Block design test
Block design is a subtest on many intelligence tests that measures visuospatial and motor skills. The testee is required to take blocks that have all white sides, all red sides, and red and white sides and arrange them according to a pattern. They are timed on this task and compared to a normative sample.
The Block Design test was adapted by David Wechsler into the WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) from the Kohs Block Design test developed in 1923 at Stanford University by Samuel Calmin Kohs (1890–1984). In a later revision by Hutt, scoring of the test incorporated the time taken to complete each trial.
Neuropsychological assessment and illness
Good performance on the block design test is indicative of appropriate functioning of the parietal and frontal lobes. Head injury, Alzheimer's disease, and stroke can severely reduce the performance of an individual on the block design test. Additional evidence suggests impairment in block design performance among schizophrenic and bipolar disorder patient populations, though this represents only preliminary findings.
The Block Design test is also a relatively accurate measure of spatial ability and Spatial Visualization Ability used in daily life. The Block Design test is considered one of the best measures of spatial ability, although it is subject to certain problems of administration, such as anxiety or over-cautious responding. Linda Kreger Silverman has proposed the block design subtest as the best putative measure of spatial ability among the Wechsler subtests.
Autism spectrum disorders
Uta Frith, in her book Autism: Explaining the Enigma, addresses the superior performance of autistic individuals on the block design test. This was also addressed in this earlier paper. A particularly interesting article demonstrates the differences in construction time in the performance of the block design task by individuals with and without Asperger syndrome. An essential point here is that in an unsegmented version of the task, people with Asperger syndrome performed significantly faster than neurotypical individuals.
Science and engineering aptitude
Recent research has demonstrated a connection between spatial ability and math and science proficiency at the highest levels. Of particular interest, a recent study in the Lancet (2002) demonstrated that high spatial ability was related to the performance of surgery. Additionally, although this is somewhat speculative, Simon Baron-Cohen has shown the grandfathers and fathers of autistics were more likely to be engineers, and since it is known that autistics have an ability peak in block design, it is possible that an inherited ability for block design performance may be responsible for the increased number of engineers and scientists among the relatives of autistic individuals.
Spatial ability in pilots
Dror et al., 1993 found that pilots' performance was superior to non-pilots on a test of the speed of mental rotation. Although the block design test is characterized as a test of spatial visualization, not mental rotation, spatial visualization ability as measured by the block design test is highly correlated to mental rotation ability.
Research in an Educational context
As performance on the Block Design test has been suggested as a predictive measure for performance in fields such as engineering and physics, Felder, at North Carolina State University, has developed a learning style questionnaire that attempts to assess spatial ability in an educational context.
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- Identifying Visual-Spatial and Auditory-Sequential Learners:
- Frith, Uta (2003). Autism: explaining the enigma (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Pub. ISBN 0-631-22901-9.
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- , Dror, Kosslyn and Wang. (1993). Visual-Spatial Abilities in Pilots. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(5), 763-773.
- Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire