The Blackstone Group
|Traded as||NYSE: BX|
|Founder(s)||Peter G. Peterson
Stephen A. Schwarzman
|Headquarters||345 Park Avenue
Manhattan, New York City, USA
|Key people||Stephen A. Schwarzman
—Chairman and CEO
—President & COO
J. Tomilson Hill
Jonathan D. Gray
—Global Head of Real Estate
|Revenue||US$3.623 billion (2012)|
|Net income||US$0.218 billion (2012)|
|AUM||US$210 billion (2012)|
|Total assets||US$28.931 billion (2012)|
The Blackstone Group L.P. is an American multinational private equity, investment banking, alternative asset management and financial services corporation based in New York City. As the largest alternative investment firm in the world, Blackstone specializes in private equity, credit and hedge fund investment strategies, as well as financial advisory services, such as mergers and acquisitions (M&A), restructurings and reorganizations, and private placements.
Blackstone's private equity business has been one of the largest investors in leveraged buyout transactions over the last decade, while its real estate business has actively acquired commercial real estate. Since its inception, Blackstone has completed investments in such notable companies as Hilton Worldwide, Equity Office Properties, Republic Services, AlliedBarton, United Biscuits, Freescale Semiconductor, Vivint and Travelport.
Blackstone was founded in 1985 as a mergers and acquisitions boutique by Peter G. Peterson and Stephen A. Schwarzman, who had previously worked together at Lehman Brothers, Kuhn, Loeb Inc. Over the course of two decades, Blackstone has evolved into one of the world's largest private equity investment firms. In 2007, Blackstone completed a $4 billion initial public offering to become one of the first major private equity firms to list shares in its management company on a public exchange. Blackstone is headquartered at 345 Park Avenue in Manhattan, New York City, with eight additional offices in the United States, as well as offices in London, Paris, Düsseldorf, Sydney, Tokyo, Hong Kong, Beijing, Shanghai, Mumbai, and Dubai.
- 1 Business segments
- 2 Criticism
- 3 History
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Blackstone is organized into four business segments:
- Corporate private equity – Management of Blackstone's family of private equity funds investing in leveraged buyout transactions;
- Investment Banking and Financial Advisory – Includes Blackstone's mergers and acquisitions advisory services, restructuring and reorganization advisory services and fund placement services for alternative investment funds;
- Marketable Alternative Asset Management – Management of Blackstone's funds of hedge funds, mezzanine funds, senior debt vehicles, and closed-end mutual funds; and
- Real Estate – Management of Blackstone's family of real estate investment funds.
Corporate private equity
As of 2011[update], Blackstone is the world's fifth-largest private equity firm by committed capital, focussing primarily on leveraged buyouts of more mature companies. The firm also invests through minority investments, corporate partnerships and industry consolidations, and occasionally, start-up investments in new entrants into existing industries. The firm focuses on friendly investments in large capitalization companies.
Historically, Blackstone has primarily relied on private equity funds, pools of committed capital from pension funds, insurance companies, endowments, fund of funds, high net worth individuals, sovereign wealth funds and other institutional investors. As of the end of 2008, Blackstone had completed fundraising for six funds with total investor commitments of over $36 billion, including five traditional private equity fund and a separate fund focusing on telecommunications investments.
|Blackstone Capital Partners I||1987||$800|
|Blackstone Capital Partners II||1994||$1,270|
|Blackstone Capital Partners III||1997||$3,780|
|Blackstone Communications Partners I||2000||$2,019|
|Blackstone Capital Partners IV||2003||$6,450|
|Blackstone Capital Partners V||2006||$21,700|
|Blackstone Capital Partners VI||2010||$13,500|
From 1987 to the time of its IPO filing in 2007, Blackstone invested approximately $20 billion in capital in 109 private equity transactions.
Blackstone's most notable investments include Allied Waste, AlliedBarton Security Services, Graham Packaging, Celanese, Nalco, HealthMarkets, Houghton Mifflin, American Axle, TRW Automotive, Catalent Pharma Solutions, Prime Hospitality, Legoland, Madame Tussauds, La Quinta, Luxury Resorts (LXR), Pinnacle Foods, Hilton Hotels Corporation, Apria Healthcare, Travelport, The Weather Channel (United States) and The PortAventura Resort. In 2009 Blackstone purchased Busch Entertainment (comprising the Sea World Parks, Busch Garden Parks and the 2 water parks).
In 2012, Blackstone acquired a controlling interest in Utah-based Vivint, Inc., a home automation, security, and energy company.
Former notable investments include Universal Studios Parks, which was sold to Comcast.
Blackstone began building its real estate investment business in 1992 with the acquisition of a series of hotel businesses and has built it into a global operation with 122 investment professionals in the United States, Europe and Asia. The real estate business has raised approximately $28 billion for a variety of fund vehicles, including six US-focused funds and three International opportunity funds. Blackstone also raised a real estate special situations fund focusing on non-controlling debt and equity investment opportunities. The special situations fund invests directly in real estate as well as private and publicly traded real estate-related securities.
The following is a summary of Blackstone's real estate funds raised from inception through November 2009:
|Blackstone Real Estate Partners I||1994||$485|
|Blackstone Real Estate Partners II||1996||$1,300|
|Blackstone Real Estate Partners III||1999||$1,500|
|Blackstone Real Estate Partners International (Europe)||2001||€800|
|Blackstone Real Estate Partners IV||2003||$2,500|
|Blackstone Real Estate Partners International (Europe) II||2006||€1,550|
|Blackstone Real Estate Partners V||2006||$5,250|
|Blackstone Real Estate Partners VI||2007||$10,900|
|Blackstone Real Estate Special Situations PE Fund||2008||$1,000|
|Blackstone Real Estate Partners Europe III||2009||€3,100|
From 1987 through the time of its IPO filing in 2007, Blackstone invested more than $13 billion in 212 real estate transactions and is a major owner of real estate throughout the US and Europe. Among Blackstone's most notable real estate investments have included Equity Office Properties, Hilton Hotels Corporation, Trizec Properties, Center Parcs UK, La Quinta Inns & Suites, Wyndham Worldwide, Southern Cross Healthcare and Centro Properties.
The purchase and subsequent profitable IPO of Southern Cross led to controversy in the UK. Part of the purchase involved splitting the business into a property company, NHP, and a care home business, which Blackstone claimed would become "the leading company in the elderly care market". In May 2011 Southern Cross, now independent, was almost bankrupt, jeopardising 31,000 elderly residents in 750 care homes. It denied blame, although Blackstone was widely accused in the media for selling on the company with an unsustainable business model and crippled with an impossible sale and leaseback strategy.
Marketable alternative asset management
In 1990, Blackstone created a fund of hedge funds business to manage the internal assets for Blackstone and its senior managers. Over the years, this business evolved into Blackstone's marketable alternative asset management segment, which was opened to institutional investors. Among the investments included in this segment are funds of hedge funds, mezzanine funds, senior debt vehicles, proprietary hedge funds and closed-end mutual funds.
In March 2008, Blackstone acquired GSO Capital Partners, a credit-oriented alternative asset manager, for $620 million in cash and stock and up to $310 million through an earnout over the next five years based on certain earnings targets. The combination of Blackstone and GSO created one of the largest credit platforms in the alternative asset management business, with over $21 billion of total assets under management. GSO was founded in 2005 by Bennett Goodman, Tripp Smith and Doug Ostrover. The GSO team had previously managed the leveraged finance businesses at Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette and later Credit Suisse First Boston, after the acquisition of DLJ. Blackstone had existing relationships with the GSO team as an original investor in GSO's funds. Following the completion of the acquisition, Blackstone merged GSO's operations with its existing debt investment operations.
Financial advisory services
Blackstone's financial advisory business is composed of three businesses:
- Corporate and Mergers and Acquisitions Advisory
- Restructuring & Reorganization Advisory
- Private Placement Advisory
Blackstone was originally founded by Peterson and Schwarzman in 1985 as a boutique investment banking firm that provides mergers and acquisitions advisory services. Among Blackstone's most notable corporate and mergers and acquisitions, advisory clients include Microsoft, Procter & Gamble, Verizon, Comcast, Sony and AIG.
In 1991, with the collapse of the 1980s buyout boom, Blackstone began to offer advisory services in corporate restructurings as well. Blackstone's most notable restructuring clients have included General Motors Xerox, Enron, Bally Total Fitness and Global Crossing.
Blackstone's fund placement advisory group, The Park Hill Group, was formed in 2005 with a team of professionals from Atlantic-Pacific Capital and Credit Suisse. The group focuses on raising capital from institutional investors for private investment vehicles that invest in private equity, mezzanine, real estate, venture capital, and hedge funds. Park Hill Group also provides secondary advisory services to investors seeking portfolio liquidity and unfunded commitment relief.
Technology: Innovations & Infrastructure
A newer division of Blackstone is the Innovations and Infrastructure group, headed by William Murphy. The purpose of the division was to use innovative technology solutions to support, drive and improve Blackstone's business.
Credit Default Swap
"In the first half of 2013, Blackstone affiliate GSO Capital Partners purchased debt and credit default swaps in Codere SA, a listed Spanish company that operates betting parlors, online gambling sites and other gaming activities. GSO and another firm later purchased a €100 million bank loan (via secondary markets) that Codere already had on the books, and then convinced Codere to delay repayment on the debt related to the aforementioned credit default swaps. That delay triggered the CDS, resulting in upwards of $18.7 million in profit for GSO."
and venture capital
Founding and early history
The Blackstone Group was founded in 1985 by Peter G. Peterson and Stephen A. Schwarzman with $400,000 in seed capital. The founders named their firm Blackstone, which was a cryptogram derived from the names of the two founders (Schwarzman and Peterson): Schwarz is German for black; Peter, or Petra in Greek, means stone or rock. The two founders had previously worked together at Lehman Brothers, Kuhn, Loeb Inc. At Lehman, Schwarzman served as head of Lehman Brothers' global mergers and acquisitions business.
Prominent investment banker Roger C. Altman, another Lehman veteran, left his position as a managing director of Shearson Lehman Brothers to join Peterson and Schwarzman at Blackstone in 1987. In 1992 after playing a role in the firm's growth, Altman would leave Blackstone to join the Clinton Administration as Deputy Treasury Secretary. After leaving politics in 1996, Altman would found a boutique investment banking and private equity firm, Evercore Partners.
Blackstone was originally formed as a mergers and acquisitions advisory boutique. Blackstone advised on the 1987 merger of investment banks E. F. Hutton & Co. and Shearson Lehman Brothers, collecting a $3.5 million fee. The firm also advised CBS Corporation on its 1988 sale of CBS Records to Sony to form what would become Sony Music Entertainment.
From the outset in 1985, Schwarzman and Peterson planned to enter the private equity business, but had difficulty in raising their first fund because neither had ever led a leveraged buyout. Blackstone finalized fundraising for its first private equity fund in the aftermath of the October 1987 stock market crash. After two years of providing strictly advisory services, Blackstone decided to pursue a merchant banking model after its founders determined that many situations required an investment partner rather than just an advisor. The largest investors in the first fund included Prudential Insurance Company, Nikko Securities and the General Motors pension fund.
Blackstone also ventured into other businesses, most notably investment management. In 1987 Blackstone entered into a 50–50 partnership with the founders of BlackRock, Larry Fink and Ralph Schlosstein. The two founders, who had previously run the mortgage-backed securities divisions at First Boston and Lehman Brothers Kuhn Loeb, respectively, initially joined Blackstone to manage an investment fund and provide advice to financial institutions. They also planned to use a Blackstone fund to invest in financial institutions and help build an asset management business specializing in fixed income investments.
As the business grew, Japanese bank Nikko Securities acquired a 20% interest in Blackstone in 1988 for a $100 million investment in 1988 (valuing the firm at $500 million). Nikko's investment allowed for a major expansion of the firm and its investment activities. The growth firm also recruited politician and investment banker David Stockman from Salomon Brothers in 1988. Stockman led many key deals in his time at the firm, but had a mixed record with his investments. He left Blackstone in 1999 to start his own private equity firm, Heartland Industrial Partners, based in Greenwich, Connecticut.
In June 1989 Blackstone acquired freight railroad operator, CNW Corporation. That same year, in 1989, Blackstone partnered with Salomon Brothers to raise $600 million to acquire distressed thrifts in the midst of the savings and loan crisis.
As the 1990s began, Blackstone continued its growth and expansion into new businesses. In 1990, Blackstone launched its fund of hedge funds business, initially intended to manage investments for Blackstone senior management. Also in 1990, Blackstone extended its ambitions to Europe, forming a partnership with J. O. Hambro Magan in the UK and Indosuez in France. In 1991, Blackstone created its Europe unit to enhance the firm's presence internationally.
In 1991, Blackstone launched its real estate investment business with the acquisition of a series of hotel businesses under the leadership of Henry Silverman. In 1990, Blackstone and Silverman acquired a 65% interest in Prime Motor Inn's Ramada and Howard Johnson franchises for $140 million, creating Hospitality Franchise Systems as a holding company. In October 1991, Blackstone and Silverman added Days Inns of America for $250 million. Then, in 1993, Hospitality Franchise Systems acquired Super 8 Motels for $125 million. Silverman would ultimately leave Blackstone to serve as CEO of HFS, which would later become Cendant Corporation.
Blackstone made a number of notable investments in the early and mid-1990s, including Great Lakes Dredge and Dock Company (1991), Six Flags (1991), US Radio (1994), Centerplate (1995), MEGA Brands (1996). Also, in 1996, Blackstone partnered with the Loewen Group, the second largest funeral home and cemetery operator in North America, to acquire funeral home and cemetery businesses. The partnership's first acquisition was a $295 million buyout of Prime Succession from GTCR.
Through the mid and late 1990s, Blackstone continued to grow. In 1997, Blackstone completed fundraising for its third private equity fund, with approximately $4 billion of investor commitments and a $1.1 billion real estate investment fund. In the following year, in 1998, Blackstone sold a 7% interest in its management company to AIG, replacing Nikko Securities as its largest investor and valuing Blackstone at $2.1 billion. Then, in 1999, Blackstone launched its mezzanine capital business. Blackstone brought in five professionals, led by Howard Gellis from Nomura Holding America's Leveraged Capital Group to manage the business.
Blackstone's investments in the late 1990s included AMF Group (1996), Haynes International (1997), American Axle (1997), Premcor (1997), CommNet Cellular (1998), Graham Packaging (1998), Centennial Communications (1999), Bresnan Communications (1999), PAETEC Holding Corp. (1999). Haynes and Republic Technologies International, a specialty steel maker in which Blackstone invested in 1996, both had problems and ultimately filed bankruptcy.
Also, in 1997, Blackstone made its first investment in Allied Waste. Two years later, in 1999, Blackstone, together with Apollo Management provided capital for Allied Waste's acquisition of Browning-Ferris Industries in 1999 to create the second largest waste management company in the US. Blackstone's investment in Allied was one of its largest to that point in the firm's history.
Its investments in telecommunications businesses—four cable TV systems in rural areas (TW Fanch 1 and 2, Bresnan Communications and Intermedia Partners IV) and a cell phone operator in the Rocky Mountain states (CommNet Cellular) were among the most successful of the era, generating $1.5 billion of profits for Blackstone's funds.
Blackstone acquired the mortgage for 7 World Trade Center in October 2000 from Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association.
In July 2002, Blackstone completed fundraising for a $6.45 billion private equity fund, Blackstone Capital Partners IV, the largest private equity fund ever raised to that point. More than $4 billion of the capital was raised by the end of 2001 and Blackstone was able to secure the remaining commitments despite adverse market conditions.
With a significant amount of capital in its new fund, Blackstone was one of a handful of private equity investors capable of completing large transactions in the adverse conditions of the early 2000s recession. At the end of 2002, Blackstone, together with Thomas H. Lee Partners and Bain Capital, acquired Houghton Mifflin Company for $1.28 billion. The transaction represented one of the first large club deals, completed since the collapse of the Dot-com bubble.
In late 2002, Blackstone remained active acquiring TRW Automotive in a $4.7 billion buyout, the largest private equity deal announced that year (the deal was completed in early 2003). TRW's parent was acquired by Northrop Grumman, while Blackstone purchased its automotive parts business, a major supplier of automotive systems. Blackstone also purchased a majority interest in Columbia House, a music buying club, in mid-2002.
Blackstone made a significant investment in Financial Guaranty Insurance Company (FGIC), a monoline bond insurer alongside PMI Group, The Cypress Group and CIVC Partners. FGIC incurred heavy losses, along with other bond insurers in the 2008 credit crisis.
Two years later, in 2005, Blackstone was one of seven private equity firms involved in the buyout of SunGard in a transaction valued at $11.3 billion. Blackstone's partners in the acquisition were Silver Lake Partners, Bain Capital, Goldman Sachs Capital Partners, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts, Providence Equity Partners, and TPC Capital. This represented the largest leveraged buyout completed since the takeover of RJR Nabisco at the end of the 1980s leveraged buyout boom. Also, at the time of its announcement, SunGard would be the largest buyout of a technology company in history, a distinction it would cede to the buyout of Freescale Semiconductor. The SunGard transaction is also notable in the number of firms involved in the transaction, the largest club deal completed to that point. The involvement of seven firms in the consortium was criticized by investors in private equity who considered cross-holdings among firms to be generally unattractive.
In 2006, Blackstone launched its new long / short equity hedge fund business, Kailix Advisors. According to Blackstone, as of September 30, 2008, Kailix Advisors had $1.9 billion of assets under management. In December 2008, Blackstone announced that Kailix will be spun off to its management team to form a new fund as an independent entity backed by Blackstone.
While Blackstone was active on the corporate investment side, it was also busy pursuing real estate investments. Blackstone acquired Prime Hospitality and Extended Stay America in 2004. Blackstone followed these investments with the acquisition of La Quinta Inns & Suites in 2005 and its largest transaction, the buyout of Hilton Hotels Corporation in 2007. Extended Stay Hotels was sold to The Lightstone Group in July 2007 and Prime Hospitality's Wellesley Inns were folded into La Quinta.
The Buyout Boom (2005–2007)
|TDC||2005||In December 2005, Blackstone together with a group of firms, including Kohlberg Kravis Roberts, Permira, Apax Partners and Providence Equity Partners, acquired Tele-Denmark Communications). The firms acquired the former telecom monopoly in Denmark, under the banner Nordic Telephone Company (NTC) for approximately $11 billion.|||
|Equity Office||2006||Blackstone completes the $37.7 billion acquisition of one of the largest owners of commercial office properties in the US. At the time of its announcement, the Equity Office buyout became the largest in history, surpassing the buyout of HCA. It would later be surpassed by KKR's buyout of TXU. Vornado Realty Trust bid against Blackstone, pushing up the final price.|||
|Freescale Semiconductor||2006||A consortium led by Blackstone and including the Carlyle Group, Permira and the TPG Capital completed the $17.6 billion takeover of the semiconductor company. At the time of its announcement, Freescale would be the largest leveraged buyout of a technology company ever, surpassing the 2005 buyout of SunGard. The buyers were forced to pay an extra $800 million because KKR made a last minute bid as the original deal was about to be signed. Shortly after the deal closed in late 2006, cell phone sales at Motorola Corp., Freescale's former corporate parent and a major customer, began dropping sharply. In addition, in the recession of 2008–2009, Freescale's chip sales to automakers fell off, and the company came under great financial strain.|||
|Michaels||2006||Blackstone, together with Bain Capital, acquired Michaels, the largest arts and crafts retailer in North America in a $6.0 billion leveraged buyout in October 2006. Bain and Blackstone narrowly beat out Kohlberg Kravis Roberts and TPG Capital in an auction for the company.|||
|Nielsen Holdings||2006||Blackstone together with AlpInvest Partners, Carlyle Group, Hellman & Friedman, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts and Thomas H. Lee Partners acquired the global information and media company formerly known as VNU.|||
|Orangina||2006||Blackstone, together with Lion Capital acquired Orangina, the bottler, distributor and franchisor of a number of carbonated and other soft drinks in Europe from Cadbury Schweppes for €1.85 billion|||
|Travelport||2006||Travelport, the parent of the travel web site Orbitz.com, was acquired from Cendant by Blackstone and Technology Crossover Ventures in a deal valued at $4.3 billion. The sale of Travelport followed the spin-offs of Cendant's real estate and hospitality businesses, Realogy Corporation and Wyndham Worldwide Corporation, respectively, in July 2006. (Later in the year, TPG and Silver Lake would acquire Travelport's chief competitor Sabre Holdings.) Soon after the Travelport buyout, Travelport spun off part of its subsidiary Orbitz Worldwide in an IPO and bought a Travelport competitor, Worldspan.|||
|United Biscuits||2006||In October 2006 Blackstone, together with PAI Partners announced the acquisition of the British biscuit producer. The deal was completed in December 2006.|||
|RGIS Inventory Specialists||2007||In March 2007, RGIS announced that Blackstone Group purchased a controlling interest in the company, the terms of the transaction were not disclosed.|||
|Biomet||2007||Blackstone, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts, TPG Capital and Goldman Sachs Capital Partners acquired the medical devices company for $11.6 billion.|||
|Hilton Worldwide||2007||Blackstone acquired the premium hotel operator for approximately $26 billion, representing a 25% premium to Hilton's all-time high stock price. The Hilton deal, announced on July 3, 2007 is often referred to as the deal that marked the "high water mark" and the beginning of the end of the multi-year boom in leveraged buyouts. The company restructured its debt in 2010.|||
Initial public offering in 2007
In 2004, Blackstone had explored the possibility of creating a business development company (BDC), Blackridge Investments, similar to vehicles pursued by Apollo Management. However, Blackstone failed to raise capital through an initial public offering that summer, and the project was shelved. It also planned to raise a fund on the Amsterdam stock exchange in 2006, but its rival, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. launched a $5 billion fund there that soaked up all demand for such funds, and Blackstone abandoned its project.
By the summer of 2006, Blackstone had a more ambitious goal and secretly began laying the groundwork for an IPO of the firm itself, and managed to keep the project quiet for eight or nine months. On March 22, 2007, Blackstone filed with the SEC to raise $4 billion in an initial public offering. On June 3, 2007, Blackstone announced the acquisition of Alliant Insurance Services, Inc., one of the nation's largest insurance brokerage firm. On June 21, Blackstone sold a 12.3% stake in its ownership for $4.13 billion in the largest U.S. IPO since 2002. Traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol BX, Blackstone priced at $31 per share on June 22, 2007. Less than two weeks after the Blackstone IPO, in July 2007 rival private equity firm, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts, filed with the SEC In October 2009, KKR listed its shares on the Euronext exchange and anticipates a listing on the New York Stock Exchange.
2008 To Present
Since the closure of the credit markets in 2007 and 2008, Blackstone has managed to close only a small number of sizable transactions. In January 2008, Blackstone made a small co-investment alongside TPG Capital and Apollo Management in their buyout of Harrah's Entertainment, although that transaction had been announced during the buyout boom period. Other notable investments that Blackstone completed in 2008 and 2009 included AlliedBarton, Performance Food Group, Apria Healthcare and CMS Computers.
Among the firm's two largest investments since the buyout boom have been The Weather Channel and the announced acquisition of Busch Entertainment. In July 2008, Blackstone, together with NBC Universal and Bain Capital agreed to purchase The Weather Channel from Landmark Communications. In October 2009, Anheuser-Busch InBev announced the sale of its Busch Entertainment Corporation theme parks division to Blackstone for $2.7 billion. SeaWorld Parks were the focus of the 2013 film Blackfish, a documentary on Killer Whale attacks at these parks and the ethics of keeping them captive.
The Financial Times has reported that Merlin Entertainments owned by Blackstone Group will file an IPO in the 2nd quarter of 2010. Merlin will be listed on the London Stock Exchange. If true this would be the second of 8 reported IPOs Blackstone plans, the first being Team Health Holdings, Inc. Blackstone reported at the end of 2009 revenues of $1.8bln, compared to -$349mln revenues in 2008. On August 13, 2010 Blackstone announced it would buy Dynegy, an energy firm, for nearly $5 billion.
February 2011: Blackstone Group LP agreed to acquire 588 malls of Centro Properties Group's U.S. shopping centers for $9.4 billion. Whereas Centro's Australian may continue their operation independently.
August 2011: Blackstone Group LP agreed to buy Medical-Biller Emdeon Inc. for around $3 billion. Due to Blackstone Group LP was (the world's biggest) private-equity firm, so tender offer of Emdeon Inc. public company should be done with a cash payment of $19 a share, a 44 percent premium.
In late 2011 Blackstone Group LP has acquired the German outdoor company Jack Wolfskin. Blackstone has moved some of its accounting functions to India.
In 2012, Blackstone was part of a consortium that offered critical financing to Knight Capital after a software glitch threatened Knight's ability to continue operations.
In November 2012, The Blackstone Group acquired a controlling interest in Vivint, Vivint Solar, and 2GIG Technologies.
In September 2013, Blackstone announced a strategic investment in ThoughtFocus Technologies LLC, a leading IT Service provider. The investment will establish the Blackstone Center of Excellence, an IT outsourcing and offshore delivery center, to provide key technology and other administrative service.
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- Photographed at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland in January 2008.
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