirts to the "Storm Troops" (Sturmabteilung) and black uniforms to the "Defense Squad" (Schutzstaffel, also colloquially known as "Brownshirts", because they wore black suit-like tunics with brown shirts), Sir Oswald Mosley in the United Kingdom (whose British Union of Fascists were also known as the "Blackshirts"), William Dudley Pelley in the United States (Silver Legion of America or "Silver Shirts"), in Mexico the Camisas Doradas or "Golden Shirts", Plínio Salgado in Brazil (whose followers wore green shirts), and Eoin O'Duffy in the Irish Free State (Army Comrades Association or "Blueshirts"). "Blueshirts" can also refer to Canadian fascists belonging to the Canadian National Socialist Unity Party and to the members of Falange Española, the most influential party within Franco's dictatorship in Spain. The paramilitary fascist Iron Guard members in Romania wore green shirts.
- Blackshirts - Albania
- Blueshirts - Canada
- Blue Shirts - China (Kuomintang)
- Brownshirts - Nazi Germany
- Blackshirts - India
- Blueshirts - Ireland
- Greenshirts - Ireland
- Redshirts - Italy
- Goldshirts - Mexico
- Greyshirts - ethnically Dutch South Africans
- Greenshirts - Romania
- Blackshirts - United Kingdom
- Silvershirts - United States
- Black Brigades
- Italian Social Republic
- Political color
- Political uniform
- Black Shorts – parody of the blackshirts in the writings of P.G. Wodehouse
- Bosworth, R.J.B, Mussolini's Italy: Life Under the Fascist Dictatorship, 1915-1945, Penguin Books, 2005, P. 117
- The Blackshirt Division Order of Battle comes from "Storia delle Unità Combattenti della MVSN 1923-1943" by Ettore Lucas and Giorgio de Vecchi, Giovanni Volpe Editore 1976 pages 63 to 116 plus errata.
- Italian Army Infantry Regulation of 1939 (Page 472/473)I
- The Blackshirts Division TO&E comes from an original document (order sheet "Ministero della Guerra, Comando del Corpo di Stato Maggiore - Ufficio Ordinamento e Mobilitazione . Prot.2076 del 18-06-1935").
- The Blackshirts Division TO&E comes from an original document (order sheet "Ministero della Guerra, Comando del Corpo di Stato Maggiore - Ufficio Ordinamento e Mobilitazione. dated 1939").