Blenheim, New Zealand
(June 2013 estimate)
|Regional Council:||Marlborough District Council|
Blenheim (//; Māori: Waiharakeke) is the most populous town in the region of Marlborough, in the north east of the South Island of New Zealand, and the seat of the regional council. It has an urban population of 30,900 (June 2013 estimate). The area which surrounds the town is well known as a centre of New Zealand's wine industry. It enjoys one of New Zealand's sunniest climates, with hot, relatively dry summers and crisp winters.
The Marlborough Region in which Blenheim is situated has a wide range of leisure activities, from swimming with dolphins in the Marlborough Sounds to watching whales in Kaikoura; from walks through the bush and along the rugged coastline, as well as scenic boat cruising, fishing, water-skiing and kayaking. The relaxed lifestyle and the flourishing wine and gourmet food industry in Marlborough are enjoyed by both locals and visitors alike.
The sheltered coastal bays of Marlborough supported a small Māori population possibly as early as the 12th century. Anthropologists have christened this part of central Aotearoa, Waenganui, a region that stretched from inland Ureweras to Kaiapohia. Māori in the Marlborough Region cultivated crops, including kumara (sweet potato) and exploited marine resources.
Although the early history of Marlborough was closely associated with the Nelson settlement, the people of Marlborough wanted independence from Nelson. Nineteen years after the original Nelson settlement the request of Marlborough settlers was granted, and Marlborough became a separate province in 1859. Although gold was discovered in the province in the early 1860s the boom did not last and, while it helped to expand the region, the development of pastoralism provided the greatest long-term benefits. Marlborough squatters developed huge sheep runs that dominated the countryside, rivalling Canterbury's sheep stations in size and wealth.
Today the region's economy is still rurally based with pastoral and horticultural farming, providing a major source of income. The region's inhabitants continue to utilise the marine resources. Lake Grassmere is the country's only source of salt, and fishing and mussel farming are also extremely important in the region. Grape growing has been one of the fastest growing industries and Marlborough is now New Zealand's largest wine producing region, receiving worldwide recognition for its sauvignon blanc wines. Olive growing has also become popular in recent years.
Vineyards in the region include: Wither Hills Vineyard, located in Omaka. Terravin, a vineyard located in Omaka. Montana Wineries, also located in Omaka.
The sunny, pleasant climate has attracted people to the region, either as holiday-makers or as permanent settlers. The region is especially popular among retired people, as well as people seeking an alternative lifestyle. Rapid population growth and other factors though have led to a contemporary chronic shortage of affordable housing for low and middle income earners.
|This section requires expansion. (June 2008)|
Blenheim, situated on the Wairau Plain, is mostly flat with surrounding hills, which do not, however, give it as much protection from prevailing winds as might be expected. Open areas in and around Blenheim are hit quite hard by winds blowing in from Cook Strait. Blenheim sits at the confluence of the Taylor and Opawa rivers. Blenheim is in a tectonically active zone and experiences several (usually small) earthquakes each year. The boundary between the Pacific plate (on which Blenheim sits) and the Indo-Australian plate passes just north of Blenheim.
The climate of Blenheim is generally very settled, largely due to the rainshadow effect of the mountain ranges to the west which shelter Blenheim from the heaviest of rains that hit the western part of the South Island.
Summers are typically warm & dry while winters are normally cool & frosty with clear sunny days that follow. Snowfall in Blenheim is rare as it is sheltered from cold southerly weather by the mountain ranges to the south.
Thunderstorms are also an uncommon occurrence due to the sheltered aspect of Blenheim's climate, though there is a higher likelihood of these occurring in Summer months due to afternoon heating generating cloud buildups above the ranges.
The highest recorded temperature in Blenheim is 36.0C, the lowest −8.8C.
|Climate data for Blenheim (1981−2010)|
|Average high °C (°F)||24.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||18.0
|Average low °C (°F)||11.8
|Precipitation mm (inches)||48.9
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||5.0||5.1||5.5||5.3||6.7||7.9||7.6||8.0||8.5||8.3||6.9||6.7||81.5|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||262.2||223.7||230.8||193.7||172.7||151.6||157.1||183.9||189.5||226.7||234.7||248.8||2,475.3|
|Source: NIWA Climate Data|
Based on the number of hours of sun recorded, in more recent years the title of "New Zealand's Sunniest Town" has gone to Blenheim. Historically, Nelson has been the sunniest.
NIWA (National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research), New Zealand's "Crown-owned research and consultancy company", states:
- "The sunniest centre in 2008 was Blenheim, recording 2505 hours, followed by Nelson with 2472 hours, then Lake Tekapo with 2444 hours"
- 21.3% of people living in Blenheim were under 15, compared with 22.7% for all of New Zealand.
- 16.7% of people living in Blenheim were aged 65 years and over, compared with 12.1% for all of New Zealand.
- 28.7% of people aged 15 years and over had a post-secondary-school qualification, compared with 32% for New Zealand as a whole.
- Ethnic background
Most Blenheim residents are of European origin, predominantly of British, Irish, German and Dutch descent. Small Māori, Pacific Island and Asian communities exist. Ethnic diversity has increased in recent years[when?] with the arrival of large numbers of South Americans (mostly Brazilians) and Asians (mainly Indonesian, Japanese, Korean and Filipino) who work in the expanding viticulture sector.
The 2006 New Zealand Census found that of people in the Blenheim Urban Area who actually completed the census forms (which are not available in either Japanese or Korean script):
- 78.4% belonged to the European or Pakeha ethnic group
- 1.6% belonged to the Asian ethnic group
- 10.5% belonged to the Māori ethnic group
- 1.6% belonged to the Pacific Island ethnic group
- 0.5% belonged to the Middle Eastern/Latin American/African ethnic groups
- 16.1% belonged to Other ethnic group
- Spring Creek
- Wither Hills
Today the region's economy is still rurally based with pastoral and horticultural farming, providing a major source of income. The region's inhabitants continue to utilise the marine resources. Lake Grassmere is the country's only source of salt. Fishing and mussel farming are also extremely important in the region. Grape growing has been one of the fastest growing industries and Marlborough is now New Zealand's largest wine producing region, receiving worldwide recognition for its sauvignon blanc wines. Olive growing has also become popular in recent years.
The Marlborough region is famous for its wine production, although other forms of agriculture are significant and the services sectors is also important.
With the growing international critical recognition of Marlborough Sauvignon blanc, much of the wine industry has come to be dominated by large firms, owned by major New Zealand companies or offshore investors. There are currently over 50 vineyards that are located adjacent to Blenheim. Wages for most industry participants are low (around NZ$12-NZ$13/hour) and often calculated on a piece rate basis. Employment arrangements are often insecure and frequently not in accordance with New Zealand employment law. Agricultural land prices in the Wairau Valley have increased dramatically in value through the 1990s and 2000s.
The sunny, pleasant climate has long attracted people to the region, either as holiday-makers or as permanent settlers. The region is especially popular among retired people, as well as people seeking an alternative lifestyle. Rapid population growth and other factors though have led to a contemporary chronic shortage of affordable housing for low and middle income earners.
The first school was opened in Blenheim in 1859. By 1875 there were three classes: Blenheim Upper Boys, Blenheim Lower Boys, and Blenheim Girls and Infants. A Blenheim High School was formed within the school in 1879.
Catholic schools for boys and girls also were established in Blenheim in 1872. St Mary's Boys' school replaced it in 1886. In 1929 St Mary's was rebuilt after a fire.
A coeducational secondary school called Marlborough High School was founded in Blenheim in 1900. It moved to the Marlborough Boys' College Stephenson Street site in 1901. In 1919 it changed its name to Marlborough College. The intermediate section was split to form Bohally Intermediate in 1956, and the girls moved to form Marlborough Girls' College in 1962, at which time the school took its current name.
Marlborough Boys' College is a boys' secondary (years 9–13) school with a roll of 1006. Marlborough Girls' College is a girls' secondary (years 9–13) school with a roll of 1029. Both have a decile rating of 7.
The other schools in Blenheim are all coeducational.
Blenheim School and Whitney Street School are contributing primary (years 1–6) schools with decile ratings of 3 and 5, respectively. Blenheim School has a roll of 81, and Whitney Street School has a roll of 248.
Woodbourne Airport is a domestic airport and is also used by the RNZAF as an operational base. There are direct flights from Auckland, Christchurch and Wellington with Air New Zealand. From Nelson and Paraparaumu with Air2there. Omaka Aerodrome, to the south of the city centre, is used solely by private and vintage aircraft. An airshow (based mainly on World War I and II aircraft) is held at Omaka Aerodrome every two years at Easter.
State Highway 1 runs through Blenheim and State Highway 6 terminates at the junction of the two state highways. Blenheim is notable for a town of its size in that it does not have traffic lights at any intersection. Instead, roundabouts speed arterial traffic flow. Since the installation of these roundabouts traffic volumes have quickly increased and upgrading options are being considered, e.g. traffic lights, longer two-lane approaches and even a bypass.
Blenheim is on the Main North Line, the northern part of the unofficially-named South Island Main Trunk Railway. The Coastal Pacific, the daily summer-only long-distance passenger train between Picton and Christchurch, stops at Blenheim Railway Station.
A major rail freight facility is north of Blenheim at Spring Creek.
The narrow-gauge Blenheim Riverside Railway runs through the town.
Blenheim is served by a variety of print publications. The major daily newspaper serving the Blenheim-Picton area is The Marlborough Express published by Fairfax NZ. The Marlborough Express's headquarters is in downtown Blenheim. The Saturday Express and Midweek are community newspapers published by the same company and distributed throughout Marlborough. The Blenheim Sun is a twice weekly free newspaper distributed in Marlborough each Wednesday and Friday.
This is a list of FM radio stations in Blenheim. Note that the town can also receive most FM & AM radio stations from the capital city of Wellington, across Cook Strait; these are not included in this list.
|88.1||The Shed||Classic rock|
|88.7||Sunshine Radio||Easy listening|
|88.9||Fresh FM Nelson||Alternative Community Radio|
|89.7||The Breeze||Easy Listening|
|91.3||The Rock||Classic/Modern Rock|
|92.9||MORE FM Marlborough||Adult Contemporary|
|94.5||Radio Hauraki||Classic Rock|
|96.9||Classic Hits Marlborough||2ZZE-FM||Classic Hits|
|99.3||Radio New Zealand Concert||Classical|
|101.7||Radio New Zealand National||Public Radio|
|104.9||The Edge FM||Top 40|
Events and points of interest
Omaka Aerodrome, south of the town centre, is the setting for the biennial Classic Fighters Marlborough airshow. The show, with a large emphasis on aircraft of World War One, has been held biannually since 2001, with the last show held over Easter weekend 2011.
The Forrest Graperide is a 101 km (63 mi) cycle race held through the most picturesque scenery in Marlborough every autumn and is a big drawcard for cyclists all over New Zealand.
Hunters Garden Marlborough is an annual event held over a few days in early November which celebrates the gardens & the love of gardening in the Marlborough region. The event comprises garden tours, specialist workshops, and a fete.
The Havelock Mussel festival is an annual event held in Havelock in mid March which celebrates the produce of local mussel industry. With the 2011 festival offering over 70 stalls of food, wine, beer, jewellery, craft and industry, there is usually plenty to entertain or amuse.
Kaikoura Seafest is held annually in late September/early October in Kaikoura. This event celebrates the food, wines, and beverages featured predominantly from the local Kaikoura, Marlborough, and North Canterbury regions.
The first weekend in February sees the festival "Blues, Brews and BBQ's", which comprises Blues and Jazz music, food and a variety of Beer and wine. It starts at 12 pm and ends at 7 pm, located at the A and P park near Redwoodtown.
The second weekend in February marks the annual event of Wine Marlborough. This event is a showcase of the regions wines brought together in one place at Brancott Estate vineyard with good food & great entertainment on the offering.
The Marlborough Wine Weekend, first held in 2007 and held biannually since in late October is a showcase of new release Marlborough wines and the greater Marlborough wine growing region. Hosted on a variety of stunning Marlborough sites this event is a wine enthusiast's Mecca as well as a quality destination event with trade and VIP guests enjoying fine wine, gourmet cuisine and magnificent venues.
Seymour Square and Pollard Park are two of the town's main attractions for walks and general tourism. Seymour Square is an open public area at the centre of Blenheim. The Square contains the War Memorial and Clock Tower, unveiled in 1928, which is classified as a "Category I" ("places of 'special or outstanding historical or cultural heritage significance or value'") historic place by the New Zealand Historic Places Trust. The Square was named after Henry Seymour.
The Wither Hills are just out of Blenheim and have many attractive walks found just off Maxwell Road. They are dry and arid and have seen many severe forest fires in the past.
- Reed, A. W. (2002). The Reed Dictionary of New Zealand Place Names. Auckland: Reed Books. ISBN 0-7900-0761-4.
- "Subnational Population Estimates: At 30 June 2013 (provisional)". Statistics New Zealand. 22 October 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2013. Also "Infoshare; Group: Population Estimates - DPE; Table: Estimated Resident Population for Urban Areas, at 30 June (1996+) (Annual-Jun)". Statistics New Zealand. 19 November 2013. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
- "Climate Data and Activities". NIWA. Retrieved October 19, 2013.
- A. D. McIntosh, ed. (1940). Marlborough – A Provincial History. pp. 338–349.
- A. D. McIntosh, pp 328–329
- "Marlborough Boys' College – History".
- "Te Kete Ipurangi – Marlborough Boys' College". Ministry of Education.
- "Te Kete Ipurangi – Marlborough Girls' College". Ministry of Education.
- "Te Kete Ipurangi – Bohally Intermediate". Ministry of Education.
- "Te Kete Ipurangi – Blenheim School". Ministry of Education.
- "Te Kete Ipurangi – Whitney Street School". Ministry of Education.
- "Te Kete Ipurangi – St Mary's School, Blenheim". Ministry of Education.
- "Marlborough Campus". Nelson Marlborough Institute of Technology.
- "Hunter's Garden Marlborough, Garden Tours, Workshops, Market Day.". Retrieved 24 January 2012.
- "War Memorial and Clock Tower". Register of Historic Places. New Zealand Historic Places Trust. Retrieved 2009-12-21.
- An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand 1966
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Blenheim, New Zealand.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Blenheim.|
- Destination Marlborough
- Blenheim Tourist Information
- Marlborough District Council
- The Marlborough Express daily newspaper
- Blenheim Street Map
- Marlborough Boys' College website
- Marlborough Girls' College website