Bluffton, South Carolina
|— Town —|
|Town of Bluffton|
|Motto: A State of Mind|
|Beaufort and the state of South Carolina|
|• Type||Town council|
|• Mayor||Lisa Sulka|
|• Town council|
|• Total||54.3 sq mi (140.6 km2)|
|• Land||42.8 sq mi (110.9 km2)|
|• Water||11.5 sq mi (29.7 km2)|
|Elevation||20 ft (6 m)|
|• Density||244.2/sq mi (632.5/km2)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||1220833|
Bluffton is the fastest growing town in Beaufort County, South Carolina, United States. It is a Lowcountry town located across U.S. Route 278 between Hilton Head Island and Interstate 95. The town's original one square mile area, now known as Old Town, is situated on a bluff along the May River. The population was counted by the 2010 census at 12,530. Bluffton is the fastest growing municipality in South Carolina with a population over 2,500, growing 882.7% between the 2000 and 2010 census. Bluffton is the fifth largest municipality in South Carolina by land area. The town's Metropolitan Statistical Area population was counted by the 2010 census at 187,010. Bluffton is known for its eclectic Old Town district and natural views of the May River. It has been called "The last true coastal village of the south."
After its founding in 1852, Bluffton became a popular location for wealthy Savannah merchants and plantation owners. Following the Tariff of 1842, Bluffton became a hotbed of separatist sentiment. In 1844 the Bluffton Movement, a protest against federal taxes, birthed the secession movement and led South Carolina to be the first state to leave the Union.
Colonial era (1670–1776)
During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the area comprising southern Beaufort County was known as Granville County of St. Luke's Parish. The Yamasee Indians were invited to settle in the area by Lord Cardoss, leader of the nearby Scottish settlement in Beaufort. The Yamasee Indians established ten towns with over 1,200 inhabitants in the area. In 1715, the Yamasee War broke out and after several years of fighting, the Yamasee tribe migrated to Florida, opening the "Indian Lands" to European settlement. In 1718, the Lords Proprietors carved the area into several new baronies, including the Devil's Elbow Barony that contained the future town of Bluffton. The first titled owner of the land was the Barbadian planter Sir John Colleton. Following the departure of the Yamasee people, colonists began building plantations in the Bluffton area in 1728. The Colletons prospered by growing cotton, corn and indigo.
American Revolution (1776–1785)
Before his death in 1777, Sir John Colleton had disposed of much of his Barony, much of it bought by the Rose and Kirk families. During the 18th century, much of the land south of the May River (now known as Palmetto Bluff) was covered with rice fields. Rice became a lucrative crop and a part of lowcountry culture until the early 20th century when it was disrupted by a series of devastating storms.
Antebellum era (1785–1861)
The Town of Bluffton was eventually built on two adjoining parcels in the Devil's Elbow Barony purchased by Benjamin Walls and James Kirk. The first homes were constructed during the early 1800s by area plantation owners seeking the high ground and cool river breezes as an escape from the unhealthy conditions present on Lowcountry rice and cotton plantations. Easy access by water provided more incentive for expansion and the many tidal coves afforded excellent locations for residences. The community was originally known as "Kirk's Landing" or "Kirk's Bluff" as shown in Mill's Atlas of 1825. The first streets were formally laid out during the 1830s and the name of Bluffton decided upon in the early 1840s as a compromise between the Kirk and Pope families. The first South Carolina secession movement began under what is now known as the Secession Oak tree, led by R. Barnwell Rhett on July 31, 1844. In the 1850s a steamboat landing was built at the end of Calhoun Street and Bluffton became the commercial center of southern Beaufort county as a stopover for travelers between Savannah and Beaufort. In 1852 the Town was officially incorporated by an act of the South Carolina General Assembly and comprised approximately one square mile. The iconic Church of the Cross was designed by architect Edward Brickell White to seat up to 600 parishioners at a cost of $5,000 and construction began in 1854. On July 17, 1857 the first services were held at the Church of the Cross.
Civil War (1861–1865)
Within one year of the capture of Fort Sumter, Bluffton became a safe haven for residents fleeing Union occupation of the South Carolina barrier islands. The Church of the Cross bell was sent to England via Charleston to be melted to aid the war effort, however it was later discovered to be hanging in Porter Military Academy and returned years later. Bluffton was a headquarters for Confederate forces until Union forces on Hilton Head Island ordered the Town's destruction in 1863. Approximately 60 structures were in the Town before the attack, only the Town's two churches and fifteen residences remained standing after the attack.
Postbellum era (1865–1945)
Rebuilding came slowly as few local landowners could still afford the luxury of a summer home in Bluffton. The Town did not experience a true rebuilding until the 1880s, when the Town emerged as a commercial center for Beaufort County.
Contemporary era (1945–present)
The Town remained a commercial center until Coastal Highway (US 17) and the bridge at Port Wentworth over the Savannah River were completed, making riverboat trade and travel less attractive. The Great Depression, beginning shortly thereafter, brought the closure of the Town's prosperity and commercial importance. The popularity of the Town as a vacation spot remained even after its loss of commercial stature. The development of Hilton Head Island, nearby Sun City, and related development in the 1990s caused a resurgence of commercial activity in the Town. In 1996 Bluffton was designated a National Historic District with 46 contributing buildings and 2 contributing sites. In 1998 The Heyward House opened to the public by the Bluffton Historical Preseveration Society. In 1999 the Heyward House was part of the Save America's Treasures program. The Heyward House became the town's welcome center in 2000 and the Old Town Bluffton historic district was established through zoning regulations and architectural standards. In 2005, Bluffton was recognized as a Preserve America Community, a federal program that encourages community efforts to preserve the nation's cultural and historical assets.
Bluffton was once mostly wetlands, many were drained possibly during the antebellum era. Agriculture and pine timber harvesting contributed to the landscape still present today. The town proper consists of five primary areas. The historic district of Old Town, on the northern bluff of the May River. Palmetto Bluff, located on the southern side of the May River. Jones Estate, situated along the New River. Buckwalter, located on the northwest side of town. Shultz Tract, which is north of Old Town. The May River winds through the center of town. The New River forms the southwest boundary of the town.
The Town of Bluffton has a total area of 140.6 square kilometers (54.3 sq mi), of which 110.9 square kilometres (42.8 sq mi) is land and 29.7 square kilometres (11.5 sq mi) is water. Bluffton is the fifth largest municipality in South Carolina by land area. The municipal boundary contains many large "doughnut holes" of unincorporated territory due to South Carolina's strict annexation laws. Until the 21st century, most of Bluffton was undeveloped land until the housing boom of the early 2000s which led to explosive growth in Bluffton's area. Many of Bluffton's planned unit developments were built during this time. As of 2012 many of these developments remain partially complete due to the economic downturn.
Bluffton has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with very mild winters, hot, humid summers, and significant rainfall all year long. August is the wettest month; almost half of the annual rainfall occurs during the summer months in the form of thundershowers. Fall remains relatively warm through November. Winter is short and mild, and is characterized by occasional rain. Snow flurries rarely occur. The highest temperature recorded was 107 °F (42 °C), in 1986, and the lowest temperature recorded was 4 °F (−16 °C) on January 21, 1985. Hurricanes are a major threat to the area during the summer and early fall but there has not been a major hurricane event in Bluffton since the Category 3 Sea Islands Hurricane in 1893.
|Climate data for Bluffton, South Carolina Average Weather Conditions|
|Record high °F (°C)||85
|Average high °F (°C)||60
|Average low °F (°C)||40
|Record low °F (°C)||4
|Precipitation inches (mm)||3.97
|Source: The Weather Channel|
According to the census of 2010, there were 12,530 people, 4,417 households, and 3,323 families residing in the town, on a land area of 51.3 square miles (133 km2). The population density was 244.2 people per square mile (94.3/km²). There were 5,393 housing units at an average density of 105.1 per square mile (40.6/km²).
The Town of Bluffton grew 882.7% between the 2000 and 2010 census, making it the fastest growing municipality in South Carolina with a population over 2,500. Housing units grew 976.4%. Hilton Head Island town has a higher population than the Town of Bluffton (37,099 to 12,530) but Bluffton's Census County Division has a much higher population (52,777) because many population centers are just outside of the Bluffton town limits.
The racial makeup of the town was 71.4% White, 16.1% African American, 0.3% Native American, 2.0% Asian, <0.1% Pacific Islander, 7.3% from other races, and 2.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 18.8% of the population.
There were 4,417 households out of which 54.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.9% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.4% were non-families. 18.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.84 and the average family size was 3.20.
In the town the population was spread out with 28.9% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 35.5% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, and 7.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32.7 years. For every 100 females there were 95.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.4 males. Estimated household income for 2009 was $53,386, the estimated median house value was $237,868, median gross rent was $1,179.
The Town of Bluffton is part of the Hilton Head, SC Urbanized Area, the Sun City Hilton Head, SC Urban Cluster and the Hilton Head Island-Bluffton Beaufort Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Beaufort and Jasper counties. As of 2012, the MSA had estimated year-round population of 193,882.
Bluffton has a Council-Manager form of government, the town council is responsible for the legislative function of the municipality such as establishing policy, passing local ordinances, voting appropriations, and developing an overall vision. The town has a Mayor and Mayor Pro-Tem position. The council has four at-large members who serve overlapping four-year terms. Town elections take place every two years in the fall.
Bluffton Township Fire District
The Bluffton Township Fire District was created on June 26, 1978 per Beaufort County Ordinance 78-6. The Fire District comprised all of the land in Beaufort County south of the Broad River except Jenkins Island, Hilton Head Island and Daufuskie Island. Ordinance 94-14 was adopted June 27, 1994 to include Jenkins Island in the Bluffton Township Fire District.
There are eight fire stations in the Bluffton Township Fire District, providing professional fire protection and emergency medical care.
- Station 30: Downtown - (2 Bridge St, Bluffton SC 29910)
- Station 31: Pritchardville - (178 May River Rd, Pritchardville SC 29910)
- Station 32: Callawassie - (155 Callawassie Dr, Okatie SC 29909)
- Station 33: Moss Creek - (12 Buckingham Plantation Dr, Bluffton SC 29910)
- Station 34: Sun City - (25 William Pope Dr, Okatie SC 29909)
- Station 35: Fording Island Rd - (357 Fording Island Rd, Bluffton SC 29910)
- Station 36: Colleton River -
- Station 37: Palmetto Bluff -
Bluffton Township Fire District also works with Hilton Head Island Fire & Rescue as a sponsoring agency for two of South Carolina's designated special teams: one of the state's Hazardous Materials/Weapons of Mass Destruction Response Teams and one of the four Regional Urban Search and Rescue Response Teams.
Bluffton Police Department
The Town of Bluffton Police Department received national accreditation with the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies on March 21, 2009. On August 21, 2012, Bluffton announced the appointment of Joseph M. Reynolds as Police Chief.
There is one police headquarters for the Bluffton Police Department providing operations, support, and neighborhood services.
- Law Enforcement Center: Buckwalter Place - (101 Progressive St, Bluffton SC 29910)
The following table compares Bluffton's crime report for Part I Offenses from 2010-2011 
Infrastructure and economy
Economic sectors and major employers
Long a stopover between Hilton Head and Savannah, Bluffton has become a tourist destination in its own right with a large number of hotels, restaurants and shopping areas such as Tanger Outlets. The Inn At Palmetto Bluff has received a number of awards including Best Hotel in the Country by U.S. News & World Report and Condé Nast Traveler Gold List World's Best Places to Stay, January 2011. Bluffton is the headquarters for CareCore National, provider of evidence-based healthcare solutions. Higher education is also an important sector in the local economy, with institutions such as the University of South Carolina Beaufort Hilton Head Gateway Campus and Technical College of the Lowcountry nearby. An eclectic art destination, Bluffton has several art galleries located along Calhoun St. Bluffton is also home to South Carolina's last full-time oyster shucking business, Bluffton Oyster Co, which first opened in 1899 at the end of Wharf St on the banks of the May River.
U.S.P.S. zip codes
The Town of Bluffton is served by these Zip Codes:
Water and sewer service is provided by Beaufort-Jasper Water and Sewer Authority (BJWSA). South Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE&G) and Palmetto Electric Cooperative are the major suppliers of power to the town. Hargray provides telephone and broadband services. Waste Management, Inc provides solid waste services.
Bluffton is served by the Savannah/Hilton Head International Airport (IATA: SAV, ICAO: KSAV, FAA LID: SAV), which is located in the City of Savannah, Georgia, and the Hilton Head Island Airport (IATA: HHH, ICAO: KHXD, FAA LID: HXD).
Interstates and highways
Interstate 95 runs to the west of Bluffton and is connected to it by U.S. Route 278. Bluffton Parkway, currently under construction, is planned to run from the Hilton Head Island bridge to I-95 near Hardeeville when all phases are complete. As of August 2012, the parkway runs from SC-170 in the west almost to the bridge in the east. Two sections are currently separated by Buckwalter Parkway but are scheduled to be joined by Phase 5B. Local public transportation and dial-a-ride service is provided by Palmetto Breeze, a regional transportation authority run by the Lowcountry Council of Governments, which serves as the regional Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO). 
- I-95 (Interstate 95) (West of the Town of Bluffton)
- US 278 (U.S. Route 278) - Fording Island Rd
- SC 170 – Okatie Highway
- SC 46 – May River Rd
- Bluffton Parkway (incomplete)
Society of Bluffton Artists
The Society of Bluffton Artists is a non profit organization established in 1999.
May River Theatre
The May River Theatre is a theatre company that has performances at the Ulmer Auditorium in downtown Bluffton.
- Bluffton Village Festival - Also known as "Mayfest" the Bluffton Village Festival is an annual event that started in the spring of 1978. It gathers local artisans and musicians to showcase a variety of goods as a "celebration of Bluffton life" and local culture.
- Christmas Parade - An annual parade that takes place at the beginning of December and features a wide variety of unique parade floats both local and regional.
- Historic Bluffton Arts & Seafood Festival - A fall festival that consists of many events and activities including an art show, kayak tours, a 5K run, and sampling of locally harvested seafood.
- Shag & Drag - Classic car show and live entertainment, held in June.
- May River Cleanup - Every year hundreds of volunteers organize to help remove trash and waste from nearly 12 miles of river and to help raise awareness of the challenges facing the May River
Museums, historical sites and other attractions
Bluffton boasts many historic buildings, art and historical museums and other attractions. The following are among those which are open to the public:
- The Heyward House and Historical Center
- The Han-Me-Down Gullah Museum
- The Church of the Cross
- Fantozzi Wrought Iron Design
- Fishbone Gallery
- Four Corners Gallery
- Gallery Without Walls
- Jacob Preston Pottery
- Maye River Gallery
- Old Town Vintage Posters
- Pluff Mudd Art
Nearby cities and towns
Other outlying areas
- Daufuskie Island
- Fripp Island
- Harbor Island, South Carolina
- Hunting Island State Park
- Lady's Island
- St. Helena Island
- Pinckney Island National Wildlife Refuge
- Savannah National Wildlife Refuge
- Parris Island
Bluffton has many parks and recreational activities. For cycling, Bluffton Parkway and Buckwalter Parkway have bicycle paths on both sides of the road and Bluffton Rd has a bicycle lane from US-278 until the intersection with May River Rd. The following links will display the location of the park in an external web mapping application.
- Beaufort County Parks & Recreation Bluffton Pool - Indoor swimming pool with lanes, fee required for use.
- Buckwalter Regional Park - Soccer fields and Skateboard Park
- Buckwalter Trail - Wraps around Buckwalter Place
- DuBois Park - Playground and Swings
- New River Trailhead Park - Nature trail
- MC Riley Sports Complex - Basketball and Baseball
- Oscar Frazier Park - Playground, Soccer fields and Baseball parks
- Oyster Factory Park
- Pritchard Park
- Bluffton Recreation Center - Tennis, Soccer, Youth Football, Playground
- Oyster Factory Boat Landing - Access to the May River
- H.E. Trask Boat Landing - Access to the Colleton River
- Calhoun St. Boat Dock - Access to the May River
- Alljoy Boat Landing - Access to the May River
Schools, colleges and universities
Because the Town of Bluffton is located in Beaufort County, it is served by the Beaufort County School District. The local public schools are:
- Bluffton High School
- H E McCracken Middle School
- Bluffton Elementary School
- M C Riley Elementary School
- Pritchardville Elementary School
- Red Cedar Elementary School
Bluffton is also served by a number of independent schools, including Cross Schools (K-8), May River Montessori (K-5), Christian Heritage Montessori (K-5), and Saint Gregory the Great Catholic School (K-8). Public institutions of higher education in Bluffton include the University of South Carolina Beaufort South Campus and the Technical College of the Lowcountry. Bluffton is also home to the Hank Haney International Junior Golf Academy
- "Census 2010: South Carolina"USA Today, March 23, 2011. Accessed June 6, 2012.
- "Southeastdiscovery"Southeast Discovery, Accessed June 12, 2012.
- "Bluffton,SC". ExploreHiltonHead.com. 2011-04-10. Retrieved 2012-08-30.
- "Forests have values beyond dollar values". hearldtribune.com. 2007-12-17. Retrieved 2012-08-30.
- Rose Hill Mansion rosehillmansion.com
- Island Packet article islandpacket.com
- Island Packet article storm islandpacket.com
- Historic District Inventory townofbluffton.sc.gov
- Maximum and minimum temperatures from Weather.com
- "Average Weather for Bluffton, SC – Temperature and Precipitation". Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Bluffton, South Carolina City-Data" City-data.com. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
- "List of United States primary statistical areas". Retrieved 2013-03-29.
- "Town of Bluffton Website - Governing Section" Town of Bluffton. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- "About BTFD" BTFD About - Accessed August 28, 2012.
- "BTFD Fire Stations," BTFD, Accessed August 28, 2012.
- "Regional US&R Teams," South Carolina Firefighter Mobilization Oversight Committee, Accessed May 20, 2007.
- "Safety First - The Hilton Head/Bluffton Disaster Response Team Trains for Emergency Rescue Missions," The Bluffton Today, January 10, 2008. Accessed January 12, 2008.
- "Firefighters in SC train in tornado scenario," Fire Engineering, January 9, 2008. Accessed January 12, 2008.
- "Mock tornado stirs up read training locally," The Island Packet, January 9, 2008. Accessed January 12, 2008.
- "Bluffton Police 2011 Annual Report;– relocation, real estate, travel, jobs, hospitals, schools, crime, move, moving, houses news, sex offenders". blufftonpolice.com. Retrieved 2012-08-28.
- "Inn at Palmetto Bluff, Bluffton Among the best hotels in the world". Islandpacket.com. 2012-07-06. Retrieved 2012-08-28.
- "Inn at Palmetto Bluff, Bluffton in the Condé Nast Traveler Gold List on". Concierge.com. Retrieved 2011-04-06.
- "CareCore expands". Islandpacket.com. 2011-11-15. Retrieved 2012-08-28.
- "Bluffton art walk set to kickoff Friday". Islandpacket.com. 2011-04-10. Retrieved 2012-08-28.
- "Bluffton Oyster Co. wins state, regional small business award". Islandpacket.com. 2011-04-26. Retrieved 2012-08-28.
- Zip Code boundaries provided to this site by United States Postal Service.
- "Employment Fast Facts," Bluffton Parkway extension to open for drivers Monday - Accessed August 29, 2012.
- " THE SOCIETY OF BLUFFTON ARTISTS (SoBA), Accessed August 29, 2012.
- " The May River Theatre, Accessed September 4, 2012.
- " Arts & Seafood Festival, Accessed September 4, 2012.
- Howie, Stephen S. The Bluffton Charge: One Preacher's Struggle For Civil Rights, 2000. Mammoth Books, 2000. 237 pp.
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- Town of Bluffton Official Website
- Heyward House & Visitors Center
- Hilton Head Bluffton Chamber of Commerce
- Bluffton Explorer interactive web map
- Beaufort County Library
- The Island Packet, a local newspaper
- Bluffton Today, a local newspaper