||This article's introduction section may not adequately summarize its contents. (October 2011)|
Bloodless surgery is a phrase that was popularized at the beginning of the 20th century by the practice of an internationally famous orthopedic surgeon, Adolf Lorenz, who was known as "the bloodless surgeon of Vienna". This expression reflected Lorenz's methods for treating patients with noninvasive techniques. His medical practice was a consequence of his severe allergy to carbolic acid routinely used in operating rooms of the era. His condition forced him to become a "dry surgeon".
Contemporary usage of bloodless surgery refers to both invasive and noninvasive medical techniques and protocols. The phrase is somewhat confusing. The expression does not mean "surgery that makes no use of blood or blood transfusion". Rather, it refers to surgery performed without transfusion of allogeneic blood. Champions of bloodless surgery do, however, transfuse products made from allogeneic blood and they also make use of pre-donated blood for autologous transfusion. The last twenty years have witnessed a surge of interest in bloodless surgery, for a variety of reasons. Jehovah's Witnesses reject blood transfusions on religious grounds; others may be concerned about bloodborne diseases, such as hepatitis and AIDS.
During the early 1960s, American heart surgeon Denton Cooley successfully performed numerous bloodless open-heart surgeries on Jehovah's Witness patients. Fifteen years later, he and his associate published a report of more than 500 cardiac surgeries in this population, documenting that cardiac surgery could be safely performed without blood transfusion.
Ronald Lapin (1941–1995) was an Israeli-born American surgeon, who became interested in bloodless surgery in the mid-1970s. He was known as a "bloodless surgeon" due to his willingness to perform surgeries on severely anemic Jehovah's Witness patients without the use of blood transfusions.
- 1 Principles of bloodless surgery
- 2 Benefits
- 3 Risks
- 4 Hospitals and medical centers with bloodless medicine programs
- 4.1 United States
- 4.2 India
- 4.3 Brazil
- 4.4 Directories
- 5 References
- 6 Further information about bloodless surgery
- 7 See also
Principles of bloodless surgery
Several principles of bloodless surgery have been published.
In surgery, control of bleeding is achieved with the use of laser or sonic scalpels, minimally invasive surgical techniques, electrosurgery and electrocautery, low central venous pressure anesthesia (for select cases), or suture ligation of vessels. Other methods include the use of blood substitutes, which at present do not carry oxygen but expand the volume of the blood to prevent shock. Blood substitutes which do carry oxygen, such as PolyHeme, are also under development. Many doctors view acute normovolemic hemodilution, a form of storage of a patient's own blood, as a pillar of "bloodless surgery" but the technique is not an option for patients who refuse autologous blood transfusions.
Intraoperative blood salvage is a technique which recycles and cleans blood from a patient during an operation and redirects it into the patient's body.
Postoperatively, surgeons seek to minimize further blood loss by continuing administration of medications to augment blood cell mass and minimizing the number of blood draws and the quantity of blood drawn for testing, for example, by using pediatric blood tubes for adult patients. HBOC's such as Polyheme and Hemepure have been discontinued due to severe adverse reactions including death. South Africa was the only country where they were legally authorized as standard treatment but they are no longer available.
Bloodless medicine appeals to many doctors because it carries low risk of post-operative infection when compared with procedures requiring blood transfusion. Additionally, it may be economically beneficial in some countries. For example, the cost of blood in the US hovers around $500 a unit ( Feb 2012 Red Cross charges $700/unit - according to union rep in OH and hospitals' cost is about $1000 to $1500/unit- real cost is usually 5 times these amounts when everything is added in ), including testing. These costs are further increased as, according to Jan Hoffman (an administrator for the blood conservation program at Geisinger Medical Center in Danville, Pennsylvania), hospitals must pick up the tab for the first three units of blood infused per patient per calendar year. By contrast, hospitals may be reimbursed for drugs that boost a patient's red blood cell count, a treatment approach often used before and after surgery to reduce the need for a blood transfusion. However, such payments are highly contingent upon negotiations with insurance companies. Geisinger Medical Center began a blood conservation program in 2005 and reported a recorded savings of $273,000 in its first six months of operation. John Hopkins lowered their direct costs from $35.5 million in 2009 to $25.4 million in 2012 - a savings of $10 million a year.
Health risks appear to be another contributing factor in their appeal, especially in light of recent studies that suggest that blood transfusions can increase the risk of complications and reduce survival rates. Thus the recovery rate is faster with bloodless surgery allowing the patient to leave earlier.
In cases where a significant amount of blood is lost, an unwillingness to transfuse a patient could lead to exsanguination and death.
Hospitals and medical centers with bloodless medicine programs
- Los Angeles
- Fountain Valley [Anaheim]
- Fountain Valley Hospital 
- San Diego
- San Jose
Maryland / District of Columbia
- District of Columbia
- Englewood Hospital and Medical Center, Englewood, New Jersey
- Jersey Shore University Medical Center, Neptune City, New Jersey
- The University Hospital, Newark, New Jersey
- Newark Beth Israel Medical Center, Newark, New Jersey
- Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey
- Deaconness Medical Center, Spokane, Washington
- Valley Hospital and Medical Center, Spokane, Washington
- St. Joseph Medical Center, Tacoma WA
- Breach Candy Hospital.
- Center for Excellence for Bloodless Medicine and Surgery (cooperative venture by HealthCare Global Enterprises Limited (HCG) and medi-coin[clarification needed] .
- The New York Times Oct 26, 1902 p 7
- The New York Times Sep 10, 1906 p 1
- New York Times Dec 25, 1902 p 3
- New York Times Nov 22, 1926 p 3
- Jackson et al., Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings, January 2004; 17(1): 3–7.
- Farmer S, Webb D, Your Body Your Choice The layman's complete guide to bloodless medicine and surgery, 2000 pgs. Preface, 11, 16.
- Farmer S, Webb D, Your Body Your Choice The layman's complete guide to bloodless medicine and surgery, 2000 pg. 11, 14, 75.
- Dailey, John F, Dailey's Notes on Blood Fourth Edition, 2002 pg. 198.
- Farmer S, Webb D, Your Body Your Choice The layman's complete guide to bloodless medicine and surgery, 2000 pg. 144-5.
- Ott DA, Cooley DA. Cardiovascular surgery in Jehovah's Witnesses. Report of 542 operations without blood transfusion. JAMA. 1977;232:1256-1258.
- Goher et al., Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2005; 87: 3–14.
- Magner, David; Ouellette, James R.; Lee, Joseph R.; Colquhoun, Steven; Lo, Simon; Nissen, Nicholas N. (May 2006). "Pancreaticoduodenectomy after neoadjuvant therapy in a Jehovah's witness with locally advanced pancreatic cancer: case report and approach to avoid transfusion.". The American surgeon 72 (5): 435–437. PMID 16719200.
- Time Magazine, Bloodless Surgery, by John Langone, October 1997; page 5 .
- Mamula, Kris B. (27 March 2006). "'Bloodless' surgical program attracts new patients to AGH".
- The team focus on improving blood transfusion.
- 17.First Do No Harm Documentary http://www.asiageographic.com/productions_pnn.html
- 18. Cleveland Clinic- Wall Street Journal http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887323494504578340962879110432.html?mod=wsj_streaming_stream
- No man's blood by Gene Church (1983) ISBN 0-86666-155-7.
Further information about bloodless surgery
- Quality Alternatives to Transfusion
- Bloodless Medicine safer and more cost effective for all, experts say
- Bloodless Heart Transplant Surgery: A Historic Event for a 6-Year-Old
- Bloodless Surgery Grows in Popularity
- 'Bloodless' Surgery Avoids Risks of Transfusion
- Military Doctors Learn Bloodless Medicine & Surgery
- Dr Sathappan Radio Interview - Bloodless Medicine & Surgery
- "Primum non nocere / First - do no harm" Documentary about Blood Transfusions
- Center for Bloodless Medicine and Surgery at Johns Hopkins
- Bloodless Medicine and Surgery at Englewood Hospital
- Bloodless Management Care Guide
- Bloodless surgery helps save lives - Imperial College, London
- NoBlood — A 'virtual community' for healthcare professionals and others who wish to discuss bloodless medicine
- Society for the Advancement of Blood Management (SABM)
- Strategic Blood Management
- Cell Salvage
- Bloodless Surgeries and Jehovah's Witnesses PBS Religion & Ethics
- noblood - Bloodless Medicine and Surgery Hospital Directory