Bleeding order

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Bleeding order is a term used in phonology to describe specific interactions of phonological rules. The term was introduced in 1968 by Paul Kiparsky.[1] If two phonological rules are said to be in bleeding order, the application of the first rule creates a context in which the second rule can no longer apply.

The opposite of this is called feeding order.

Examples[edit]

An example of this in English is the /ɪ/-insertion between a voiceless alveolar fricative and a plural-z, as in [bʌsɪz] (with the underlying representation //bʌs-z//). English also has a rule which devoices segments after voiceless consonants, as in [bʊks], with the underlying representation //bʊk-z//). In the output form [bʌsɪz] (buses), final devoicing has not applied, because the phonological context in which this rule could have applied has gone as a consequence of the application of /ɪ/-insertion. Put differently, the application order "(1) /ɪ/-insertion (2) final devoicing" is a bleeding order in English.

Counterbleeding order[edit]

If two rules which are in bleeding order apply in the opposite way, this is called a counterbleeding order. An example of this can be seen in the pronunciation of the diminutive of the word slang ("snake") in the Dutch dialect of Kaatsheuvel: [slɑŋəskə]. If [s]-insertion had applied first, then the rule which inserts an additional /-ə/ between the noun stem and the suffix /-kə/ could no longer have applied and the output form would have been [slɑŋskə]. However, the rules have applied in the reverse order.

See also[edit]

Literature[edit]

  • Gussenhoven, C. & Jacobs, H. (1998). Understanding Phonology. Arnold, Londen.
  • Jensen, J.T. (2004). Principles of Generative Phonology: An introduction

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://books.google.nl/books?id=gTVGb9pv2mAC&pg=PA137&lpg=PA137&dq=%22Paul+Kiparsky%22+%22bleeding+order%22&source=bl&ots=TkwF9QtvN7&sig=pUWwnfv2KUrbVifOdpcO6OOzZuM&hl=nl&ei=pGR0TvOaL9CG-wag6_SeDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%22Paul%20Kiparsky%22%20%22bleeding%20order%22&f=false