Blue Line (Washington Metro)

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WMATA Blue.svg Blue Line
WMATA Breda 3000-Series car on D Route Bridge.jpg
Blue Line train on the D Route bridge, near the Blue/Silver and Orange Line's eastern split
Overview
Type Rapid transit
System Washington Metro
Locale Fairfax County, Alexandria, and Arlington, VA
Washington, D.C.
Prince George's County, MD
Termini Franconia–Springfield (west)
Largo Town Center (east)
Stations 27
Operation
Opening July 1, 1977; 37 years ago (1977-07-01)
Operator(s) Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority
Character At-grade, elevated, and underground
Technical
Line length 30.3 mi (48.8 km)
Track gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm)
Electrification Third rail
Route map
Amtrak, VRE to Fredericksburg
Franconia–Springfield
I‑95 / I‑495 (Capital Beltway)
Van Dorn Street
CSX RF&P, Amtrak, VRE to Manassas
Alexandria Yard (WMATA)
Yellow Line to Huntington
King Street–Old Town
Braddock Road
Four Mile Run
National Airport
RF&P, Amtrak, VRE to Washington
Crystal City
Pentagon City
I‑395 (Shirley Highway)
Pentagon
Yellow Line to Ft. Totten
Arlington Cemetery
Orange Line to Vienna
Silver Line to Route 772
Rosslyn
I‑66 (Custis Memorial Parkway)
Potomac River
VA
DC
Foggy Bottom–GWU
Farragut West
Red Line
McPherson Square
Metro Center
Federal Triangle
Smithsonian
Amtrak, VRE
L'Enfant PlazaGreen and Yellow lines
L'Enfant Plaza (VRE)
Federal Center SW
I‑395 (Third Street Tunnel)
Amtrak First Street Tunnel
Capitol South
CSX RF&P
Eastern Market
Potomac Avenue
Stadium–Armory
Anacostia River
Orange Line to New Carrollton
DC 295 (Anacostia Freeway)
Benning Road
Capitol Heights
DC
MD
Addison Road
Morgan Boulevard
I‑95 / I‑495 (Capital Beltway)
Largo Town Center

The Blue Line of the Washington Metro in the United States consists of 27 rapid transit stations from Franconia–Springfield to Largo Town Center. It has stations in Fairfax County, Alexandria and Arlington, Virginia, the District of Columbia, and Prince George's County, Maryland. Thirteen of the line's stations are shared with the Orange Line, 18 are shared with the Silver Line, and another portion is also shared by the Yellow Line; only one station is exclusive to the Blue Line.

History[edit]

Planning for Metro began with the Mass Transportation Survey in 1955 which attempted to forecast both freeway and mass transit systems sufficient to meet the needs of 1980.[1] In 1959, the study's final report included two rapid transit lines which anticipated subways in downtown Washington.[2] Because the plan called for extensive freeway construction within the District of Columbia, alarmed residents lobbied for federal legislation creating a moratorium on freeway construction through July 1, 1962.[3] The National Capital Transportation Agency's 1962 Transportation in the National Capital Region report anticipated much of the present Blue Line route in Virginia with the route following the railroad right-of-way inside Arlington and Alexandria to Springfield.[4] It did not include a route in Prince George's County.[4] The route continued in rapid transit plans until the formation of WMATA.

With the formation of WMATA in October 1966, planning of the system shifted from federal hands to a regional body with representatives of the District, Maryland and Virginia. Congressional route approval was no longer a key consideration.[5] Instead, routes had to serve each local suburban jurisdiction to assure that they would approve bond referenda to finance the system.[6] The Blue Line took much of its present form along the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad right-of-way to Colchester, Virginia, as construction along existing right-of-way is the least expensive way to build into the suburbs.[7] In March 1968, the WMATA board approved its 98-mile (158 km) Adopted Regional System (ARS) which included the Blue Line from Huntington to Addison Road, with a possible extension to Largo.[8] The ARS contained a Blue Line/Orange Line station at Oklahoma Avenue between Stadium/Armory and the Anacostia River Bridge. Local residents objected to a proposed 1,000-car commuter parking lot at that station and the traffic that it would generate in the neighborhood. In reaction to their lobbying, the DC government insisted that the station be removed and that the tunnel for the line be extended through the neighborhood.[9] This then made the line the only one to have a station canceled due to neighborhood opposition.[10] To be constructed as an above ground station in the parking lot north of RFK Stadium near Oklahoma Avenue, the station was canceled saving Metro $12 million and the alignment of the line was shifted slightly to the east to address neighbor concerns.[10] To better accommodate tourists, a Smithsonian station exit was added on the Mall and the federal government requested in 1972 that the Arlington Cemetery Station be added to the Blue Line. The federal government paid the cost of both design changes.[11]

Addison Road station

Service on the Blue Line began on July 1, 1977, on 18 stations between National Airport in Arlington and Stadium-Armory in Washington – the first link of the Metro to Virginia.[12] The line was extended by three stations to Addison Road on November 22, 1980.[13] Service south of National Airport began on June 15, 1991 when Van Dorn Street opened.[14] The original plan for the line was completed when this link was extended to Franconia–Springfield on June 29, 1997.[15] Two new stations in MarylandMorgan Boulevard and Largo Town Center – opened on December 18, 2004.[16]

From its opening on November 20, 1978, until December 11, 1979, the Orange Line was co-aligned with the Blue Line from National Airport to Stadium-Armory, with the Orange Line continuing east from Stadium-Armory to New Carrollton.[17] Beginning December 1, 1979, the Orange Line diverged westward from Rosslyn to Ballston.[18] The Blue and Orange Lines remain co-aligned from Rosslyn to Stadium-Armory, and the Silver Line is co-signed along the same route as well.[19]

The Blue Line was originally planned to follow a slightly different route. The plan would have sent Blue Line trains to Huntington, with Yellow Line trains serving Franconia–Springfield. This was changed due to a shortage of rail cars at the time of the completion of the line to Huntington. Because fewer rail cars were required to operate Yellow Line service than would be required to run Blue Line service out to Huntington – due to the Yellow Line's shorter route – the line designations were switched.[20] From 1999 to 2008, the Blue Line operated to Huntington on July 4, as part of Metro's special Independence Day service pattern.[21]

The ARS had the Blue Line end at Addison Road. However, sports fans continually argued for a three-mile (5 km) extension to the Capital Centre sports arena in Largo, Maryland. On February 27, 1997, the WMATA board approved construction of the extension.[22] By the time the extension opened in 2004, professional basketball and hockey had relocated to a new arena atop the Gallery Place Station, and the Capital Centre was replaced with a shopping mall. However, the extension still drew considerable sport spectator traffic because it is within walking distance of the FedEx Field football stadium.[23] The extension cost $456 million.[24]

In 1998, Congress changed the name of the Washington National Airport to the Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport with the law specifying that no money be spent to implement the name change. As a result, WMATA did not change the name of the National Airport Station (which never included the full name of the airport). In response to repeated inquiries from Republican congressmen that the station be renamed, WMATA stated that stations are renamed only at the request of the local jurisdiction. Because both Arlington County and the District of Columbia were controlled by Democrats, the name change was blocked. Not until 2001 did Congress made changing the station's name a condition of further federal funding.[25][26][27][28]

Route[edit]

The southwestern terminal of the Blue Line is the Franconia–Springfield Station located at the intersection of Frontier Drive and the Franconia-Springfield Parkway (Virginia Route 289). The line travels above ground along the CSX Railroad right of way where it joins the Yellow Line just south of King Street in Old Town Alexandria. The joint line continues north along the CSX Railroad until it curves to the east on an elevated bridge adjacent to the National Airport terminal. The Blue Line then enters a subway tunnel under 15th Street South in Crystal City and bends north under Hayes Street and then The Pentagon parking lots. The Blue Line separates from the Yellow Line in this tunnel and emerges on surface tracks that parallel Virginia Route 110 before entering a tunnel south of Rosslyn, where it merges with the Orange Line. The tunnel travels under North Lynn Street and then the Potomac River where it bends to the east and travels under H Street NW. The tunnel bends south under 12th Street NW and crosses under the Red Line in the Metro Center station. The tunnel then turns east under D Street SW, where it passes under the Yellow and Green Lines in the L'Enfant Plaza station. The tunnel continues east under Pennsylvania Avenue SE, G Street SE and Potomac Avenue SE. The Blue Line then bends north under 19th Street SE and transitions to an elevated line in the RFK Stadium parking lot near Oklahoma Avenue NE. The Blue Line crosses the Anacostia River on a bridge adjacent to Benning Road NE. At this point the line splits from the Orange Line and enters a tunnel under Benning Road and East Capitol Street. The Blue Line becomes a surface or elevated route with short tunnels parallel to Central Avenue from Addison Road – Seat Pleasant to its Eastern terminal at Largo Town Center, where it ends adjacent to the parking lots of "The Blvd" shopping center.[29]

In terms of WMATA's internal route designations, the Blue Line service travels along the entirety of the J Route (from the terminus at Franconia-Springfield to the C & J junction just south of King Street), part of the C Route (from the C & J junction just south of King Street to Metro Center), part of the D Route (from Metro Center to the D & G Junction just east of Stadium-Armory), and the entire G Route (from the D & G junction past Stadium-Armory to the terminus at Largo Town Center).[30] The Blue Line needs 23 six-car trains (138 rail cars) to run at peak capacity.[31]

Plans[edit]

On November 16, 1995, WMATA and the developer of the Potomac Yard area of Alexandria, Virginia, signed an agreement to construct a new station between Braddock Road and National Airport that will be financed by the developer.[22] As of February 2011, WMATA was taking public comments in order to prepare a draft environmental impact statement for the station.[32] A second improvement project involves building a pedestrian tunnel to interconnect the Gallery Place station with Metro Center. A July 2005 study proposed connecting the eastern mezzanine of Metro Center with the western mezzanine of Gallery Place that are only one block apart. The proposed connection would reduce the number of passengers that use the Red Line to transfer between the Yellow Line and the Blue and Orange lines at Metro Center. As of 2011, the project remains unfunded.[33]

Beginning on June 18, 2012 Metro initiated its "Rush+" service plan, which had been under consideration for some time. This plan is intended to clear congestion at Rosslyn Station, where the Blue and Orange lines meet and ultimately prepare the tracks to accommodate the Silver Line.[34] Under the plan, Blue Line trains to continue on the usual route but some Yellow Line trains now originate at Franconia–Springfield and are routed over the Fenwick Bridge to Greenbelt.[35][36] During rush hour there are now fewer Blue Line trains on the tracks which can mean potentially increased wait times for regular Blue Line customers. Furthermore, some Orange Line trains are now routed to Largo Town Center.[37] Also is planning to extend the Blue Line to Potomac Mills the plan is being proposed.

Stations[edit]

The following stations are along the line, from southwest to east:

Station Code Opened Other Metro
Lines
Notes
Franconia–Springfield J03 1997 Yellow Line (rush only) Yellow Line (rush only) Southwestern terminus
Van Dorn Street J02 1991 Yellow Line (rush only) Yellow Line (rush only)
King Street – Old Town C13 1983 Yellow Line Yellow Line transfer station for the Yellow Line (southern)
Braddock Road C12 1983 Yellow Line Yellow Line
Potomac Yard C11 2016 Yellow Line Yellow Line Planned
Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport C10 1977 Yellow Line Yellow Line
Crystal City C09 1977 Yellow Line Yellow Line
Pentagon City C08 1977 Yellow Line Yellow Line
Pentagon C07 1977 Yellow Line Yellow Line Transfer station for the Yellow Line (northern)
Arlington Cemetery C06 1977
Rosslyn C05 1977 Orange Line Orange Line Silver Line Silver Line* Transfer station for the Orange and Silver Lines
*future Silver Line to join on same track
Foggy Bottom – GWU C04 1977 Orange Line Orange Line Silver Line Silver Line*
Farragut West C03 1977 Orange Line Orange Line Silver Line Silver Line*
McPherson Square C02 1977 Orange Line Orange Line Silver Line Silver Line*
Metro Center C01 1977 Orange Line Orange Line Silver Line Silver Line* Red Line Red Line Transfer station for the Red Line
Federal Triangle D01 1977 Orange Line Orange Line Silver Line Silver Line*
Smithsonian D02 1977 Orange Line Orange Line Silver Line Silver Line*
L'Enfant Plaza D03 1977 Orange Line Orange Line Silver Line Silver Line* Yellow Line Yellow Line Green Line Green Line Transfer station for the Yellow and Green Lines
Federal Center SW D04 1977 Orange Line Orange Line Silver Line Silver Line*
Capitol South D05 1977 Orange Line Orange Line Silver Line Silver Line*
Eastern Market D06 1977 Orange Line Orange Line Silver Line Silver Line*
Potomac Avenue D07 1977 Orange Line Orange Line Silver Line Silver Line*
Stadium–Armory D08 1977 Orange Line Orange Line Silver Line Silver Line* Transfer station for the Orange Line
Benning Road G01 1980 Silver Line Silver Line*
Capitol Heights G02 1980 Silver Line Silver Line*
Addison Road G03 1980 Silver Line Silver Line*
Morgan Boulevard G04 2004 Silver Line Silver Line*
Largo Town Center G05 2004 Silver Line Silver Line* *Future eastern terminus

References[edit]

  1. ^ Schrag at p. 33-38.
  2. ^ Schrag at p. 39.
  3. ^ Schrag at p. 42.
  4. ^ a b Schrag at p. 55.
  5. ^ Schrag at p. 104
  6. ^ Schrag at p. 108
  7. ^ Schrag at p. 110-11.
  8. ^ Schrag at p. 117.
  9. ^ Schrag at p. 161.
  10. ^ a b Gorney, Cynthia (June 12, 1977), "Neighbors' unity wins fight against Metro station", The Washington Post: C1 
  11. ^ Schrag at p. 254.
  12. ^ Feaver, Douglas B. (July 1, 1977). "Today, Metro could be U.S. model". The Washington Post. p. A1. 
  13. ^ Cooke, Janet (November 23, 1980). "Three new Metro stations have a festive first day". The Washington Post. p. D1. 
  14. ^ Staff Reporters (June 15, 1991). "Van Dorn Station to open". The Washington Post. p. B5. 
  15. ^ Tousignant, Marylou (June 27, 1997). "At last, Metro reaches end of the Blue Line; Franconia-Springfield station to begin service on Sunday". The Washington Post. p. B1. 
  16. ^ Dana, Rebecca (December 19, 2004). "Metro, Prince George's extend their reach; Two new Blue Line stations open, bringing passengers and economic potential". The Washington Post. p. C2. 
  17. ^ Eisen, Jack; John Feinstein (November 18, 1978). "City-County fanfare opens Orange Line; Ceremonies open new Orange Line". The Washington Post. p. D1. 
  18. ^ Feaver, Douglas B.; Sandra G. Boodman (December 2, 1979). "Area celebrates extension of Metrorail in Arlington". The Washington Post. p. C1. 
  19. ^ Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (2010). "Dulles Metrorail Project Overview". Retrieved July 25, 2010. 
  20. ^ Henderson, Nell (March 16, 1990), "Metro seeks comments on budget that includes new rail stations", The Washington Post: D3 
  21. ^ The Schumin Web Transit Center. "July 4 Service". Retrieved July 26, 2010. 
  22. ^ a b "WMATA History" (PDF). WMATA. Retrieved March 30, 2011. 
  23. ^ "Metro - Getting Around - Metro to Events". WMATA. Retrieved 2011-06-03. 
  24. ^ Partlow, Joshua (January 1, 2005). "Newest stations to ease game-day crush; Redskins fans await rail, trail to FedEx". The Washington Post. p. B3. 
  25. ^ Schrag at p. 258.
  26. ^ Layton, Lyndsey (April 20, 2001). "GOP Ups Pressure on Metro". Washington Post. 
  27. ^ Layton, Lyndsey (December 1, 2001). "House Votes to Require 'Reagan' at Metro Stop". Washington Post. 
  28. ^ 2002 Transportation Appropriations Act, Public Law 107-87, section 343, Statutes at Large 115 (2001) 833.
  29. ^ AAA (2000). Metro Washington D.C. Beltway (Map). 1:38016 (2000-2001 ed.).
  30. ^ Schrag at p. 188.
  31. ^ "Approved Fiscal 2009 Annual Budget" (PDF). Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. 2009. p. 80. 
  32. ^ "Potomac Yard Metrorail Station EIS". Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. Retrieved March 30, 2011. 
  33. ^ "Gallery Place/Chinatown - Metro Center Pedestrian Passageway". Washington Metropolitan Area Transity Authority. Retrieved April 4, 2011. 
  34. ^ Aratani, Lori (2012-06-16). "Blue Line split". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2012-09-05. 
  35. ^ Sun, Lena H. (2008-02-11). "Metro Explores Rerouting Blue Line". The Washington Post. p. B-01. Retrieved 2011-06-02. 
  36. ^ Graphic (2008-02-12). "A New Direction for the Blue Line". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2011-06-02. 
  37. ^ http://www.wmata.com/about_metro/news/rushplus.cfm?

Further reading[edit]

  • Schrag, Zachary (2006). The Great Society Subway: A History of the Washington Metro. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-8246-X.