A Bluecoat school is a type of charity school, the first of which was founded in the 16th century. Most of these have closed, some remain open as schools, often on different sites, and some of the original buildings have been adapted for other purposes. They are known as "bluecoat schools" because of the distinctive blue uniform originally worn by the pupils. The colour blue was traditionally the colour of charity, and was a common colour for clothing at the time. The uniform included a blue frock coat, and yellow stockings with white bands.
The first school to be established was Christ's Hospital. This was founded by Edward VI in Newgate Street, London, in 1552, as a foundling hospital with the purpose of caring for and educating poor children. Between the 16th and late 18th centuries about 60 similar institutions were established in different parts of England. These were not connected with Christ's Hospital, but if their pupils wore the blue uniform, they were known as bluecoat schools. The original Christ's Hospital, while retaining its name, has moved its site, and developed into an independent school, with much of its costs being met by a charitable foundation.
- St Mary's School, Banbury, a primary school founded as Bluecoat School in 1705.
- Bluecoat School (Bath), was founded in 1711 by Richard Nelson. The building was replaced in 1859 and it was offices in 1921.
- Birmingham Blue Coat School, an independent junior prep school founded in 1722.
- Queen Elizabeth's Hospital, Clifton, Bristol, also known as The City School, founded in 1586.
- Bluecoat School, Chester, founded in 1717, closed in 1949. Its name has been incorporated in Bishops' Blue Coat Church of England High School, Chester.
- Christ's Hospital, Horsham, the first and oldest surviving Bluecoat school, known as The Bluecoat School, an independent boarding school founded in 1552 by King Edward VI.
- Coventry Blue Coat Church of England School, a comprehensive school founded in 1714.
- The King's Hospital, Dublin, also known as The Blue Coat School, an Irish school founded in 1669.
- The Blue Coat School, Dudley, a school opened in 1869 and closed in 1989.
- Sir Thomas Rich's School, Gloucester, a grammar school founded in 1666.
- Bishop of Hereford's Bluecoat School, a school founded in 1973.
- Bluecoat Chambers, Liverpool, founded in 1716–17; later converted into an arts centre.
- Liverpool Blue Coat School, a grammar school founded in 1708.
- Nottingham Bluecoat School, a church school founded in 1706.
- The Blue Coat School, Oldham, a school established in 1834.
- Pilton Bluecoat CofE Primary School, a junior school in Devon.
- Reading Blue Coat School, a secondary school founded in 1646.
- Boys' Charity School, Sheffield, popularly known as the Bluecoat School, was founded in 1706 and closed in 1939
- Bluecoat Primary School & Nursery, in Stamford, Lincolnshire, established in the 18th century.
- Stanhope School, founded 1715 before merging with the Addey School in 1894
- Old Swinford Hospital, at Stourbridge founded in 1667.
- Old Bluecoat School, Thatcham, a former chapel founded in 1707.
- York Bluecoat School, founded 1705.
- Blewcoat School, Westminster, founded in 1709 and later a National Trust gift shop
- Bridge Street, near Kingswell Street, Northampton (1753-1921). In 1977, the building was changed into a leather museum.