Bluff Cove Air Attacks

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Bluff Cove Air Attacks
Part of Falklands War
Date 8 June 1982
Location Port Pleasant
Falkland Islands
Result British ground attack on Stanley delayed by two days[1]
Belligerents
 United Kingdom  Argentina
Commanders and leaders
United Kingdom Jeremy Moore
United Kingdom Julian Thompson
Argentina Ernesto Crespo
Argentina Mario Menendez
Casualties and losses
56 killed[2]
150 wounded
1 landing ship lost
1 LCU sunk
1 landing ship badly damaged
1 frigate damaged
3 killed
3 aircraft lost

The Bluff Cove Air Attacks occurred 8 June 1982, during the Falklands War. British troop transport ships were bombed by the Argentine Air Force (FAA) whilst unloading, with significant damage and casualties.

Background[edit]

By 1 June, British forces on the Falkland Islands were bolstered by the arrival of 5,000 new troops of the 5th Infantry Brigade. Major General Jeremy Moore now had sufficient force to start planning a full scale assault on Port Stanley.

Advance parties of the 2nd Battalion, Parachute Regiment moved forward and occupied Fitzroy and Bluff Cove, when it was discovered to be clear of Argentine forces. Units of the Welsh Guards and Scots Guards were sent in to support them. After the sinking of the transport Atlantic Conveyor there was only one British troop carrying helicopter available, an RAF CH-47 Chinook.[3] Therefore, supplies and reinforcements would have to be transported by sea.[4]

Air strikes[edit]

While unloading on 8 June, the British ships were attacked by two waves of A-4 Skyhawks from the Argentine Air Force's 5th Air Brigade, each of them loaded with three 500 lb retarding tail bombs of Spanish design.[5] The fighters departed from Rio Gallegos airbase, which at the time was monitored by the nuclear submarine HMS Splendid.[6] The first package, originally made of eight aircraft, was reduced to five when three Skyhawks returned to base due to refuelling problems.[7]

The nuclear submarine HMS Valiant, on picket duty off Rio Grande, was able to track six Dagger fighters taking off from the airbase there for a complementary mission and sent an early warning signal, but the report from the submarine failed to reach the British forces at Bluff Cove.[8] Another four Mirages carried out a decoy mission over the north of the islands, while the Argentine destroyer ARA Santísima Trinidad broadcast interference to jam the frequencies used by the Royal Navy's air controllers directing the Sea Harrier operations.[9]

First strike[edit]

At approximately 14:00 local time the ships RFA Sir Tristram and RFA Sir Galahad were badly damaged[10] by five A-4Bs of Grupo 5. Three A-4s targeted Sir Galahad, which was hit by three bombs from First Lieutenant Carlos Cachón. The second Skyhawk was unable to drop its bombs, and the third overshot the British ship.[8]

The remaining two aircraft attacked Sir Tristram, which was struck by two bombs released by package leader Lieutenant Daniel Gálvez; the bombs of the last A-4 fell short.[8] The explosions and subsequent fires killed 48 men aboard Sir Galahad and two crew members from Sir Tristram.[11]

Second strike[edit]

At 16:50 a second wave, composed by four A-4Bs of Grupo 5 hit and sank a Landing Craft Utility from HMS Fearless,[12] ferrying the vehicles of the 5th Brigade's headquarters from Darwin to Bluff Cove in Choiseul Sound with the loss of six Royal Marines. However, the Sea Harrier combat air patrol was already on scene and responded; three Skyhawks were shot down and their pilots, First Lieutenant Danilo Bolzan, Lieutenant Juan Arrarás, and Ensign Alfredo Vazquez, were killed.[13]

Bolzan's aircraft was shot down by Lieutenant David Smith, while the remaining Skyhawks fell victims to Flight Lieutenant David Morgan.[14] The fourth aircraft suffered combat damage and lost a large amount of fuel, but returned to the mainland, assisted by a KC-130 tanker. A third wave, by A-4Cs of Grupo 4, arrived minutes later and struck ground targets without visible success.[13]

Attack on HMS Plymouth[edit]

In a separate incident, the frigate HMS Plymouth endured the sudden attack of the six Daggers from Rio Grande, which struck her with four 1,000-pound bombs. The warship sustained severe damage, and five crewmen were injured. Although all the bombs were duds, the attack caused the explosion of at least one depth charge on her flight deck.[15]

Aftermath[edit]

A total of 56 British servicemen were killed, and 150 wounded.[2] BBC television cameras recorded images of Royal Navy helicopters hovering in thick smoke to winch survivors from the burning landing ships.[16] These images were seen around the world. However, General Mario Menendez, commander of Argentine forces on the islands, was told that hundreds of men had been killed. He expected a drop in British morale, and their advance to slacken.[17] Sir Galahad was damaged beyond repair, but her sister ship survived to be re-built post-war. American author Robert Bolia blames the disaster to the use of large LST ships instead of LCUs and other small vessels.[4]

Brigadier Julian Thompson blamed the lack of experience of the 5 Infantry Brigade men the main cause of the loss of lives

5 Brigade actually havent seen the Argentine Air Force work, because for the 5 days they have been there, bad weather kept the Argentine Air Force away so they didn't see how deadly those guys could be, If I been aboard that ship I would swam to shore [18]

Among the wounded was Simon Weston,[19] who later featured in a BBC documentary showing his treatment for the appalling injuries he received. Weston endured 75 operations in 22 years, after 25% of his skin suffered third degree burns. In a subsequent documentary, filmed in Argentina, he met the pilot who bombed his ship, Carlos Cachón, then retired with the rank of Captain. After a later visit of Cachón and his family to Weston's home in Liverpool, they have become great friends.[20]

Carlos Cachón was born near Balcarce and raised in Mar del Plata, where he currently lives. He is the chief of the security staff in the local offices of the Argentina National Bank. Cachón was awarded the honorific title of "Illustrious Citizen" by the City Council of Mar del Plata on 25 February 2010.[21]

After the war, a memorial for the British soldiers killed in the attack was erected at Fitzroy.[22][23] On 8 June 2007, Welsh Guards veterans of the Falklands War held a memorial for the Welsh Guards killed on board Sir Galahad.[24]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bolia, Robert S. "The Falklands War:The Bluff Cove Disaster". Military Review (November–December 2004): 71. 
  2. ^ a b Hickman, Kennedy, "The Falklands War: An Overview", About.com 
  3. ^ McCann, Carol and Pigeau, Ross (2000). The human in command: exploring the modern military experience. Springer, p. 59. ISBN 0-306-46366-0
  4. ^ a b Bolia, p. 68
  5. ^ Moro, Rubén Oscar (1985). La guerra inaudita: historia del conflicto del Atlántico Sur. Pleamar, p. 462. ISBN 950-583-043-2. (Spanish)
  6. ^ West, Nigel (2010). Historical Dictionary of Naval Intelligence. Scarecrow Press, p. 36. ISBN 0-8108-6760-5
  7. ^ West, p. 38
  8. ^ a b c West, p. 39
  9. ^ West, p. 37
  10. ^ "Task Force Falklands: Goose Green", National Army Museum 
  11. ^ Casualty Lists of the Royal Navy, 1980-89
  12. ^ Schofield, Frank (1999). The Falklands watcher. Brewin, 114. ISBN 1-85858-140-0
  13. ^ a b Moro, Rubén Oscar (2003). La guerra inaudita: historia del conflicto del Atlántico Sur. Buenos Aires: Edivem. ISBN 987-96007-3-8. (Spanish)
  14. ^ Chant, Christopher (2001). Air War in the Falklands 1982. Osprey Publishing, pp. 90-91. ISBN 1-84176-293-8
  15. ^ Chun, Clayton K S. (2001). Aerospace power in the twenty-first century: a basic primer. Diane publishing, p. 235. ISBN 1-58566-091-4
  16. ^ "Falklands War Compilation, (Clip 6)", ITN Source, 1982 
  17. ^ Anderson, Duncan (2002). The Falklands War 1982. Volume 15 of Essential histories. Osprey Publishing, p. 61. ISBN 1-84176-422-1
  18. ^ Channel 5, The Great Falklands Gamble: Revealed, available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZT9wsAU0mMQ
  19. ^ Jolly, Rick (1983). The Red and Green Life Machine. London: Century. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-7126-0158-0. 
  20. ^ "I'm honoured. I'm just a little fat bloke", by Rachel Tinniswood, Liverpool Echo, 7 September 2001
  21. ^ El Concejo distinguirá a Carlos Cachón (Spanish)
  22. ^ Belcher, John (2000), "After the Battle", britains-smallwars.com 
  23. ^ Meersschaert, Hendrik, The South Atlantic Medal to Mark Gibby 
  24. ^ "Sir Galahad blast dead remembered", BBC News, 8 June 2007 

Coordinates: 51°47′57″S 58°13′08″W / 51.79917°S 58.21889°W / -51.79917; -58.21889