Cupania sapida Voigt
The ackee, also known as achee, ackee apple or akee (Blighia sapida) is a member of the Sapindaceae (soapberry family), as are the lychee and the longan. It is native to tropical West Africa in Cameroon, Gabon, São Tomé and Príncipe, Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo.
The scientific name honours Captain William Bligh who took the fruit from Jamaica to the Royal Botanic Gardens in Kew, England in 1793 and introduced it to science. The common name is derived from the West African Akan akye fufo.
The fruit was imported to Jamaica from West Africa (probably on a slave ship) before 1778. Since then it has become a major feature of various Caribbean cuisines, and is also cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas elsewhere around the world.
The leaves are paripinnatly compound,15–30 centimetres (5.9–11.8 in) long, with 6–10 elliptical to obovate-oblong leathery leaflets. Each leaflet is 8–12 centimetres (3.1–4.7 in) long and 5–8 centimetres (2.0–3.1 in) wide.
The fruit is pear-shaped. When it ripens, it turns from green to a bright red to yellow-orange, and splits open to reveal three large, shiny black seeds, each partly surrounded by soft, creamy or spongy, white to yellow flesh—the aril. The fruit typically weighs 100–200 grams (3.5–7.1 oz).
Cultivation and uses
Although native to West Africa, the use of ackee in food is especially prominent in Jamaican cuisine. Ackee is the national fruit of Jamaica, and ackee and saltfish is the national dish. Ackee and codfish is ranked number two in the world by National Geographic survey of national dishes. Recently, ackee wine has been introduced in Jamaica and though it has resulted in a majority of curious and adventurous Jamaicans gravitating towards the newly introduced product it still has not appealed to others.
Ackee pods are allowed to ripen on the tree before picking. Prior to cooking, the ackee arils are cleaned and washed. The arils are then boiled for approximately 5 minutes and the water discarded. The dried seeds, fruit, bark, and leaves are used medicinally.
The unripened or inedible portions of the fruit contain the toxins hypoglycin A and hypoglycin B. Hypoglycin A is found in both the seeds and the arils, while hypoglycin B is found only in the seeds. Hypoglycin is converted in the body to methylenecyclopropyl acetic acid (MCPA). Hypoglycin and MCPA are both toxic. MCPA inhibits several enzymes involved in the breakdown of acyl CoA compounds. Hypoglycin binds irreversibly to coenzyme A, carnitine and carnitine acyltransferases I and II reducing their bioavailability and consequently inhibiting beta oxidation of fatty acids. Beta oxidation normally provides the body with ATP, NADH, and acetyl CoA which is used to supplement the energy produced by glycolysis. Glucose stores are consequently depleted leading to hypoglycemia. Clinically, this condition is called Jamaican vomiting sickness. Ill effects occur only when the immature fruit is consumed.
The ackee fruit is canned and is a major export product in Jamaica. In 2005, the ackee industry of Jamaica was valued at $400 million. The importing of canned ackee into the U.S. has at times been restricted due to unripe ackee arilli being included. However, it is currently allowed, provided that the amount of hypoglycin present meets the standards of the Food and Drug Administration. In 2005, the first commercial shipments of canned ackee from Haiti were approved by the United States FDA for shipment to the US market.
- "Taxon: Blighia sapida K. D. Koenig". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2002-12-11. Retrieved 2011-10-18.
- Metcalf, Allan (1999). The World in So Many Words. ISBN 0-395-95920-9.
- "This is Jamaica". National Symbols of Jamaica. Archived from the original on 19 June 2006. Retrieved 2006-06-04.
- Vinken Pierre; Bruyn, GW (1995). Intoxications of the Nervous System. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science B.V. ISBN 0-444-81284-9.
- Llamas, Kristen (2003). Tropical Flowering Plants: A Guide to Identification and Cultivation. Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-585-3.
- Riffle, Robert (1998). The Tropical Look. Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-422-9.
- http://travel.nationalgeographic.com/travel/top-10/national-food-dishes/ National food dishes
- "National Symbols". Emancipation & Independence. Jamaica Information Service. Retrieved 2011-10-18.
- "Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops". Retrieved 2006-06-01.[dead link]
- Kumar, Parveen J. (2006). Clinical Medicine (5 ed.). Saunders (W.B.) Co Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7020-2579-2.
- SarDesai, Vishwanath (2003). Introduction to Clinical Nutrition. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc. ISBN 0-8247-4093-9.
- THE ACKEE FRUIT (BLIGHIA SAPIDA) AND ITS ASSOCIATED TOXIC EFFECTS, The Science Creative Quarterly
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Blighia sapida.|
|Wikispecies has information related to: Blighia sapida|
- The Ackee Fruit (Blighia Sapida) and its Associated Toxic Effects – a review from the Science Creative Quarterly
- The West Indian Dictionary: Showing the two types of ackee in the Caribbean region.
- Fruits of Warm Climates: Ackee
- Blighia sapida (Sapindaceae)
- Blighia sapida in West African plants – A Photo Guide.