|Author||Timothy D. Snyder|
|October 28, 2010|
Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin is an historical and political analysis written by Yale historian Timothy D. Snyder, first published in book form by Basic Books on October 28, 2010. The book examines the political, cultural and ideological context tied to a specific area of land, under which the regimes of Joseph Stalin's Soviet Union and Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany committed mass killing of an estimated 14 million non-combatants between the years 1933 and 1945. Snyders thesis is that the 'bloodlands', a region which comprised what is modern-day Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, Russia and the Baltic states, is the area where the regimes of Stalin and Hitler, despite their conflicting goals, interacted to increase suffering and bloodshed many times worse than any seen in western history. Snyder notes similarities between the two totalitarian regimes while also noting enabling interactions that re-enforced the destruction and suffering brought to bear on non-combatants. Snyder also brings scholarship to many forgotten, misunderstood, or misremembered parts of the history, particularly making note of the fact that most of the victims were not killed inside the concentration camps of the respective regimes. Snyder estimates, contrary to a commonly held view, that the Nazis were responsible for about twice as many noncombatant killings as Stalin's regime.
The Eastern European regions that Snyder terms "Bloodlands" is the area where Hitler's vision of Racial supremacy and Lebensraum resulting in the Final Solution and other Nazi atrocities, met, sometimes in conflict, sometimes in cooperation, with Stalin's vision of a communist ideology which included the deliberate starvation and murder and imprisonment of innocent men, women and children in Gulags and elsewhere. Because of the efforts of the two regimes an estimated 14 million noncombatants in the Eastern Europe "Bloodlands" were killed, with Nazi Germany being responsible for about two thirds of the total number of deaths. 5.4m died in a well known event, the Holocaust – but many more died in more obscure circumstances.
The book confronts both a simplistic vision of history that has been termed "Nazis bad, Soviets good". and the manner by which the individual regimes are viewed alone and absent influence from outside. For instance, Snyder notes early Soviet support for the "Warsaw Uprising" against the Nazi occupation followed by a later unwillingness to assist the uprising in order that the Nazis might wipe the city clean for a later Soviet occupation. Snyder notes this as a clear example of interaction that may have led to many more deaths than might be the case had either regime acted independently. Snyder also takes a new look at parts of the history that have been previously understood only through the lens of propaganda and realpolitik: the Nazi–Soviet alliance of 1939; the Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust; Soviet persecution of the Polish underground; (cursed soldiers) or their own prisoners of war after the war. Snyder addresses other misconceptions, for example pointing out that many Jews were also killed by mass shootings as well as in the death camps. As Anne Applebaum comments, "The vast majority of Hitler’s victims, Jewish and otherwise, never saw a concentration camp". Similarly, all of the Soviet victims came from outside the Gulag concentration camp system, which 'only' accounts for a little over a million deaths. More Soviet prisoners died every day in Nazi camps during the Autumn of 1941 than Western Allied POWs in the entire war. Over 3 million Soviet POWs would die in the Nazi camps. The fate of the German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union would be little better; more than half a million died in terrible condition in the Soviet camps.
Snyder focuses on three periods, summarized by Richard Rhodes as: "deliberate mass starvation and shootings in the Soviet Union in the period from 1933 to 1938; mass shootings in occupied Poland more or less equally by Soviet and German killers in 1939 to 1941; deliberate starvation of 3.1 million Soviet prisoners of war and mass shooting and gassing of more than 5 million Jews by the Germans between 1941 and 1945".
The chapter covering the Holodomor (a word Snyder himself avoids) goes into considerable detail, for example recounting one story of an unofficial orphanage in village in the Kharkiv region where the children were so hungry they resorted to cannibalism, with one child eating parts of himself even while he was himself being cannibalised. 3.3m died during the Ukrainian starvation of 1933. Hitler starved 4.2 million persons in the Soviet Union (including 3.1 million POWs), largely Russians, Belarusians and Ukrainians in the Hunger Plan.
The book points out similarities between the two regimes:
|“||Hitler and Stalin thus shared a certain politics of tyranny: they brought about catastrophes, blamed the enemy of their choice, and then used the death of millions to make the case that their policies were necessary or desirable. Each of them had a transformative Utopia, a group to be blamed when its realisation proved impossible, and then a policy of mass murder that could be proclaimed as a kind of ersatz victory.||”|
Snyder not only describes how two regimes operated in a similar manner, but how they often collaborated and aided one another, at least till the 1941 German invasion of the Soviet Union (see for example the Gestapo–NKVD Conferences). One of the areas both totalitarian regimes collaborated over was on the destruction of the Polish people (see Nazi crimes against ethnic Poles, Holocaust in Poland and Soviet repressions of Polish citizens (1939–1946)) and the Jews; between the two of them, Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union killed about 200,000 Polish citizens in the period 1939–1941.
|“||The Nazi and Soviet regimes were sometimes allies, as in the joint occupation of Poland [from 1939–1941]. They sometimes held compatible goals as foes: as when Stalin chose not to aid the rebels in Warsaw in 1944 [during the Warsaw uprising], thereby allowing the Germans to kill people who would later have resisted communist rule…. Often the Germans and the Soviets goaded each other into escalations that cost more lives than the policies of either state by itself would have.||”|
Snyder also points out that after the Western Allies had allied themselves with Stalin against Hitler, after the war ended they had no will to fight the second totalitarian regime; as American and British soldiers had never entered Eastern Europe, the tragedy of those lands was never well known to the American or British populace (see Western betrayal).
Number of Victims
Timothy Snyder put the death toll, in the 'Bloodlands', at 14 million victims of both Stalin and Hitler, most of whom were non-combatants including indigenous civilians and Jewish civilians transported to death camps in Poland; combatants included disarmed military personnel in occupied countries and prisoners of war. Snyder pointed out that "I am not counting soldiers who died on the fields of battle". Snyder pointed out that this "is not a complete reckoning of all the death that Soviet and German power brought to the region". The victims Snyder lists were killed only as a result of "deliberate policies of mass murder" such as executions, deliberate famine and in death camps. Snyder maintains that he "generally excludes from the count" deaths due to exertion or disease or malnutrition in concentration camps; deportations, forced labor, evacuations, people who died of hunger as a result of wartime shortfalls and civilians killed by bombings or other acts of war. The geographic area covered by the Bloodlands is limited to Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, the Baltic states and western Russian regions occupied by Germany. Regarding the figures, Snyder noted, "again, my reckoning is on the conservative side."
Timothy Snyder provided a summary of the 14 million victims.
- 3.3 million victims of the Soviet Famines- Snyder uses the description "the Soviet Famines" in which the victims were "mostly Ukrainians"; he does not use the term Holodomor. According to Snyder, Stalin wanted to exterminate by famine those Ukrainians and ethnic Poles who resisted Collectivization in the Soviet Union.
- 300,000 victims in the national terror in the Soviet Union from 1937-1938- Snyder uses the term "national terror", which targeted "mostly Poles and Ukrainians", killed because of their ethnic origins (figure does not include an additional 400,000 Great Purge deaths outside of the Bloodlands). According to Snyder, Stalin considered ethnic Poles in the western USSR as a potential agents of the Second Polish Republic; Ukrainian kulaks who survived the famine of 1933 were also considered hostile to the Soviet regime in a future conflict.
- 200,000 Poles were killed between 1939 and 1941 in occupied Poland, with each regime responsible for about half of those deaths. The deaths included civilians and military prisoners of war killed in the Katyn massacre Most of the victims were the intellectual and political elite of Poland. According to Snyder, both Stalin and Hitler wanted to eliminate the leadership of the Polish nation.
- 4.2 million victims of the German Hunger Plan in the Soviet Union, "largely Russians, Belarusians and Ukrainians" including 3.1 million Soviet POWs and 1.0 million civilian deaths in the Siege of Leningrad. Snyder does not include famine deaths outside of the Soviet Union. According to Snyder, Hitler eventually intended to exterminate up to 45 million Poles, Ukrainians, Belarusians and Czechs by planned famine as part of Generalplan Ost.
- 5.4 million Jewish victims in the Holocaust (does not include an additional 300,000 deaths outside of the Bloodlands).
- 700,000 civilians, "mostly Belarusians and Poles" shot by the Germans "in reprisals"  during the Occupation of Belarus by Nazi Germany and the Warsaw Uprising of 1944.
A review of the book in the Ottawa Citizen summarized the number of victims -Bloodlands "is a chilling and instructive story of how 14 million unarmed men, women and children were murdered. The death toll includes two familiar victim groups -5.7 million Jews in the Holocaust and 3.3 million Ukrainians during the 1932-1933 famine engineered by Soviet dictator Josef Stalin -along with lesser-known victims that include three million Soviet prisoners of war who were deliberately starved to death".
The book has received favourable reviews in various media outlets such as BBC History The Seattle Times, and the New York Observer and has been described as "an impeccably researched history of mass killings in the eastern part of mid-20th-century Europe" by Robert Gerwarth in the Irish Times.
Professor Neal Pease wrote: "Many books are useful; a handful can be called important; Bloodlands does no less than change the way we think of 20th century history, and of the deadly human cost of the totalitarian utopianism that was among its most distinctive characteristics."
Guy Walters writing in the Financial Times said he found the book disturbing, writing "Some may find Snyder’s staking-out of the area of the bloodlands too arbitrary for their tastes, and might accuse him of creating a questionable geographical delineation. Agree with it or not, in a sense it does not matter, because Snyder presents material that is undeniably fresh – what’s more, it comes from sources in languages with which very few western academics are familiar. The success of Bloodlands really lies in its effective presentation of cold, hard scholarship, which is in abundance."
Anne Applebaum writing for The New York Review of Books said "Snyder’s original contribution is to treat all of these episodes—the Ukrainian famine, the Holocaust, Stalin’s mass executions, the planned starvation of Soviet POWs, postwar ethnic cleansing—as different facets of the same phenomenon. Instead of studying Nazi atrocities or Soviet atrocities separately, as many others have done, he looks at them together. Yet Snyder does not exactly compare the two systems either. His intention, rather, is to show that the two systems committed the same kinds of crimes at the same times and in the same places, that they aided and abetted one another, and above all that their interaction with one another led to more mass killing than either might have carried out alone."
Neal Ascherson writing for The Guardian said, "In this book, he seems to have set himself three labours. The first was to bring together the enormous mass of fresh research – some of it his own – into Soviet and Nazi killing, and produce something like a final and definitive account. (Since the fall of communism, archives have continued to open and witnesses – Polish, Ukrainian, Belarussian especially – have continued to break silence.) But Snyder's second job was to limit his own scope, by subject and by place. He is not writing about the fate of soldiers or bombing victims in the second world war, and neither is he confining himself to the Jewish Holocaust. His subject is the deliberate mass murder of civilians – Jewish and non-Jewish – in a particular zone of Europe in a particular time-frame."
Some historians have criticized the book for its suggestion of a moral equivalence between Soviet mass murders and the Nazi Holocaust. Cambridge professor Richard Evans, who wrote a "blistering review" of the book, commented "It seems to me that he is simply equating Nazi genocide with the mass murders carried out in the Soviet Union under Stalin […] There is nothing wrong with comparing. It's the equation that I find highly troubling." It was suggested, however, and it was a point conceded by the Cambridge historian, that his negative review was partly "influenced by Snyder's own less than positive review of Evans's [… The Third Reich at War] in the New York Review of Books" the previous year. Dovid Katz, an historian of Lithuanian Jewry, commented that "Snyder flirts with the very wrong moral equivalence between Hitler and Stalin […] None of these incidents besides the Holocaust involved the willful massacre of a whole race. There is something very different going on, beyond politics, when people try to murder all the babies of a race." Other professional historians to take issue with Snyder's arguments and methods include Thomas Kühne, Omer Bartov, Dan Diner, Christian Ingrao and Dariusz Stola. The book has also drawn criticism from rightwing nationalists in Eastern Europe, who complain about Snyder's examination of East European collaboration in the Holocaust.
Bloodlands was named a book of the year for 2010 by The Atlantic, The Economist, The Financial Times, The Jewish Forward, The Independent, The New Republic, New Statesman, Reason, The Seattle Times, and The Daily Telegraph.
Bloodlands won a number of prizes including: Cundill Prize Recognition of Excellence; Le Prix du livre d’Histoire de l’Europe 2013; Moczarski Prize in History; Literature Award, American Academy of Arts and Letters; Leipzig Book Prize for European Understanding; Phi Beta Kappa Society Emerson Book Award; Gustav Ranis International History Prize; Prakhina Foundation International Book Prize, honorable mention; Jean-Charles Velge Prize; Tadeusz Walendowski Book Prize; Wacław Jędrzejewicz History Medal; shortlisted for the Duff Cooper Prize; shortlisted for the Wayne S. Vucinich Prize (ASEEES); shortlisted for the Austrian Scholarly Book of the Year; shortlisted for the NDR Kultur Sachbuchpreis 2011; Jury commendation, Bristol Festival of Ideas. The book was also awarded the 2013 Hannah Arendt Prize for Political Thought.
- Between Hitler and Stalin
- World War II casualties
- Nazi crimes against ethnic Poles
- Nazi crimes against Soviet POWs
- Mass killings under Communist regimes
- Applebaum, Anne (November 11, 2010). "The Worst of the Madness". The New York Review of Books. p. 1. Retrieved November 2, 2010.
- "On the stand: The week’s best magazine reads" by James Adams, The Globe and Mail, March 11, 2011.
- "History and its woes". The Economist. October 14, 2010. p. 1. Retrieved November 2, 2010.
- Guy Walters (November 1, 2010). "Bloodlands". The Financial Times. p. 1. Retrieved November 2, 2010.
- Kaminski, Matthew (October 18, 2010). "Savagery in the East". Wall Street Journal. p. 1. Retrieved November 2, 2010.
- Richard Rhodes, Review of Timothy Snyder's "Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin.", Washington Post, Thursday, December 16, 2010
- Lapham, Lewis (February 12, 2011). "As Stalin Starved Ukrainians, Kids Ate Each Other". Bloomberg. p. 1. Retrieved March 7, 2011.
- Timothy Snyder, Bloodlands, Basic Books 2010 Page 411(this can be verified on Amazon.com)
- Ascherson, Neal (October 9, 2010). "Neal Ascherson on why Auschwitz and Siberia are only half the story". The Guardian (London). p. 1. Retrieved November 2, 2010.
- Timothy Snyder, Bloodlands, Basic Books 2010 Page 410-412
- Timothy Snyder, Bloodlands, Basic Books 2010 Page 411-412
- Timothy Snyder, Hitler vs Stalin who was worse, The New York Review of Books, January 27, 2011
- Timothy Snyder, Bloodlands, Basic Books 2010 on Page 411 Snyder states "4.2 million Soviet citizens starved by the German occupiers"
- Timothy Snyder, Bloodlands, Basic Books 2010 on Page 160
- Timothy Snyder, Bloodlands, Basic Books 2010,P. 411
- "Eastern Europe's bloodbath" by Peter O'Neill, Ottawa Citizen, February 27, 2011.
- Moorhouse, Roger. "Bloodlands: Europe between Hitler and Stalin". BBC History.
- Smith, Douglas (November 6, 2010). "'Bloodlands': An account of Hitler and Stalin's frenzied era of mass murder". The Seattle Times. p. 1. Retrieved November 9, 2010.
- Glazek, Christopher (November 2, 2010). "Body Count: Timothy Snyder Strips the Holocaust of Theory". The New York Observer. p. 1. Retrieved November 9, 2010.
- Gerwart, Robert (January 8, 2011). "A forgotten European horror". The Irish Times.
- Pease, Neal (2010). "Timothy Snyder. Bloodlands: Europe between Hitler and Stalin. New York: Basic Books, 2010. Pp. xix, 524. ISBN 9780465002399". The Polish Review 55 (4): 486–492. JSTOR 27920683.
- Gal Beckerman (13 March 2011). "Exploring the 'Bloodlands'". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- Richard J. Evans (2010). "Who remembers the Poles?". London Review of Books 32 (21): 21–22. Retrieved August 2013.
- Charles Coutinho (2010). "Letters: 'Bloodlands'". London Review of Books 32 (23). Retrieved 5 August 2013.
- Guido Franzinetti (2010). "Letters: 'Bloodlands'". London Review of Books 32 (24). Retrieved 5 August 2013.
- Schwarz, Benjamin (2010). "Books of the Year". The Atlantic.
- "Page turners". The Economist. December 2, 2010.
- Critics, FT (November 26, 2010). "Nonfiction round-up". The Financial Times.
- Beckerman, Gal (December 28, 2010). "Forward Fives: 2010 in Non-Fiction". The Jewish Daily Forward.
- "The best books for Christmas: Our pick of 201". The independent (London). November 26, 2010.
- Messinger, Eric (December 22, 2010). "Editors' Picks: Best Books of 2010". The New Republic. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
- Gray, John (November 19, 2010). "Books of the year 2010". New Statesman. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
- Moynihan, Michael C. (December 30, 2010). "The Year in Books: Reason staffers pick the best books of 2010". Reason. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
- Gwinn, Mary Ann (December 18, 2010). "27 best books of 2010: The Seattle Times looks back at a year of great reading". The Seattle Times. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
- Beevor, Antonio (November 19, 2010). "Books of the Year for Christmas". The Telegraph (London). Retrieved March 10, 2011.
- Interview with Timothy Snyder about Bloodlands (audio) New Books in Eastern European Studies.
- Bloodlands Media
- Timothy Snyder interview with Albert Mohler
- http://www.dradio.de/dlf/sendungen/andruck/1507343/0 Transcript for Snyder interview with Bayerischer Rundfunk
- Bloodlands (audio) on CBC Radio One, Ideas:
- "The Origins of Mass Killing: the bloodlands hypothesis" lecture by Visiting Professor Timothy Snyder and Q&A at the London School of Economics, January 2014.