Blandford Forum

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"Blandford" redirects here. For other uses, see Blandford (disambiguation).
Blandford Forum
Blandford Forum.jpg
Market Place, town centre
Blandford Forum is located in Dorset
Blandford Forum
Blandford Forum
 Blandford Forum shown within Dorset
Population 11,694 ,[1][2][3][4]
OS grid reference ST886069
   – London  118 miles (190 km) 
Civil parish Blandford Forum
District North Dorset
Shire county Dorset
Region South West
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town BLANDFORD FORUM
Postcode district DT11
Dialling code 01258
Police Dorset
Fire Dorset
Ambulance South Western
EU Parliament South West England
UK Parliament North Dorset
List of places
UK
England
Dorset

Coordinates: 50°51′22″N 2°09′53″W / 50.856°N 2.1648°W / 50.856; -2.1648

Plan showing extent of damage of the 1731 fire; the properties shaded black were destroyed, those shaded yellow survived.
The "Corn Exchange" (town hall)

Blandford Forum (/ˈblænfəd ˈfɔərəm/ BLAN(D)-fərd FOHR-əm), commonly Blandford, is a market town on the River Stour in Dorset, England. The town is noted for its Georgian architecture.[5] In the 2011 census the town had a population of 11,694.[4] Blandford is the administrative headquarters of North Dorset District Council. Blandford Camp, a military base, is sited on the hills two miles to the north east of the town.

History[edit]

Blandford has been a fording point since Anglo-Saxon times, when it was recorded as Blaen-y-ford and as Blaneford in the Domesday Book. The name Blandford derives from the Old English blǣge, and probably means ford where gudgeon or blay are found.[6][7] By the 13th century it had become an important market town[citation needed] with a livestock market serving the nearby Blackmore Vale with its many dairy farms. At the start of the 14th century it returned two members of parliament and was also known as Cheping Blandford.[8] The Latin word Forum, meaning market, was recorded in 1540.[9] It was an important break on the journey between the port of Weymouth and the capital London. There is still a weekly outdoor market and a bi-weekly indoor market held in the Corn Exchange[citation needed]

In Survey of Dorsetshire, written by Thomas Gerard of Trent in the early 1630s, Blandford was described as "a faire Markett Towne, pleasantlie seated upon the River ... well inhabitted and of good Traffique".[10] In the 17th-century English Civil War Blandford was a Royalist centre; most inhabitants supported the king.[11]

In the 18th century Blandford was one of several lace-making centres in the county; Daniel Defoe stated that lace made in the town was "the finest bonelace in England... I think I never saw better in Flanders, France or Italy".[12] In the 17th and 18th centuries Blandford was also an important malting and brewing centre.[13]

Almost all of Blandford's buildings were destroyed on 4 June 1731 by the "great fire", which was the last of several serious fires that occurred in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. The fire began in a tallow chandler's workshop on a site that is now The King's Arms public house. Within a few hours almost 90% of the town's fabric had gone; all fire-fighting equipment had been lost to the fire and the church's lead roof had melted. Even properties west of the river in Blandford St Mary and Bryanston were burned, though notable buildings that survived in the town include the Ryves Almshouses and Dale House in Salisbury Street, Old House in The Close, and much of East Street. An Act of Parliament was introduced that stated that rebuilding work must be in brick and tile and should begin within four years. With assistance from the rest of the country—including £1,000 given by George II—the town was rebuilt over the next ten years to the designs of local architects John and William Bastard. Bottlenecks were removed and streets realigned in the new town plan, which also provided a wider market place. As well as residential and commercial property, new buildings included a new town hall, school and church. The redesigned town has survived to the present day virtually intact.[8][14]

Governance[edit]

Blandford Forum is in the North Dorset parliamentary constituency which is currently represented in the UK national parliament by the Conservative Member of Parliament Robert Walter. In local government, Blandford is governed by Dorset County Council at the county level and North Dorset District Council at the district level.

In national parliament and district council elections, Blandford civil parish is divided into five electoral wards: Blandford Damory Down, Blandford Hilltop, Blandford Langton St.Leonards, Blandford Old Town and Blandford Station. A sixth ward, Portman, covers Bryanston and Blandford St Mary west of the river; these are not within the parish of Blandford, but the town's built-up area extends into Blandford St Mary parish. These six wards, together with twenty others within the North Dorset District, elect councillors to North Dorset District Council.[15] In county council elections, the five wards in Blandford parish together form Blandford electoral division, one of 42 divisions that elect councillors to Dorset County Council. Blandford St Mary is within neighbouring Winterborne electoral division.[16]

At the parish level - the lowest tier of local government - Blandford is governed by Blandford Forum Town Council.[17]

Geography[edit]

Blandford is situated between Cranborne Chase and the Dorset Downs, at the south eastern corner of the Blackmore Vale, 24 km (15 mi) northwest of Poole and 35 km (22 mi) southwest of Salisbury. It is sited in the valley of the River Stour, mostly on rising ground northeast of the river, but with some development south of the river at Blandford St Mary.[18] The underlying geology is Cretaceous chalk bedrock that in places is overlain by Quaternary drift: alluvium in the river's flood plain, head deposits around the town's southwest, south and southeast borders, and clay with flints at the highest part of the town in the north.[19] The town is almost surrounded by land that has been designated as having landscape value of national significance: the Dorset Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) to the west and the Cranborne Chase and West Wiltshire Downs AONB to the north and east.[20]

Church of St. Peter and St. Paul

Architecture[edit]

Most of the buildings in Blandford's centre are Georgian, due to the rebuilding after the 1731 fire and the absence of subsequent change. Pevsner stated that "hardly any other town in England can be compared with it".[14] Buildings that have received Grade I listing by English Heritage are the parish church of St Peter and St Paul, the town hall and corn exchange, The Old House, Coupar House, Pump House, the Natwest building, and several properties around the Market Place.[21]

The parish church of St Peter and St Paul dates from 1732 and is a classical building with a cupola on top of the tower. Outside of London, it is one of the few Georgian churches in the country.[14] The interior remains relatively unaffected by Victorian interference and retains its galleries, font, pulpit, box-pews and mayoral seat. In 1893 it was enlarged by moving the apsidal sanctuary out on rollers onto new foundations and building a new chancel behind it.[22]

The town hall and corn exchange occupies a site in the Market Place close to the site that was occupied by its predecessor. It dates from 1734 and has a two-storey three-windowed frontage of Portland stone ashlar. The ground floor has three semi-circular arches leading to an open portico or loggia, called The Shambles, that previously was part of the market. Toward the back of the building is the old corn exchange, a late 19th-century assembly hall with "interesting elliptical roof-trusses".[23][24]

Coupar House, dated around 1750, is the largest private house in Blandford that dates from the post-fire period. It has a richly decorated interior with a notable staircase, and is unique among the town's private dwellings for having Portland stone dressings to its brick façade, though the design of this frontage has been described as "curiously amateurish" with "little attention ... paid to rules of proportion".[23]

Pump House fire monument

The Old House was probably built some time between 1650 and 1670 by a German doctor who practised in Blandford after graduating from Queens College, Oxford. Its unusual design, which includes a steep hipped roof with wide spreading eaves, has elements of artisan style popular at the time, though it was described by John Hutchins as "an architectural graft from the 'fatherland' planted by the worthy doctor on the soil of his adopted country".[23]

Pump House fire monument was built by John Bastard in classical style to commemorate the fire. It dates from 1760, is of Portland stone and stands adjacent to the churchyard wall. The inscription on its rear wall states its purpose is "... to prevent by a timely Supply of Water, (with God's Blessing) the fatal Consequences of FIRE hereafter". In 1768 Bastard provided an endowment of £600. The monument was repaired in 1858 and the pump was replaced by a fountain in 1897.[23][25]

To the south of the town a six-arch stone bridge spans the River Stour; it is built mostly of greensand with some heathstone and was extensively restored in 1726. The water meadows between it and the town are crossed by a causeway and two smaller bridges.[23]

Demography[edit]

Blandford Forum civil parish is divided into five district electoral wards—Blandford Damory Down, Blandford Hilltop, Blandford Langton St.Leonards, Blandford Old Town and Blandford Station—which have a total built-up area of 310 hectares (770 acres)[26] and in the 2011 census had a total population of 9,983.[27][28][29][30][31] Dorset County Council estimate that in 2013 the civil parish had a population of 10,610.[1]

Previous census returns for the town show that it had a population of less than 4,000 until 1981, after which it increased rapidly; in the 2001 census, the town had 4,524 dwellings and a population of 8,760,[26] of whom 96.5% were White British.[26] Some of the population increase however can be accounted for by a boundary change which incorporated housing estates that already existed but were previously within a different parish (Pimperne) on the town's northern side.[citation needed] Unemployment varied between 0.5% and 2.3% between 1997 and 2009.[26] Census figures for the town are shown in the table below:

Census 1931 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001
Population 3,370 3,670 3,570 3,650 3,920 7,850 8,760

Economy[edit]

Almshouses at the top end of town

North Dorset District Council employs a number of residents. Other employers in nearby parishes are the Hall & Woodhouse (Badger) Brewery, which supplies beer to public houses and shops across the region.

Blandford Camp is 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) north east of the town and has long been home to the Royal Corps of Signals, the communications wing of the British Army. The base incorporates a modern technology training college plus a cinema for military personnel, and the National Signals Museum – a museum of items relating to the history of the Royal Signals since its inception, which is open to the public. The museum contains many items of interest including uniforms, medals, signals equipment, and an Enigma cryptographic machine, used to produce German high level ciphers during World War 2 but cracked by the Allies.

There are a number of busy industrial estates (with, for example, builder's supply yards) on the bypass road to the North-East of Blandford.

The early 21st century saw a number of private housing development projects in and around Blandford.[citation needed]

A Georgian Fayre is held in the first week of May every other year in the town centre and attracts thousands of visitors. The Fayre combines Georgian celebrations with cultural presentations, stalls, and a fun fair on the meadows along the banks of the Stour.

In August 2014 it was announced that the 190 metres (620 ft) high Iron Age hill fort Hambledon Hill, near the town, had been bought by the National Trust. money to buy the hill had come from a Natural England grant and from a legacy gift left to benefit Dorset countryside.[32]

Transport[edit]

Road[edit]

The town lies at the junction of the A350 and A354 main roads but is skirted by an eastern bypass. The main road running through the town is the B3082, connecting Blandford Forum to Wimborne Minster. Buses run from the town to locations including Poole, Bournemouth, Salisbury and Shaftesbury with the primary operator being Wilts & Dorset.

Air[edit]

The town is 15 miles (24 km) from Bournemouth Airport.

Railway[edit]

The town is 15 miles (24 km) from Poole railway station.

From 1860 to 1964, Blandford Forum was an important stop on the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway, which ran from Bath to Bournemouth, until the line closed to passengers in 1966. Located between Templecombe and Broadstone, the railway was still open until the closure of the Blandford's goods yard in 1969, after which the track was lifted. The station was immortalised in 1964 in the song "Slow Train" by Flanders and Swann.

Education[edit]

Blandford Forum has two primary schools, Archbishop Wake and Milldown schools. A new Archbishop Wake school, built on the old St Leonards Middle School site at the bottom of Black Lane, opened in November 2008. The other feeder schools for The Blandford School are Blandford St Mary, Downlands, Dunbury and Durweston, Pimperne, and Spetisbury Primary Schools. Pupils move at the age of 11 to The Blandford School, which is a secondary school lying in the West of Blandford; the school also has a sixth form.

A number of independent schools are also located near Blandford, such as Bryanston School, Canford School, Clayesmore School, Hanford School, Knighton House School and Milton Abbey School.

Sport and leisure[edit]

Blandford Forum has a Non-League football club Blandford United F.C. who play at Blandford Recreation Ground. BFBS Radio broadcasts across Blandford on 89.3FM from a studio at the military base as part of its UK Bases network.

Literature[edit]

In 1590, Edmund Spenser mentioned the Stoure flowing through the town in The Faerie Queene.[33]

Blandford features in Thomas Hardy's novels as the Wessex town of Shottesford Forum.[34]

Blandford Forum railway station which is now gone — the train line to Blandford was removed in the 1960s — was mentioned in the 1963 song Slow Train by Flanders and Swann.[35]

Natural history[edit]

The Blandford fly (Simulium posticatum), a small (2-3mm) biting fly belonging to the family Simuliidae or 'blackflies' lives in the area. In recent years the weed beds in the river have been sprayed to reduce numbers.[36][37]

Twin towns[edit]

Blandford Forum is twinned with:[38]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "DorsetForYou.com: 2013 population figures for Dorset parishes". Dorset County Council. 
  2. ^ "DorsetForYou.com: Blandford Forum town profile (2012 Mid Year Estimate)". Dorset County Council. 
  3. ^ "DorsetForYou.com: Dorset 2011 Census Data". Dorset County Council. 
  4. ^ a b "All UK Towns & Cities in Population Order (2011 Census)". LoveMyTown.co.uk. 
  5. ^ "It took a major fire and a pair of Bastards to give Blandford Forum the Georgian flavour for which it is celebrated." http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/house-and-home/property/hot-spot-blandford-forum-dorset-573830.html
  6. ^ David Mills, ed. (2011). A Dictionary of British Place Names. Oxford University Press. p. 62. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  7. ^ OED, s.v. "blay".
  8. ^ a b North Dorset District Council (c. 1983). North Dorset District Official Guide. Home Publishing Co. Ltd. p. 19. 
  9. ^ Mills, A. D., 1986. Dorset Place Names. Ensign, Southampton.
  10. ^ Bettey, pp.68, 128-9
  11. ^ Bettey, p.111
  12. ^ Bettey, p.76
  13. ^ Bettey, p.81
  14. ^ a b c Le Bas, Michael (March 2009). "When Blandford Burnt". Dorset Life Magazine. Retrieved 6 April 2015. 
  15. ^ "Parishes making up Dorset wards". dorsetforyou.com. Dorset County Council. Retrieved 11 April 2015. 
  16. ^ "Electoral division profiles 2013". dorsetforyou.com. Dorset County Council. Retrieved 11 April 2015. 
  17. ^ "Introduction". Blandford Forum Town Council. Retrieved 11 April 2015. 
  18. ^ Ordnance Survey (2013), 1:25,000 Explorer Map, Sheet 118 (Shaftesbury & Cranborne Chase), ISBN 978-0-319-24123-3
  19. ^ British Geological Survey (1994), 1:50,000 Series. England and Wales Sheet 313 (Shaftesbury)
  20. ^ "Dorset Explorer". Natural England. Retrieved 6 April 2015. 
  21. ^ "Listed Buildings in Blandford Forum, Dorset, England". British Listed Buildings. britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 8 April 2015. 
  22. ^ Betjeman, John (ed.) (1968), Collins Pocket Guide to English Parish Churches; the South. London: Collins; p. 172
  23. ^ a b c d e "'Blandford Forum', in An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Dorset, Volume 3, Central (London, 1970), pp. 16-40". British History Online. University of London. Retrieved 7 April 2015. 
  24. ^ "Town Hall and Corn Exchange, Blandford Forum". British Listed Buildings. britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 9 April 2015. 
  25. ^ "Pump House, Blandford Forum". British Listed Buildings. britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 10 April 2015. 
  26. ^ a b c d "Blandford". dorsetforyou.com. Retrieved 2013-05-28. 
  27. ^ "Area: Blandford Damory Down (Ward). Key Figures for 2011 Census: Key Statistics". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 17 April 2015. 
  28. ^ "Area: Blandford Hilltop (Ward). Key Figures for 2011 Census: Key Statistics". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 17 April 2015. 
  29. ^ "Area: Blandford Langton St Leonards (Ward). Key Figures for 2011 Census: Key Statistics". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 17 April 2015. 
  30. ^ "Area: Blandford Old Town (Ward). Key Figures for 2011 Census: Key Statistics". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 17 April 2015. 
  31. ^ "Area: Blandford Station (Ward). Key Figures for 2011 Census: Key Statistics". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 17 April 2015. 
  32. ^ "BBC News - Hambledon Hill fort in Dorset acquired by National Trust for £450,000". Bbc.co.uk. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  33. ^ Spenser, Edmund (1590), The Faerie Queene: Book 4: Canto XI, retrieved 30 March 2013, And there came Stoure with terrible aspect, Bearing his sixe deformed heads on hye, That doth his course through Blandford plains direct, And washeth Winborne meades in season drye. 
  34. ^ "Destinations > Europe > England > The South > Places to Explore > Blandford Forum". Travel Intelligence. Fodor's. Retrieved 30 March 2013. 
  35. ^ Flanders, Michael; Swann, Donald (1963), Slow Train, retrieved 30 March 2013, No more will I go to Blandford Forum and Mortehoe, On the slow train from Midsomer Norton and Mumby Road. 
  36. ^ "Blandford Fly". North Dorset Council. Retrieved 30 March 2013. 
  37. ^ "The Blandford Fly". BBC. Retrieved 14 April 2010. 
  38. ^ a b c "Dorset Twinning Association List". The Dorset Twinning Association. Archived from the original on 2013-06-21. Retrieved 2013-08-01. 
  39. ^ "British towns twinned with French towns [via WaybackMachine.com]". Archant Community Media Ltd. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-20. 

General references[edit]

External links[edit]