|Classification and external resources|
BD Blood culture bottles: orange label for anaerobes, blue label for aerobes, and yellow label for pediatrics
|ICD-10||A40 – A41|
Sepsis (//; from the Greek σῆψις: the state of putrefaction and decay) is a potentially deadly medical condition characterized by a whole-body inflammatory state (called a systemic inflammatory response syndrome or SIRS) caused by severe infection. Septicemia (or septicaemia or septicæmia [ˌsɛptɨˈsi:miə]) is a related medical term referring to the presence of pathogenic organisms in the bloodstream, leading to sepsis. The term has not been sharply defined. It has been inconsistently used in the past by medical professionals, for example as a synonym of bacteremia, causing some confusion.
Sepsis is caused by the immune system's response to a serious infection, most commonly bacteria, but also fungi, viruses, and parasites in the blood, urinary tract, lungs, skin, or other tissues. Sepsis can be thought of as falling within a continuum from infection to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.
Common symptoms of sepsis include those related to a specific infection, but usually accompanied by high fevers, hot, flushed skin, elevated heart rate, hyperventilation, altered mental status, swelling, and low blood pressure. In the very young and elderly, or in people with weakened immune systems, the pattern of symptoms may be atypical, with hypothermia and without an easily localizable infection.  Sepsis causes millions of deaths globally each year.
Sepsis is usually treated with intravenous fluids and antibiotics. If fluid replacement isn't sufficient to maintain blood pressure, vasopressors can be used. Mechanical ventilation and dialysis may be needed to support the function of the lungs and kidneys, respectively. To guide therapy, a central venous catheter and an arterial catheter may be placed; measurement of other hemodynamic variables (such as cardiac output, mixed venous oxygen saturation or stroke volume variation) may also be used. Sepsis patients require preventive measures for deep vein thrombosis, stress ulcers and pressure ulcers, unless other conditions prevent this. Some might benefit from tight control of blood sugar levels with insulin (targeting stress hyperglycemia). The use of corticosteroids is controversial. Activated drotrecogin alfa (recombinant activated protein C), originally marketed for severe sepsis, has not been found to be helpful, and has recently been withdrawn from sale.
Signs and symptoms 
In addition to symptoms related to the provoking infection, sepsis is frequently associated with either fever or hypothermia, rapid breathing, elevated heart rate, confusion, and edema. Early signs are elevated heart rate, decreased urination, and elevated blood sugar, while signs of established sepsis are confusion, metabolic acidosis with compensatory respiratory alkalosis (which can manifest as faster breathing), low blood pressure, decreased systemic vascular resistance, higher cardiac output, and dysfunctions of blood coagulation. book|last=al.]|first=Sylvia McKean ... [et|title=Principles and practice of hospital medicine|year=2012|publisher=McGraw-Hill|location=New York|isbn=0071603891|pages=Chapter 138}}</ref>
Sepsis may also lead to a drop in blood pressure, resulting in shock. This may result in light-headedness. Bruising or intense bleeding may also occur.
The most common primary sources of infection resulting in sepsis are the lungs, the abdomen and the urinary tract. No source is found in one third of cases. The infectious agents are usually bacteria but can also be fungi and viruses. While gram-negative bacteria were previously the most common cause of sepsis, in the last decade, gram-positive bacteria, most commonly staphylococci, are thought to cause more than 50% of cases of sepsis.
|Temperature||<36 °C (96.8 °F) or >38 °C (100.4 °F)|
|Respiratory rate||>20/min or PaCO2<32 mmHg (4.3 kPa)|
|WBC||<4x109/L (<4000/mm³), >12x109/L (>12,000/mm³), or 10% bands|
Prompt diagnosis is crucial to the management of sepsis, as initiation of early-goal-directed therapy is key to reducing mortality from severe sepsis.
Within the first three hours of suspected sepsis, diagnostic studies should include measurement of serum lactate, obtaining appropriate cultures before initiation of antimicrobial treatment, so long as this does not delay antimicrobial treatment by more than 45 minutes. To identify the causative organism(s), at least two sets of blood cultures (aerobic and anaerobic bottles) should be obtained, with at least one drawn percutaneously and one drawn through each vascular access device (such as an IV catheter) in place more than 48 hours.  If other sources are suspected, cultures of these sources, such as urine, cerebrospinal fluid, wounds, respiratory secretions, should be obtained as well, so long as this does not delay antimicrobial treatment. 
Within six hours, if there is persistent hypotension despite initial fluid resuscitation of 30ml/kg, or if initial lactate is ≥ 4mmol/L (36mg/dL), central venous pressure and central venous oxygen saturationshould be measured. Lactate should be re-measured if the initial lactate was elevated.
Within twelve hours, it is essential to diagnose or exclude any source of infection that would require emergent source control, such as necrotizing soft tissue infection, peritonitis, cholangitis, intestinal infarction.
According to the American College of Chest Physicians and the Society of Critical Care Medicine, there are different levels of sepsis:
- Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is the presence of two or more of the following: abnormal body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate or blood gas, and white blood cell count.
- Sepsis is defined as SIRS in response to an infectious process.
- Severe sepsis is defined as sepsis with sepsis-induced organ dysfunction or tissue hypoperfusion (manifesting as hypotension, elevated lactate, or decreased urine output. 
- Septic shock is severe sepsis plus persistently low blood pressure following the administration of intravenous fluids.
Infection can be suspected or proven (by culture, stain, or polymerase chain reaction (PCR)), or a clinical syndrome pathognomonic for infection. Specific evidence for infection includes WBCs in normally sterile fluid (such as urine or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)); evidence of a perforated viscus (free air on abdominal x-ray or CT scan; signs of acute peritonitis); abnormal chest x-ray (CXR) consistent with pneumonia (with focal opacification); or petechiae, purpura, or purpura fulminans.
End-organ dysfunction 
Examples of end-organ dysfunction include the following:
- Lungs:acute lung injury (ALI) (PaO2/FiO2 < 300) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (PaO2/FiO2 < 200)
- Brain: encephalopathy symptoms: agitation, confusion, coma; cause: ischemia, hemorrhage, microthrombi, microabscesses, multifocal necrotizing leukoencephalopathy
- Liver: disruption of protein synthetic function: manifests acutely as progressive coagulopathy due to inability to synthesize clotting factors, disruption of metabolic functions: manifests as cessation of bilirubin metabolism, resulting in elevated unconjugated serum bilirubin levels
- Kidney: oliguria and anuria, electrolyte abnormalities, volume overload
- Heart: systolic and diastolic heart failure, likely due to cytokines that depress myocyte function, cellular damage, manifest as a troponin leak (although not necessarily ischemic in nature)
More specific definitions of end-organ dysfunction exist for SIRS in pediatrics.
- Cardiovascular dysfunction (after fluid resuscitation with at least 40 ml/kg of crystalloid)
- hypotension with blood pressure < 5th percentile for age or systolic blood pressure < 2 standard deviations below normal for age, OR
- vasopressor requirement, OR
- two of the following criteria:
- Respiratory dysfunction (in the absence of cyanotic heart disease or known chronic lung disease)
- the ratio of the arterial partial-pressure of oxygen to the fraction of oxygen in the gases inspired (PaO2/FiO2) < 300 (the definition of acute lung injury), OR
- arterial partial-pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) > 65 torr (20 mmHg) over baseline PaCO2 (evidence of hypercapnic respiratory failure), OR
- supplemental oxygen requirement of greater than FiO2 0.5 to maintain oxygen saturation ≥ 92%
- Neurologic dysfunction
- Hematologic dysfunction
- Renal dysfunction
- Hepatic dysfunction (only applicable to infants > 1 month)
Consensus definitions, however, continue to evolve, with the latest expanding the list of signs and symptoms of sepsis to reflect clinical bedside experience.
Differential diagnosis 
The differential diagnosis for sepsis is broad and includes those conditions that can cause the systemic signs of SIRS: alcohol withdrawal, pulmonary embolus, thyrotoxicosis, anaphylaxis, adrenal insufficiency, and neurogenic shock.
Neonatal sepsis 
In common clinical usage, neonatal sepsis specifically refers to the presence of a bacterial blood stream infection (BSI), such as meningitis, pneumonia, pyelonephritis, or gastroenteritis, in the setting of fever. Criteria with regards to hemodynamic compromise or respiratory failure are not useful clinically because these symptoms often do not arise in neonates until death is imminent and unpreventable.
Sepsis is caused by a combination of factors related to the invading organism(s) and the host (pre-disposing illnesses, genetics, and immune system).
Microbial factors 
A bacteria's capsule (for example, in certain strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae), can allow it to evade phagocytosis, while pili of some strains of E. Coli can allow this bacterium to adhere to the epithelium of the kidneys. Sepsis caused by gram negative bacteria is thought to be largely due to the host's response to lipopolysaccharides, also called LPS or endotoxin, in the cell wall, while gram positive bacteria are more likely to cause sepsis by their release of exotoxins. Some exotoxins can quickly lead to a rapid release of cytokines by acting as superantigens, which can simultaneously bind MHC and the T-cell receptor.
Host factors 
Severe sepsis occurs when sepsis leads to organ dysfunction, such as pulmonary dysfunction, coagulation or other blood abnormalities, decreased urine production, or altered mental status. If the organ dysfunction of severe sepsis is associated with low blood pressure (hypotension), or insufficient blood flow (hypoperfusion) to one or more organs (causing, for example, lactic acidosis), this is septic shock.
Sepsis can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) (formerly known as multiple organ failure), and death. Organ dysfunction results from local changes in blood flow, from sepsis-induced hypotension (< 90 mmHg or a reduction of ≥ 40 mmHg from baseline) and from diffuse intravascular coagulation, among other things. One of the factors which appears to promote the development of MODS is the cytokine-induced abnormalities to microcirculation which has been observed as microvascular thrombosis within septic patients.
Endotoxins produced from bacteria and cytokines, particularly TNF, IL-1 and IL-6, can activate the procoagulation factors in the endothelium, leading to endothelial damage. This damaged endothelial surface inhibits anticoagulant properties as well as increases antifibrinolysis, which can lead to intravascular clotting, microvascular thrombosis and multiple organ failure.
Bacteremia is the presence of viable bacteria in the bloodstream. Likewise, the terms viremia and fungemia simply refer to viruses and fungi in the bloodstream. These terms say nothing about the consequences this has on the body. For example, bacteria can be introduced into the bloodstream during toothbrushing. This form of bacteremia almost never causes problems in normal individuals. However, bacteremia associated with certain dental procedures can cause bacterial infection of the heart valves (known as endocarditis) in high-risk patients. Conversely, a systemic inflammatory response syndrome can occur in patients without the presence of infection, for example in those with burns, polytrauma, or the initial state in pancreatitis and chemical pneumonitis.
The therapy of sepsis rests on intravenous fluids, antibiotics, surgical drainage of infected fluid collections, and appropriate support for organ dysfunction. This may include hemodialysis in kidney failure, mechanical ventilation in pulmonary dysfunction, transfusion of blood products, and drug and fluid therapy for circulatory failure. Ensuring adequate nutrition—preferably by enteral feeding, but if necessary by parenteral nutrition—is important during prolonged illness.
In those with high blood sugar levels, insulin to bring it down to 7.8-10 mmol/L (140-180 mg/dL) is recommended with lower levels potentially worsening outcomes. Medication to prevent deep vein thrombosis and gastric ulcers may also be used.
In severe sepsis, broad spectrum antibiotics are recommended within 1 hour of making the diagnosis. For every hour delay in the administration there is an associated 6% rise in mortality. Antibiotic regimens should be reassessed daily and narrowed if appropriate.Duration of treatment is typically 7-10 days with the type of antibiotic used directed by the results of cultures.
Early goal directed therapy 
Early goal directed therapy (EGDT) is an approach to the management of severe sepsis during the initial 6 hours after diagnosis. A step-wise approach should be used, with the physiologic goal of optimizing cardiac preload, afterload, and contractility. It has been found to reduce mortality in those with sepsis.
Urine output is also monitored, with a minimum goal of 0.5 ml/kg/h. In the original trial, mortality was cut from 46.5% to 30.5%. An appropriate decrease in serum lactate however may be equivalent to SvO2 and easier to obtain.
Intravenous fluids 
In EGDT, fluids are titrated in response to heart rate, blood pressure, and urine output; restoring large fluid deficits can require 6 to 10L of crystalloids. In cases where a central venous catheter is used to measure blood pressures dynamically, fluids should be administered until the central venous pressure (CVP) reaches 8–12 cm of water (or 10–15 cm of water in mechanically ventilated patients). Once these goals are met, the mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2), i.e., the oxygen saturation of venous blood as it returns to the heart as measured at the vena cava, is optimized. If the SvO2 is less than 70%, blood is given to reach a hemoglobin of 10 g/dl and then inotropes are added until the SvO2 is optimized.
Once the person has been sufficiently fluid resuscitated but the mean arterial pressure is not greater than 65 mmHg vasopressors are recommended. While current recommendations suggest either norepinephrine (noradrenaline) or dopamine, the former appears safer. If a single pressor is not sufficient in improving the blood pressure, epinephrine (adrenaline) may be added in.
Elective tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation may be performed to reduce oxygen demand if the SvO2 remains low despite optimization of hemodynamics. Etomidate is not recommended as a medication to help with intubation in this situation due to concerns of adrenal insufficiency and increased mortality.
The use of steroids in sepsis is controversial. During critical illness, a state of adrenal insufficiency and tissue resistance to corticosteroids may occur. This has been termed critical illness–related corticosteroid insufficiency. Treatment with corticosteroids might be most beneficial in those with septic shock and early severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), whereas its role in others such as those with pancreatitis or severe pneumonia is unclear. However, the exact way of determining corticosteroid insufficiency remains problematic. It should be suspected in those poorly responding to resuscitation with fluids and vasopressors. ACTH stimulation testing is not recommended to confirm the diagnosis. The method of cessation of glucocorticoid drugs is variable, and it is unclear whether they should be weaned or simply stopped abruptly.
Activated protein C 
Recombinant activated protein C (drotrecogin alpha) was originally introduced for severe sepsis (as identified by a high APACHE II score), where it was thought to confer a survival benefit. However, subsequent studies showed that it increased adverse events and did not decrease mortality. It was removed from sale in 2011.
Neonatal sepsis is difficult to diagnose clinically. They may be relatively asymptomatic until hemodynamic and respiratory collapse is imminent. If there is even a remote suspicion of sepsis, they are frequently treated with antibiotics empirically until cultures are sufficiently proven to be negative.
Approximately 20–35% of people with severe sepsis and 30–70% of people with septic shock die. Lactate is a useful method of determining prognosis with those who have a level greater than 4 mmol/L having a mortality of 40% and those with a level of less than 2 mmol/L have a mortality of less than 15%.
There are a number of prognostic stratification systems such as APACHE II and Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis. APACHE II factors in the person's age, underlying condition, and various physiologic variables can yield estimates of the risk of dying of severe sepsis. Of the individual covariates, the severity of underlying disease most strongly influences the risk of death. Septic shock is also a strong predictor of short- and long-term mortality. Case-fatality rates are similar for culture-positive and culture-negative severe sepsis. The Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis (MEDS) score is simpler and useful in the emergency department environment.
Some people may experience severe long-term cognitive decline following an episode of severe sepsis, but the absence of baseline neuropsychological data in most sepsis patients makes the incidence of this difficult to quantify or to study.
Sepsis causes millions of deaths globally each year. In the United States sepsis affects approximately 3 in 1000 people and severe sepsis contributes to more than 200,000 deaths per year. Due to its rarely being reported as a primary diagnosis (often being a complication of cancer or other illnesses), the incidence, mortality, and morbidity rates are likely underestimated. It is the second-leading cause of death in non-coronary intensive care unit (ICU) patients, and the tenth-most-common cause of death overall according to data from the (the first being heart disease). Children under 12 months and elderly have the highest incidence of severe sepsis. It occurs in 1–2% of all hospitalizations and accounts for as much as 25% of ICU bed utilization.
Though severe systemic toxicity was observed prior, it was only in the 19th century that a specific term - sepsis - was coined for this condition. By the end of the 19th century, it was widely believed that microbes produced substances that could injure the mammalian host and that soluble toxins released during infection caused the fever and shock that were commonplace during severe infections. Pfeiffer coined the term endotoxin at the beginning of the 20th century to denote the pyrogenic principle associated with Vibrio cholerae. It was soon realised that endotoxins were expressed by most and perhaps all Gram negative organisms. The lipopolysaccharide character of enteric endotoxins was elucidated in the 1944 by Shear. The molecular character of this material was determined by Luderitz et al in 1973.
It was discovered in 1965 that a strain of C3H/HeJ mice were immune to the endotoxin induced shock. The genetic locus for this effect was dubbed Lps. These mice were also found to be hypersusceptible to infection by Gram negative bacteria. These observations were finally linked in 1998 by the discovery of the Toll-like receptor gene 4 (TLR 4). Genetic mapping work, performed over a period of 5 years, showed that TLR4 was the sole candidate locus within the Lps critical region strongly implying that a mutation within TLR4 must account for the lipopolysaccharide resistance phenotype. The defect in the TLR4 gene that led to the endotoxin resistant phenotype was discovered to be due to a mutation in the cytoplasmic domain.
Society and culture 
A large international collaboration was established to educate people about sepsis and to improve patient outcomes with sepsis, entitled the "Surviving Sepsis Campaign". The Campaign has published an evidence-based review of management strategies for severe sepsis, with the aim to publish a complete set of guidelines in subsequent years.
In 2012, a paper was published raising concerns regarding the use of hydroxyethyl starch in sepsis. The pharmaceutical company, Fresenius Kabi, that makes the product is threatening to bring legal action against the author, Anders Perner, as they disagree with the results. The academic community has raised concerns regarding this sort of behavior by a corporation.
- Levy, Mitchell M.; Fink, Mitchell P.; Marshall, John C.; Abraham, Edward; Angus, Derek; Cook, Deborah; Cohen, Jonathan; Opal, Steven M. et al. (2003). "2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International Sepsis Definitions Conference". Critical Care Medicine 31 (4): 1250–6. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000050454.01978.3B. PMID 12682500.
- Bone, R.; Balk, R.; Cerra, F.; Dellinger, R.; Fein, A.; Knaus, W.; Schein, R.; Sibbald, W. (1992). "Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. The ACCP/SCCM Consensus Conference Committee. American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine". Chest 101 (6): 1644–55. doi:10.1378/chest.101.6.1644. PMID 1303622.
- Septicemia at eMedicine Dictionary
- Annane D, Bellissant E, Cavaillon JM (2005). "Septic shock". Lancet 365 (9453): 63–78. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17667-8. PMID 15639681.
- Levy MM, Fink MP, Marshall JC, et al. (April 2003). "2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International Sepsis Definitions Conference". Crit. Care Med. 31 (4): 1250–6. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000050454.01978.3B. PMID 12682500.
- Jui J. Chapter 146. Septic Shock. In: Tintinalli JE, Stapczynski JS, Cline DM, Ma OJ, Cydulka RK, Meckler GD, eds. Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2011. http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=6364928. Accessed December 11, 2012.
- Dellinger, RP; Levy, MM; Carlet, JM; Bion, J; Parker, MM; Jaeschke, R; Reinhart, K; Angus, DC; Brun-Buisson, C; Beale, R; Calandra, T; Dhainaut, JF; Gerlach, H; Harvey, M; Marini, JJ; Marshall, J; Ranieri, M; Ramsay, G; Sevransky, J; Thompson, BT; Townsend, S; Vender, JS; Zimmerman, JL; Vincent, JL (2008 Jan). "Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008.". Intensive care medicine 34 (1): 17–60. PMID 18058085.
- Patel, GP; Balk, RA (2012 Jan 15). "Systemic steroids in severe sepsis and septic shock.". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 185 (2): 133–9. PMID 21680949.
- Martí-Carvajal, AJ; Solà, I; Lathyris, D; Cardona, AF (2012 Mar 14). "Human recombinant activated protein C for severe sepsis.". Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 3: CD004388. PMID 22419295.
- Dolin, [edited by] Gerald L. Mandell, John E. Bennett, Raphael (2010). Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases (7th ed. ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. pp. Chapter 70. ISBN 0443068399.
- Bloch KC. Chapter 4. Infectious Diseases. In: McPhee SJ, Hammer GD, eds. Pathophysiology of Disease. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2010. http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=5366994. Accessed January 10, 2013.
- "American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference: definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis". Crit. Care Med. 20 (6): 864–74. 1992. doi:10.1097/00003246-199206000-00025. PMID 1597042.
- Dellinger, RP; Levy, MM; Rhodes, A; Annane, D; Gerlach, H; Opal, SM; Sevransky, JE; Sprung, CL; Douglas, IS; Jaeschke, R; Osborn, TM; Nunnally, ME; Townsend, SR; Reinhart, K; Kleinpell, RM; Angus, DC; Deutschman, CS; Machado, FR; Rubenfeld, GD; Webb, SA; Beale, RJ; Vincent, JL; Moreno, R; Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including the Pediatric, Subgroup (2013 Feb). "Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2012.". Critical care medicine 41 (2): 580–637. PMID 23353941.
- Soong, J; Soni, N (2012 Jun). "Sepsis: recognition and treatment.". Clinical medicine (London, England) 12 (3): 276–80. PMID 22783783.
- Dellinger, RP; Levy, MM; Rhodes, A; Annane, D; Gerlach, H; Opal, SM; Sevransky, JE; Sprung, CL; Douglas, IS; Jaeschke, R; Osborn, TM; Nunnally, ME; Townsend, SR; Reinhart, K; Kleinpell, RM; Angus, DC; Deutschman, CS; Machado, FR; Rubenfeld, GD; Webb, SA; Beale, RJ; Vincent, JL; Moreno, R; Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines, Committee; Pediatric, Subgroup (2013 Feb). "Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012.". Critical care medicine 41 (2): 580–637. PMID 23353941.
- Abraham, Edward; Singer, Mervyn (2007). "Mechanisms of sepsis-induced organ dysfunction". Critical Care Medicine 35 (10): 2408–16. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000282072.56245.91. PMID 17948334.
- Goldstein B, Giroir B, Randolph A (2005). "International pediatric sepsis consensus conference: definitions for sepsis and organ dysfunction in pediatrics". Pediatr Crit Care Med 6 (1): 2–8. doi:10.1097/01.PCC.0000149131.72248.E6. PMID 15636651.
<ref>tag; no text was provided for refs named
Hospital2012(see the help page).
Cite error: Invalid
- Principles of critical care (3rd ed. ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, Medical Pub. Division. 2005. ISBN 0071416404.
- Nimah, Marianne; Richard J. Brilli (2003). "Coagulation dysfunction in sepsis and multiple organ system failure". Critical Care Clinics 19: 441-458. doi:10.1016/s0749/0704(03)00008-3.
- Lockhart, P. B.; Brennan, M. T.; Sasser, H. C.; Fox, P. C.; Paster, B. J.; Bahrani-Mougeot, F. K. (2008). "Bacteremia Associated with Tooth Brushing and Dental Extraction". Circulation 117 (24): 3118–25. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.758524. PMC 2746717. PMID 18541739.
- Wilson, W.; Taubert, K. A.; Gewitz, M.; Lockhart, P. B.; Baddour, L. M.; Levison, M.; Bolger, A.; Cabell, C. H. et al. (2007). "Prevention of Infective Endocarditis: Guidelines from the American Heart Association: A Guideline from the American Heart Association Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease Committee, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group". Circulation 116 (15): 1736–54. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.183095. PMID 17446442.
- Hirasawa, H; Oda, S; Nakamura, M (2009 Sep 7). "Blood glucose control in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.". World journal of gastroenterology : WJG 15 (33): 4132–6. PMID 19725146.
- Rivers, Emanuel; Nguyen, Bryant; Havstad, Suzanne; Ressler, Julie; Muzzin, Alexandria; Knoblich, Bernhard; Peterson, Edward; Tomlanovich, Michael et al. (2001). "Early Goal-Directed Therapy in the Treatment of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock". New England Journal of Medicine 345 (19): 1368–77. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa010307. PMID 11794169.
- Jones, Alan E.; Brown, Michael D.; Trzeciak, Stephen; Shapiro, Nathan I.; Garrett, John S.; Heffner, Alan C.; Kline, Jeffrey A.; Emergency Medicine Shock Research Network investigators (2008). "The effect of a quantitative resuscitation strategy on mortality in patients with sepsis: A meta-analysis". Critical Care Medicine 36 (10): 2734–9. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e318186f839. PMC 2737059. PMID 18766093.
- Jones, AE; Shapiro, NI, Trzeciak, S, Arnold, RC, Claremont, HA, Kline, JA, Emergency Medicine Shock Research Network (EMShockNet), Investigators (2010 Feb 24). "Lactate clearance vs central venous oxygen saturation as goals of early sepsis therapy: a randomized clinical trial.". JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association 303 (8): 739–46. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.158. PMC 2918907. PMID 20179283.
- Hall, Jesse (2005). Principles of critical care (3rd ed. ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, Medical Pub. Division. pp. Chapter 46. ISBN 0071416404.
- De Backer, D; Aldecoa, C, Njimi, H, Vincent, JL (2012 Mar). "Dopamine versus norepinephrine in the treatment of septic shock: A meta-analysis.". Critical Care Medicine 40 (3): 725–30. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31823778ee. PMID 22036860.
- Vasu TS, Cavallazzi R, Hirani A, Kaplan G, Leiby B, Marik PE (2012). "Norepinephrine or dopamine for septic shock: systematic review of randomized clinical trials". J Intensive Care Med 27 (3): 172–8. doi:10.1177/0885066610396312. PMID 21436167.
- Cherfan, AJ; Arabi, YM; Al-Dorzi, HM; Kenny, LP (2012 May). "Advantages and disadvantages of etomidate use for intubation of patients with sepsis.". Pharmacotherapy 32 (5): 475–82. PMID 22488264.
- Chan, CM; Mitchell, AL; Shorr, AF (2012 Nov). "Etomidate is associated with mortality and adrenal insufficiency in sepsis: A meta-analysis.". Critical care medicine 40 (11): 2945–53. PMID 22971586.
- Marik, Paul E.; Pastores, Stephen M.; Annane, Djillali; Meduri, G Umberto; Sprung, Charles L.; Arlt, Wiebke; Keh, Didier; Briegel, Josef et al. (2008). "Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of corticosteroid insufficiency in critically ill adult patients: Consensus statements from an international task force by the American College of Critical Care Medicine". Critical Care Medicine 36 (6): 1937–49. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31817603ba. PMID 18496365.
- Russel, JA (2008 Oct). "The current management of septic shock.". Minerva medica 99 (5): 431–58. PMID 18971911.
- Carpenter, CR; Keim, SM; Upadhye, S; Nguyen, HB; Best Evidence in Emergency Medicine Investigator, Group (2009 Oct). "Risk stratification of the potentially septic patient in the emergency department: the Mortality in the Emergency Department Sepsis (MEDS) score.". The Journal of emergency medicine 37 (3): 319–27. PMID 19427752.
- Jackson, JC; Hopkins, RO; Miller, RR; Gordon, SM; Wheeler, AP; Ely, EW (2009 Nov). "Acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, and cognitive decline: a review and case study.". Southern medical journal 102 (11): 1150–7. PMID 19864995.
- Longo, Dan (2011). Harrison's principles of internal medicine. (18th ed. ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. p. Chapter 271. ISBN 978-0071748896.
- Martin, Greg S.; Mannino, David M.; Eaton, Stephanie; Moss, Marc (2003). "The Epidemiology of Sepsis in the United States from 1979 through 2000". New England Journal of Medicine 348 (16): 1546–54. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa022139. PMID 12700374.
- Shear MJ (1944) Chemical treatment of tumors, IX: reactions of mice with primary subcutaneous tumors to injection of a hemorrhage-producing bacterial polysaccharide. J Natl Canc Inst 4: 461-476
- Luderitz O, Galanos C, Lehmann V (1973). "Lipid A: chemical structure and biologic activity". J Infect Dis 128: 29.
- Heppner G, Weiss DW (1965). "High susceptibility of strain A mice to endotoxin and endotoxin-red blood cell mixtures". J Bacteriol 90 (3): 696–703. PMC 315712. PMID 16562068.
- O'Brien AD, Rosenstreich DL, Scher I et al. (1980). "Genetic control of susceptibility to Salmonella typhimurium in mice: role of the LPS gene". J Immunol 124 (1): 20–24. PMID 6985638.
- Poltorak A, Smirnova I, He XL et al (1998) Genetic and physical mapping of the Lps locus-identification of the toll-4 receptor as a candidate gene in the critical region. Blood Cells Mol Dis 24: 340-355
- Perner, A; Haase, N; Guttormsen, AB; Tenhunen, J; Klemenzson, G; Åneman, A; Madsen, KR; Møller, MH; Elkjær, JM; Poulsen, LM; Bendtsen, A; Winding, R; Steensen, M; Berezowicz, P; Søe-Jensen, P; Bestle, M; Strand, K; Wiis, J; White, JO; Thornberg, KJ; Quist, L; Nielsen, J; Andersen, LH; Holst, LB; Thormar, K; Kjældgaard, AL; Fabritius, ML; Mondrup, F; Pott, FC; Møller, TP; Winkel, P; Wetterslev, J; 6S Trial, Group; Scandinavian Critical Care Trials, Group (2012 Jul 12). "Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42 versus Ringer's acetate in severe sepsis.". The New England Journal of Medicine 367 (2): 124–34. PMID 22738085.
- Wojcik, Jeppe (July 24, 2012). "Pharma giant threatens Danish scientist". ScienceNordic. Retrieved 13 August 2012.