A board game is a game that involves counters or pieces moved or placed on a pre-marked surface or "board", according to a set of rules. Games can be based on pure strategy, chance (e.g. rolling dice), or a mixture of the two, and usually have a goal that a player aims to achieve. Early board games represented a battle between two armies, and most modern board games are still based on defeating opposing players in terms of counters, winning position, or accrual of points (often expressed as in-game currency).
There are many varieties of board games. Their representation of real-life situations can range from having no inherent theme (e.g. checkers), to having a specific theme and narrative (e.g. Cluedo). Rules can range from the very simple (e.g. Tic-tac-toe), to those describing a game universe in great detail (e.g. Dungeons & Dragons) – although most of the latter are role-playing games where the board is secondary to the game, serving to help visualize the game scenario.
The time required to learn to play or master a game varies greatly from game to game. Learning time does not necessarily correlate with the number or complexity of rules; some games having profound strategies (e.g. chess or Go) possess relatively simple rulesets.
Ancient board games
Board games have been played in most cultures and societies throughout history. A number of important historical sites, artifacts, and documents shed light on early board games such as:
- Jiroft civilization gameboards
- Senet, found in Predynastic and First Dynasty burials of Egypt, c. 3500 BC and 3100 BC respectively; the oldest board game known to have existed, Senet was pictured in a fresco found in Merknera's tomb (3300–2700 BC)
- Mehen, another ancient board game from Predynastic Egypt
- Go, an ancient board game originating in China
- Patolli, a board game originating in Mesoamerica played by the ancient Aztec
- Royal Game of Ur, the Royal Tombs of Ur contain this game, among others
- Buddha games list, the earliest known list of games
- Pachisi and Chaupar, ancient board games of India
- c. 3100 BC: Senet is played in Predynastic Egypt as evidenced by its inclusion in burial sites. Senet is also depicted in the tomb of Merknera.
- c. 3000 BC: Mehen board game from Predynastic Egypt, played with lion-shaped game pieces and marbles
- c. 3000 BC: Ancient backgammon set, found in the Burnt City in Iran
- c. 2560 BC: Board of the Royal Game of Ur (found at Ur Tombs)
- c. 2500 BC: Paintings of Senet and Han being played depicted in the tomb of Rashepes
- c. 1500 BC: Painting of board game at Knossos
- c. 500 BC: The Buddha games list mentions board games played on 8 or 10 rows.
- c. 500 BC: The earliest reference to Pachisi in the Mahabharata, the Indian epic
- c. 400 BC: Two ornately decorated liubo gameboards from a royal tomb of the State of Zhongshan in China
- c. 400 BC: The earliest written reference to Go (weiqi) in the historical annal Zuo Zhuan; Go mentioned in the Analects of Confucius (c. 5th century BC)
- 116–27 BC: Marcus Terentius Varro's Lingua Latina X (II, par. 20) contains earliest known reference to Latrunculi (often confused with Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum, Ovid's game mentioned below)
- 1 BC – 8 AD: Ovid's Ars Amatoria contains earliest known reference to Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum
- 1 BC – 8 AD: The Roman Game of Kings, of which little is known, is more or less a contemporary of Latrunculi.
- c. 43 AD: The Stanway Game is buried with the Druid of Colchester.
- c. 200 AD: A stone Go board with a 17×17 grid from a tomb at Wangdu County in Hebei, China
- 220–265: Backgammon enters China under the name t'shu-p'u (source: Hun Tsun Sii).
- c. 400 onwards: Tafl games played in Northern Europe
- c. 600: The earliest references to chaturanga written in Subandhu's Vasavadatta and Banabhatta's Harsha Charitha early Indian books
- c. 600: The earliest reference to shatranj written in Karnamak-i-Artakhshatr-i-Papakan
- c. 700: Date of the oldest evidence of Mancala games, found in Matara, Eritrea and Yeha
- c. 800–900: The earliest reference to Quirkat or alquerque referred to in Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani's Kitab al-Aghani ("Book of Songs")
- c. 1283: Alfonso X of Castile in Spain commissioned Libro de ajedrez, dados, y tablas (Libro de los Juegos [The Book of Games]) translated into Castilian from Arabic and added illustrations with the goal of perfecting the work.
- 1759: A Journey Through Europe published by John Jefferys, the earliest board game with a designer whose name is known
- 1874: Parcheesi is trademarked by Selchow & Righter.
- c. 1930: Monopoly stabilises into the version that is popular today.
- 1931: The first commercial version of Battleship is published under the name "Salvo".
- 1938: The first version of Scrabble is published by Alfred Butts under the name "Criss-Crosswords".
- 1957: Risk is released.
- 1958: Tactics II is published by Avalon Hill.
- 1961: D-Day and Chancellorsville are published, the first commercial wargames to use a hexagonal mapboard.
- 1970: Mastermind is designed by Mordecai Meirowitz.
- c. 1980: German-style board games begin to develop as a genre.
- 1995: The Settlers of Catan is first published in Germany.
- 1996: Fischerandom chess (Chess960) is publicly announced by Bobby Fischer.
Many board games are now available as video games, which can include the computer itself as one of several players, or as a sole opponent. Many board games can now be played online against a computer and/or other players. Some websites allow play in real time and immediately show the opponents' moves, while others use email to notify the players after each move (see the links at the end of this article). Modern technology (the internet and cheaper home printing) has also influenced board games via the phenomenon of print-and-play board games that you buy and print yourself.
Some board games make use of components in addition to—or instead of—a board and playing pieces. Some games use CDs, video cassettes, and, more recently, DVDs in accompaniment to the game.
Around the year 2000 the board gaming industry began to grow with companies such as Fantasy Flight Games, Z-Man Games, or Indie Boards and Cards, churning out new games which are being sold to a growing worldwide audience.
Development in the United States
In seventeenth and eighteenth century colonial America, the agrarian life of the country left little time for game playing though draughts (checkers), bowling, and card games were not unknown. The Pilgrims and Puritans of New England frowned on game playing and viewed dice as instruments of the devil. When the Governor William Bradford discovered a group of non-Puritans playing stool-ball, pitching the bar, and pursuing other sports in the streets on Christmas Day, 1622, he confiscated their implements, reprimanded them, and told them their devotion for the day should be confined to their homes.
In Thoughts on Lotteries (1826) Thomas Jefferson wrote:
Almost all these pursuits of chance [i.e., of human industry] produce something useful to society. But there are some which produce nothing, and endanger the well-being of the individuals engaged in them or of others depending on them. Such are games with cards, dice, billiards, etc. And although the pursuit of them is a matter of natural right, yet society, perceiving the irresistible bent of some of its members to pursue them, and the ruin produced by them to the families depending on these individuals, consider it as a case of insanity, quoad hoc, step in to protect the family and the party himself, as in other cases of insanity, infancy, imbecility, etc., and suppress the pursuit altogether, and the natural right of following it. There are some other games of chance, useful on certain occasions, and injurious only when carried beyond their useful bounds. Such are insurances, lotteries, raffles, etc. These they do not suppress, but take their regulation under their own discretion.
The board game, Traveller's Tour Through the United States was published by New York City bookseller F. Lockwood in 1822 and today claims the distinction of being the first board game published in the United States.
As the United States shifted from agrarian to urban living in the nineteenth century, greater leisure time and a rise in income became available to the middle class. The American home, once the center of economic production, became the locus of entertainment, enlightenment, and education under the supervision of mothers. Children were encouraged to play board games that developed literacy skills and provided moral instruction.
The earliest board games published in the United States were based upon Christian morality. The Mansion of Happiness (1843), for example, sent players along a path of virtues and vices that led to the Mansion of Happiness (Heaven). The Game of Pope or Pagan, or The Siege of the Stronghold of Satan by the Christian Army (1844) pitted an image on its board of a Hindu woman committing suttee against missionaries landing on a foreign shore. The missionaries are cast in white as "the symbol of innocence, temperance, and hope" while the pope and pagan are cast in black, the color of "gloom of error, and...grief at the daily loss of empire".
Commercially produced board games in the mid-nineteenth century were monochrome prints laboriously hand-colored by teams of low paid young factory women. Advances in paper making and printmaking during the period enabled the commercial production of relatively inexpensive board games. The most significant advance was the development of chromolithography, a technological achievement that made bold, richly colored images available at affordable prices. Games cost as little as US$.25 for a small boxed card game to $3.00 for more elaborate games.
American Protestants believed a virtuous life led to success, but the belief was challenged mid-century when Americans embraced materialism and capitalism. The accumulation of material goods was viewed as a divine blessing. In 1860, The Checkered Game of Life rewarded players for mundane activities such as attending college, marrying, and getting rich. Daily life rather than eternal life became the focus of board games. The game was the first to focus on secular virtues rather than religious virtues, and sold 40,000 copies its first year.
Game of the District Messenger Boy, or Merit Rewarded is a board game published in 1886 by the New York City firm of McLoughlin Brothers. The game is a typical roll-and-move track board game. Players move their tokens along the track at the spin of the arrow toward the goal at track's end. Some spaces on the track will advance the player while others will send him back.
In the affluent 1880s, Americans witnessed the publication of Algeresque rags to riches games that permitted players to emulate the capitalist heroes of the age. One of the first such games, The Game of the District Messenger Boy, encouraged the idea that the lowliest messenger boy could ascend the corporate ladder to its topmost rung. Such games insinuated that the accumulation of wealth brought increased social status. Competitive capitalistic games culminated in 1935 with Monopoly, the most commercially successful board game in United States history.
McLoughlin Brothers published similar games based on the telegraph boy theme including Game of the Telegraph Boy, or Merit Rewarded (1888). Greg Downey notes in his essay, "Information Networks and Urban Spaces: The Case of the Telegraph Messenger Boy" that families who could afford the deluxe version of the game in its chromolithographed, wood-sided box would not "have sent their sons out for such a rough apprenticeship in the working world."
Luck, strategy, and diplomacy
Many board games involve both luck and strategy. But an important feature of them is the amount of randomness/luck involved, as opposed to skill. Some games, such as chess, depend almost entirely on player skill. But many children's games are decided purely by luck: for example, Candy Land and Snakes and Ladders require no decisions by the players. A player may be hampered by a few poor rolls of the dice in backgammon, Risk, Monopoly, or cribbage, but over many games a skilled player will win more often. While some purists consider luck to be an undesirable component of a game, others counter that elements of luck can make for far more diverse and multi-faceted strategies, as concepts such as expected value and risk management must be considered.
A second aspect is the game information available to players. Some games (chess being a classic example) are perfect information games: each player has complete information on the state of the game. In other games, such as Tigris and Euphrates or Stratego, some information is hidden from players. This makes finding the best move more difficult, and may involve estimating probabilities by the opponents.
Another important aspect of some games is diplomacy, that is, players making deals with one another. Two-player games usually do not involve diplomacy (cooperative games being the exception). Thus, negotiation generally features only in games with three or more players. An important facet of The Settlers of Catan, for example, is convincing players to trade with you rather than with opponents. In Risk, two or more players may team up against others. Easy diplomacy involves convincing other players that someone else is winning and should therefore be teamed up against. Advanced diplomacy (e.g. in the aptly named game Diplomacy) consists of making elaborate plans together, with the possibility of betrayal.
Luck may be introduced into a game by a number of methods. The most common method is the use of dice, generally six-sided. These can decide everything from how many steps a player moves their token, as in Monopoly, to how their forces fare in battle, as in Risk, or which resources a player gains, as in The Settlers of Catan. Other games such as Sorry! use a deck of special cards that, when shuffled, create randomness. Scrabble does something similar with randomly picked letters. Other games use spinners, timers of random length, or other sources of randomness. Trivia games have a great deal of randomness based on the questions a player must answer. German-style board games are notable for often having less luck element than many North American board games.
While there has been a fair amount of scientific research on the psychology of older board games (e.g., chess, Go, mancala), less has been done on contemporary board games such as Monopoly, Scrabble, and Risk. Much research has been carried out on chess, in part because many tournament players are publicly ranked in national and international lists, which makes it possible to compare their levels of expertise. The works of Adriaan de Groot, William Chase, Herbert A. Simon, and Fernand Gobet have established that knowledge, more than the ability to anticipate moves, plays an essential role in chess-playing. This seems to be the case in other traditional games such as Go and Oware (a mancala game), but data is lacking in regard to contemporary board games.
|With crime you deal with every basic human emotion and also have enough elements to combine action with melodrama. The player’s imagination is fired as they plan to rob the train. Because of the gamble they take in the early stage of the game there is a build up of tension, which is immediately released once the train is robbed. Release of tension is therapeutic and useful in our society, because most jobs are boring and repetitive.|
Linearly arranged board games have been shown to improve children's spatial numerical understanding. This is because the game is similar to a number line in that they promote a linear understanding of numbers rather than the innate logarithmic one.
There are a number of different categories that board games can be classified into, although considerable overlap exists, and a game may belong in several categories. The following is a list of some of the most common:
- Abstract strategy games – e.g. chess, checkers, Go, Reversi, tafl games, or modern games such as Abalone, Stratego, Hive, or GIPF
- Alignment games – e.g. Renju, Gomoku, Connect6, Nine Men's Morris, or Tic-tac-toe
- Auction games – e.g. Hoity Toity
- Chess variants – traditional variants e.g. shogi, xiangqi, or janggi; modern variants e.g. Chess960, Grand chess, Hexagonal chess, or Alice chess
- Configuration games – e.g. Lines of Action, Hexade, or Entropy
- Connection games – e.g. TwixT, Hex, or Havannah
- Cooperative games – e.g. Max the Cat, Caves and Claws, or Pandemic
- Cross and circle games – e.g. Yut, Ludo, or Aggravation
- Deduction games – e.g. Mastermind or Black Box
- Dexterity games – e.g. Tumblin' Dice or Pitch Car
- Economic simulation games – e.g. The Business Game
- Educational games – e.g. Arthur Saves the Planet, Cleopatra and the Society of Architects, or Shakespeare: The Bard Game
- Elimination games – e.g. draughts, Alquerque, Fanorona, Yoté, or Surakarta
- Family games – e.g. Roll Through the Ages, Birds on a Wire, or For Sale
- Fantasy games – e.g. Shadows Over Camelot
- German-style board games or Eurogames – e.g. The Settlers of Catan, Carson City, or Puerto Rico
- Guessing games – e.g. Pictionary or Battleship
- Historical simulation games – e.g. Through the Ages or Railways of the World
- Large multiplayer games – e.g. Take It Easy or Swat (2010)
- Learning/communication non-competitive games – e.g. The Ungame (1972)
- Mancala games – e.g. Oware or The Glass Bead Game
- Musical games – e.g. Spontuneous
- Negotiation games – e.g. Diplomacy
- Paper-and-pencil games – e.g. Tic-tac-toe or Dots and Boxes
- Physical skill games – e.g. Camp Granada
- Position games (no captures; win by leaving the opponent unable to move) – e.g. Konane, mū tōrere, or the L game
- Race games – e.g. Pachisi, backgammon, Snakes and Ladders, Hyena chase, or Worm Up
- Roll-and-move games – e.g. Monopoly or Life
- Share-buying games (games in which players buy stakes in each other's positions) – typically longer economic-management games
- Single-player puzzle games – e.g. peg solitaire or Sudoku
- Spiritual development games (games with no winners or losers) – e.g. Transformation Game or Psyche's Key
- Stacking games – e.g. Lasca or DVONN
- Territory games – e.g. Go or Reversi
- Tile-based games – e.g. Scrabble, Tigris and Euphrates, or Evo
- Train games – e.g. Ticket to Ride, Steam, or 18xx
- Trivia games – e.g. Trivial Pursuit
- Two-player-only themed games – e.g. En Garde or Dos de Mayo
- Unequal forces (or "hunt") games – e.g. Fox and Geese or Tablut
- Wargames – ranging from Risk, Diplomacy, or Axis & Allies, to Attack! or Conquest of the Empire
- Word games – e.g. Scrabble, Boggle, Anagrams, or What's My Word? (2010)
- bit: see piece.
- board: see gameboard.
- capture: a method that removes another player's piece(s) from the board. For example: in checkers, if a player jumps the opponent's piece, that piece is captured. In some games, captured pieces remain in hand and can be reentered into active play (e.g. shogi, Bughouse chess).
- card: a piece of cardboard often bearing instructions, and usually chosen randomly from a deck by shuffling.
- cell: see hex and space.
- counter: see piece.
- currency: a scoring mechanic used by some games to determine the winner, e.g. money (Monopoly) or counters (Zohn Ahl).
- custodian capture (or custodial capture): a capture method whereby an enemy piece is captured by being blocked on adjacent sides by opponent pieces. (Typically laterally by two sides as in Tablut and Hasami shogi, or laterally by four sides as in Go.)
- deck: a stack of cards.
- die/dice: modern cubic dice are used to generate random numbers in many games – e.g. a single die in Trivial Pursuit, or two dice per player in backgammon. Role-playing games typically use one or more polyhedral dice. Games such as Pachisi and chaupur traditionally use cowrie shells. The games Zohn Ahl and Hyena chase use dice sticks. The game yut uses yut sticks.
- displacement capture: a capture method whereby a capturing piece replaces the captured piece on its square, cell, or point on the gameboard.
- equipment: refers to physical components required to play a game, e.g. pieces, gameboard, dice.
- game equipment: see equipment.
- game piece: see piece.
- gameboard: the (usually quadrilateral) surface on which one plays a board game. The namesake of the board game, gameboards would seem to be a necessary and sufficient condition of the genre, though card games that do not use a standard deck of cards (as well as games that use neither cards nor a gameboard) are often colloquially included. Most games use a standardized and unchanging board (chess, Go, and backgammon each have such a board), but many games use a modular board whose component tiles or cards can assume varying layouts from one session to another, or even during gameplay.
- gameplay: the execusion of a game; or specifically its strategy, tactics, conventions, or mechanics.
- gamespace: a gameboard for a three-dimensional game. (E.g., the 5×5×5 cubic gameboard for Raumschach.)
- hex: in hexagon-based board games, this is the common term for a standard space on the board. This is most often used in wargaming, though many abstract strategy games such as Abalone, Agon, hexagonal chess, GIPF Project games, and connection games use hexagonal layouts.
- in hand: a piece "in hand" is one not currently in play on the gameboard, but may be entered into play on a turn. Examples are captured pieces in shogi or Bughouse chess, able to be "dropped" into play as a move; or pieces initially in hand at the start of the game, e.g. game Chessence.
- jump: to bypass one or more pieces or spaces. Depending on the context, jumping may also involve capturing or conquering an opponent's piece. See also Game mechanic#Capture/eliminate.
- leap: see jump.
- man: see piece.
- meeple: see piece.
- orthogonal: a horizontal (straight left or right) or vertical (straight forward or backward) direction a piece moves on a gameboard.
- move: see turn.
- pass: the voluntary or involuntary forfeiture of a turn by a player.
- piece (or bit, checker, chip, counter, disc, draughtsman, game piece, man, meeple, mover, pawn, player piece, playing piece, stone, token, unit): a player's representative on the gameboard made of a piece of material made to look like a known object (such as a scale model of a person, animal, or inanimate object) or otherwise general symbol. Each player may control one or more pieces. Some games involve commanding multiple pieces, such as chess pieces or Monopoly houses and hotels, that have unique designations and capabilities within the parameters of the game; in other games, such as Go, all pieces controlled by a player have the same capabilities. In some modern board games, such as Clue, there are other pieces that are not a player's representative (i.e. weapons). In some games, pieces may not represent or belong to any particular player. See also Counter (board wargames).
- player: the participant(s) in the game. See also Player (game).
- point: see space.
- polyhedral dice: see die/dice.
- replacement capture: see displacement capture.
- rule: a condition or stipulation by which a game is played.
- ruleset: the comprehensive set of rules which define and govern a game.
- space: a physical unit of progress on a gameboard delimited by a distinct border, and not further divisible according to the game's rules. Alternatively, a unique position on the board on which a piece in play may be located. For example, in Go, the pieces are placed on grid line intersections, called points, and not in the areas bounded by the borders, as in chess. The bounded area geometries can be square (e.g. chess), rectangular (e.g. shogi), hexagonal (e.g. Chinese checkers), triangular (e.g. Bizingo), quadrilateral (e.g. Three-player chess), or other shapes (e.g. Circular chess). See also Game mechanic#Movement.
- square: see space.
- token: see piece.
- turn: a player's opportunity to move a piece or make a decision that influences gameplay. Turns to move usually alternate equally between competing players or teams. See also Turn-based game.
- BoardGameGeek—a board game community and website database
- Going Cardboard—a documentary, including interviews with game designers and game publishers
- History of games
- Interactive movie—DVD games
- List of board games
- List of game manufacturers
- Mind sport
- Snakes and Lattes—a board game café
- Tabletop game
- Piccione, Peter A. (July–August 1980). "In Search of the Meaning of Senet". Archaeology: 55–58. Retrieved 2008-06-23.
- "''Okno do svita deskovych her''". Hrejsi.cz. 1998-04-27. Retrieved 2010-02-12.
- "World's Oldest Backgammon Discovered In Burnt City". Payvand News. December 4, 2004. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
- Schädler, Dunn-Vaturi, Ulrich, Anne-Elizabeth. "BOARD GAMES in pre-Islamic Persia". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
- Brumbaugh, Robert S. (1975). "The Knossos Game Board". American Journal of Archaeology (Archaeological Institute of America) 79 (2): 135–137. doi:10.2307/503893. JSTOR 503893. Retrieved 2008-06-23.
- Rawson, Jessica (1996). Mysteries of Ancient China. London: British Museum Press. pp. 159–161. ISBN 0-7141-1472-3.
- "Confucius". Senseis.xmp.net. 2006-09-23. Retrieved 2010-02-12.
- "Varro: Lingua Latina X". Thelatinlibrary.com. Retrieved 2010-02-12.
- Games Britannia – 1. Dicing with Destiny, BBC Four, 1:05am Tuesday 8 December 2009
- John Fairbairn's Go in Ancient China[dead link]
- Murray 1951, pp.56, 57.
- Burns, Robert I. "Stupor Mundi: Alfonso X of Castile, the Learned." Emperor of Culture: Alfonso X the Learned of Castile and His Thirteenth-Century Renaissance. Ed. Robert I. Burns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania P, 1990. 1–13.
- Sonja Musser Golladay, "Los Libros de Acedrex Dados E Tablas: Historical, Artistic and Metaphysical Dimensions of Alfonso X’s Book of Games" (PhD diss., University of Arizona, 2007), 31. Although Golladay is not the first to assert that 1283 is the finish date of the Libro de Juegos, the a quo information compiled in her dissertation consolidates the range of research concerning the initiation and completion dates of the Libro de Juegos.
- Smith, Quinti (October 2012). "The Board Game Golden Age". Retrieved 2013-05-10.
- Jensen, Jennifer (2003). "Teaching Success Through Play: American Board and Table Games, 1840-1900". Magazine Antiques. bnet. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
- Fessenden, Tracy (2007). Culture and Redemption: Religion, the Secular, and American Literature. Princeton University Press. p. 271. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
- Hofer, Margaret K. (2003). The Games We Played: The Golden Age of Board & Table Games. Princeton Architectural Press. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
- Weber, Susan, and Susie McGee (n.d.). "History of the Game Monopoly". Archived from the original on 10 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-03.
- Downey, Greg (November 1999). "Information Networks and Urban Spaces: The Case of the Telegraph Messenger Boy". Antenna. Mercurians. Retrieved 2009-02-07.[dead link]
- de Voogt, Alex, & Retschitzki, Jean (2004). Moves in mind: The psychology of board games. Psychology Press. ISBN 1-84169-336-7.
- Stealing the show. Toy Retailing News, Volume 2 Number 4 (December 1976), p. 2
- "Playing Linear Number Board Games—But Not Circular Ones—Improves Low-Income Preschoolers’ Numerical Understanding".
- Austin, Roland G. "Greek Board Games." Antiquity 14. September 1940: 257–271
- Bell, R. C. (1983). The Boardgame Book. Exeter Books. ISBN 0-671-06030-9.
- Bell, R. C. (1979) [1st Pub. 1960, Oxford University Press, London]. Board and Table Games From Many Civilizations I (Revised ed.). Dover Publications Inc. ISBN 0-671-06030-9.
- Bell, R. C. (1979) [1st Pub. 1969, Oxford University Press, London]. Board and Table Games From Many Civilizations II (Revised ed.). Dover Publications Inc. ISBN 0-671-06030-9.
- Diagram Group (1975). Midgley, Ruth, ed. The Way to Play. Paddington Press Ltd. ISBN 0-8467-0060-3.
- Falkener, Edward (1961) . Games Ancient and Oriental and How to Play Them. Dover Publications Inc. ISBN 0-486-20739-0.
- Fiske, Willard. Chess in Iceland and in Icelandic Literature—with historical notes on other table-games. Florentine Typographical Society, 1905.
- Gobet, Fernand; de Voogt, Alex, & Retschitzki, Jean (2004). Moves in mind: The psychology of board games. Psychology Press. ISBN 1-84169-336-7.
- Golladay, Sonja Musser, "Los Libros de Acedrex Dados E Tablas: Historical, Artistic and Metaphysical Dimensions of Alfonso X’s Book of Games" (PhD diss., University of Arizona, 2007)
- Gordon, Stewart (July–August 2009). "The Game of Kings". Saudi Aramco World (Houston: Aramco Services Company) 60 (4): 18–23. (PDF version)
- Grunfeld, Frederic V. (1975). Games of the World. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. ISBN 0-03-015261-5.
- Mohr, Merilyn Simonds (1997). The New Games Treasury. Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 1-57630-058-7.
- Murray, H. J. R. (1913). A History of Chess (Reissued ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-827403-3.
- Murray, H. J. R. (1978). A History of Board-Games other than Chess (Reissued ed.). Hacker Art Books Inc. ISBN 0-87817-211-4.
- Parlett, David. Oxford History of Board Games. Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-19-212998-8
- Pritchard, D. B. (1982). Brain Games. Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 0-14-00-5682-3.
- Pritchard, David (1994). The Family Book of Games. Brockhampton Press. ISBN 1-86019-021-9.
- Rollefson, Gary O., "A Neolithic Game Board from Ain Ghazal, Jordan," Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 286. (May 1992), pp. 1–5.
- Sackson, Sid (1983) [1st Pub. 1969, Random House, New York]. A Gamut of Games. Arrow Books. ISBN 0-09-153340-6.
- Schmittberger, R. Wayne (1992). New Rules for Classic Games. John Wiley & Sons Inc. ISBN 978-0471536215.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Board games.|