Blues scale

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The blues scale refers to several different scales with differing numbers of pitches and related characteristics.

Hexatonic[edit]

The hexatonic, or six note, blues scale consists of the minor pentatonic scale plus the 4th or 5th degree.[1][2][3] A major feature of the blues scale is the use of blue notes,[4] however, since blue notes are considered alternative inflections, a blues scale may be considered to not fit the traditional definition of a scale.[5] At its most basic, a single version of this "blues scale" is commonly used over all changes (or chords) in a twelve bar blues progression.[6] Likewise, in contemporary jazz theory, its use is commonly based upon the key rather than the individual chord.[2]

Blues scale as minor pentatonic plus flat-5th/sharp-4th About this sound Play .

Greenblatt defines two blues scales, the major and the minor. The major blues scale is C, D, D/E, E, G, A and the minor is C, D/E, F, F/G, G, B.[7] The latter is the hexatonic scale (top).

Heptatonic[edit]

The heptatonic, or seven note, conception of the "blues scale" is as a diatonic scale (a major scale) with lowered third, fifth, and seventh degrees[8] and blues practice is derived from the "conjunction of 'African scales' and the diatonic western scales".[9] Steven Smith argues that, "to assign blue notes to a 'blues scale' is a momentous mistake, then, after all, unless we alter the meaning of 'scale'.[10]

Blues scale as diatonic scale with lowered 3rd, 5th, and 7th degrees About this sound Play .

Octatonic[edit]

An essentially nine note blues scale is defined by Benward and Saker as a chromatic variation of the major scale featuring a flat third and seventh degrees which, "alternating with the normal third and seventh scale degrees are used to create the blues inflection. These 'blue notes' represent the influence of African scales on this music."[11][better source needed]

Blues scale as used in jazz divides into two identical tetrachords.[12]
Blues scale as a chromatic variant of the major scale About this sound Play .

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ferguson, Jim (2000). All Blues Scale for Jazz Guitar: Solos, Grooves & Patterns, p.6. ISBN 0-7866-5213-6.
  2. ^ a b Arnold, Bruce (2002). The Essentials: Chord Charts, Scales and Lead Patterns for Guitar, p.8. ISBN 1-890944-94-7.
  3. ^ Harrison, Mark (2003). Blues Piano: Hal Leonard Keyboard Style Series, p.8. ISBN 0-634-06169-0.
  4. ^ "The Pentatonic and Blues Scale". How To Play Blues Guitar. 2008-07-09. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  5. ^ J. Bradford Robinson/Barry Kernfeld. "Blue Note", The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz, Second Edition, London (2002)
  6. ^ "Blues Licks From Blues Scales". Between the Licks. 2008-02-25. Retrieved 2008-06-24. 
  7. ^ Greenblatt, Dan (2011). The Blues Scales - Eb Version, p.?. ISBN 9781457101472.
  8. ^ Smallwood, Richard (1980). "Gospel and Blues Improvisation" p.102, Music Educators Journal, Vol. 66, No. 5. (Jan., 1980), p.100-104.
  9. ^ Oliver, Paul. "That Certain Feeling: Blues and Jazz... in 1890?" p.13, Popular Music, Vol. 10, No. 1, The 1890s. (Jan., 1991), pp. 11-19. Cites Rudi Blesh.
  10. ^ Smith, Steven G. (1992). "Blues and Our Mind-Body Problem", Popular Music, Vol. 11, No. 1. (Jan., 1992), pp. 41-52.
  11. ^ Benward & Saker (2003). Music: In Theory and Practice, Vol. I, p.39. Seventh Edition. ISBN 978-0-07-294262-0.
  12. ^ Schuller, Gunther (1986). Early Jazz: Its Roots and Musical Development, p.44. ISBN 9780195040432. Cites Sargeant, Winthrop (1946/1964). Jazz: Hot and Hybrid.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]