Bliss (image)

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Coordinates: 38°14′56″N 122°24′37″W / 38.248966°N 122.410269°W / 38.248966; -122.410269

Bliss as seen in a clean Windows XP desktop (photo taken in 1998)[1]
Approximately the same location in November 2006, showing vines covering the hillside and foreground. By Goldin+Senneby.
External images
"21st Century Bliss" by Tony Immoos (2010) reportedly "closely resembles the 1996 photograph."[2]

Bliss is the name of the default computer wallpaper of Microsoft's Windows XP operating system, produced from a landscape photographed in the Los Carneros American Viticultural Area of Sonoma County, California, United States. It is an image of a rolling green hill and a blue sky with cumulus and cirrus clouds. In the Dutch and Portuguese versions of Windows XP, the wallpaper is named Ireland and Alentejo, respectively, despite the fact that the image was taken in the United States.[1]

Former National Geographic photographer Charles O'Rear, a resident of the nearby Napa Valley, took the photo on film with a medium-format camera while on his way to visit his girlfriend in 1998. While it was widely believed later that the image was digitally manipulated or even created with software such as Adobe Photoshop, O'Rear says it never was.[3] He sold it to Corbis for use as a stock photo. Several years later, Microsoft engineers chose a digitized version of the image and licensed it from O'Rear.

Over the next decade it has been claimed to be the most viewed photograph in the world during that time.[4] Since it was taken, the landscape in it has changed, with grapevines planted on the hill and field in the foreground, making O'Rear's image impossible to duplicate for the time being. That has not stopped other photographers from trying, and some of their attempts have been included in art exhibits.


One day in January 1998 O'Rear was on his way from his home in St. Helena, California, in the Napa Valley north of San Francisco, to visit his then-girlfriend, Daphne Irwin, in the city, as he did every Friday afternoon. He was working with her on a book about wine country. In a 2014 interview, he recalled being particularly alert for a photo opportunity that day, since a storm had just passed over and other recent winter rains had left the area especially green.[5]

He was driving along the Sonoma Highway (California State Route 12 and 121) when he saw the hill, free of the vineyards the area was planted thick with. "There it was! My God, the grass is perfect! It's green! The sun is out; there's some clouds," he remembered thinking. He stopped somewhere near the NapaSonoma county line and pulled off the road to set his Mamiya RZ67 medium-format camera on a tripod, choosing Fuji film[3] for its brilliant colors.[6]

O'Rear credits that combination of camera and film for the success of the image. "It made the difference and, I think, helped the 'Bliss' photograph stand out even more," he said. "I think that if I had shot it with 35 mm, it would not have nearly the same effect."[7]

While he was setting up his camera, he said, it was possible that the clouds in the picture came in. "Everything was changing so quickly at that time." He took four shots and got back into his truck.[5][8] According to O'Rear, the image was not digitally enhanced or manipulated in any way.[1]

Since it was not pertinent to the wine-country book, O'Rear made it available through Corbis as a stock photo, available for use by any interested party willing to pay an appropriate licensing fee.[3] In 2000 or 2001, Microsoft's Windows XP development team contacted O'Rear through Corbis. "I have no idea what [they] were looking for," he recalls. "Were they looking for an image that was peaceful? Were they looking for an image that had no tension?"[9]

Microsoft said they wanted not just to license the image for use as XP's default wallpaper, but to buy all the rights to it. They offered O'Rear what he says is the second-largest payment ever made to a photographer for a single image; however he signed a confidentiality agreement and cannot disclose the exact amount.[10] It has been reported to be "in the low six figures."[4]

All O'Rear had to do was send Microsoft the original negative and sign the paperwork. But when he told couriers and delivery services the value of what he was shipping, they refused since it was higher than their insurance would cover. So, instead, the software company bought him a plane ticket to Seattle and he personally delivered it to their offices."[4] "I had no idea where it was going to go," he said. "I don't think the engineers or anybody at Microsoft had any idea it would have the success it's had."[11]

Attempts to recreate[edit]

On November 27, 2006, Goldin+Senneby visited the site in Sonoma Valley where the Bliss image was taken, re-photographing the same view now full of grapevines (pictured). Their work After Microsoft[12] was first shown in the exhibition "Paris was Yesterday" at the gallery La Vitrine in April 2007.[13] It was later exhibited at 300m3 in Gothenburg.[14]

In 2006, Sébastien Mettraux, a Swiss artist, made a photograph titled Bliss, after Bill Gates, 2006. Mettraux, who lives and works near the Vallée de Joux, explained that it was taken in Les Esserts-de-Rives, Switzerland. A local rumour suggested that the hill of the Windows XP wallpaper came from this area in the heart of the "watch valley". It is a mistake but the photography shows that the hill is a lookalike. This photography was shown at the "Images'08" festival in Vevey.[15]

In May 2010, GMA News reported that photographer Tony Immoos, who lived nearby the location, captured a close rendition of the original, which he dubbed "21st Century Bliss."[2] Immoos claimed that "the 2006 re-shoot [by Goldin+Senneby] was taken from the wrong location, approximately 350' farther Northeast, it is of the correct hill, but it is shot in the wrong direction."[16]


  1. ^ a b c Messieh, Nancy (28 August 2011). "Ever wonder where the Windows XP default wallpaper came from?". Retrieved 19 September 2012. 
  2. ^ a b "The unretouched curves of WinXP's most famous wallpaper". GMA News Online. August 30, 2011. Retrieved April 11, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c Taylor, Victoria (April 12, 2014). "The story behind the famous Windows XP ‘Bliss’ wallpaper". New York Daily News. Retrieved April 12, 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c Sweeney, Cynthia (26 March 2014). "Say goodbye to ‘Bliss'". St. Helena Star. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  5. ^ a b The story behind the wallpaper we'll never forget (Internet video). Microsoft NL. 2014. Event occurs at 1:10. Retrieved April 17, 2014. 
  6. ^ Story, at 2:30.
  7. ^ Story, at 2:50.
  8. ^ Freedman, Wayne (April 7, 2014). "Windows XP background is photo of Sonoma hillside". ABC7. Retrieved April 12, 2014. 
  9. ^ Story, at 3:20.
  10. ^ Younger, Carolyn (18 January 2010). "Windows XP desktop screen is a Napa image". Napa Valley Register. Retrieved 18 January 2010. 
  11. ^ Story, at 4:45.
  12. ^ "After Microsoft". Goldin+Senneby. 5 April 2007. Retrieved 15 February 2010. 
  13. ^ "Paris was Yesterday". Hanne's Art and Culture Blog. Hanne Mugaas. 2 April 2007. Retrieved 15 February 2010. 
  14. ^ "300m3 Art Space – History". 2010. Retrieved 30 August 2011. 
  15. ^
  16. ^ Tony Immoos (May 2, 2010). "21st Century Bliss". Flickr. Retrieved April 11, 2014. 

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