Bob Jones University

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Bob Jones University
Bob Jones University logo (adopted 2013).png
Motto Petimus Credimus (Latin)
Motto in English We seek, we trust
Established 1927
Type private,[1] non-denominational
Chancellor Bob Jones III
President Steve Pettit
Provost Gary Weier
Students c. 2,800 [2]
Location Greenville, South Carolina, US
Campus Suburban, 210 acres (85 ha)
Colors Blue and white
Athletics NCCAA Division I - South
Nickname The Bruins
Mascot Brody the Bruin
Website www.bju.edu

Bob Jones University (BJU) is a private, non-denominational Protestant university in Greenville, South Carolina, U.S. There are approximately 2,800 students, and the school is accredited by the Transnational Association of Christian Colleges and Schools. In 2008, the university estimated the number of its graduates at 35,000. The university's athletic teams compete in Division I of the National Christian College Athletic Association (NCCAA) and are collectively known as the Bruins. Though the conservative religious, cultural, and political stances taken by the university have often generated controversy, they have also resulted in greater institutional influence than might have been anticipated from a college of its size.

History[edit]

Bob Jones, Sr., the university's founder

Founded in 1927, by evangelist Bob Jones, Sr., near Panama City, on the Florida panhandle, Bob Jones College moved to Cleveland, Tennessee in 1933, and to its present campus in Greenville, South Carolina in 1947, where it became Bob Jones University.[3] There have been five presidents: Bob Jones, Sr. (1927–1947); Bob Jones, Jr. (1947–1971); Bob Jones III, (1971–2005); Stephen Jones (2005—2014); and Steve Pettit, (2014 to the present).[4]

After the university moved to Greenville, it started its own radio station, film department, and art gallery—the latter of which has one of the largest collections of religious art in the Western Hemisphere. In the early 1970s, the university began BJU Press. Since the turn of the century, the university became an accredited member of the Transnational Association of Christian Colleges and Schools (TRACS) and reinstated intercollegiate athletics.[5]

From its inception, BJU has been located in the South "but has never had a predominantly southern constituency."[6] In 2006, the state with the largest number of students enrolled was South Carolina, but many of these were married students who had moved from other parts of the country to attend the University. Other states with large representations in the student body are Michigan, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Ohio.[7]

Campus[edit]

The university occupies 205 acres at the eastern city limit of Greenville. The institution moved into its initial 25 buildings during the 1947-48 school year, and later buildings were also faced with the light yellow brick chosen for the originals.[8]

Museum and gallery[edit]

Bob Jones, Jr. was a connoisseur of European art and began collecting after World War II on about $30,000 a year authorized by the University Board of Directors.[9] Jones first concentrated on the Italian Baroque, a style then out of favor and relatively inexpensive in the years immediately following the war.[9] Fifty years after the opening of the gallery, the BJU collection included more than 400 European paintings from the 14th to through the 19th centuries (mostly pre-19th century), period furniture, and a notable collection of Russian icons.[10] The museum also includes a variety of Holy Land antiquities collected in the early 20th century by missionaries Frank and Barbara Bowen.[10] Not surprisingly, the gallery is especially strong in Baroque paintings and includes notable works by Rubens, Tintoretto, Veronese, Cranach, Gerard David, Murillo, Mattia Preti, Ribera, van Dyck, and Gustave Doré.[10] Included in the Museum & Gallery collection are seven very large canvases, part of a series by Benjamin West painted for George III, called "The Progress of Revealed Religion," which are displayed in the War Memorial Chapel.[11] (Baroque art was created during—and often for—the Counter-Reformation and so, ironically, BJU has been criticized by some other fundamentalists for promoting “false Catholic doctrine” through its art gallery.)[12]

After the death of Bob Jones, Jr., Erin Jones, the wife of BJU president Stephen Jones, became director. According to David Steel, curator of European art at the North Carolina Museum of Art, Erin Jones "brought that museum into the modern era," employing "a top-notch curator, John Nolan," and following "best practices in conservation and restoration." The museum now regularly cooperates with other institutions, lending works for outside shows such as a Rembrandt exhibit in 2011.[13]

In 2008, the BJU Museum & Gallery opened a satellite location, the "Museum & Gallery at Heritage Green" near downtown Greenville, which features rotating exhibitions from the main museum as well as interactive children's activities. The Heritage Green building, an extensively remodeled Coca-Cola bottling plant, joined the neighboring Upcountry History Museum and the Greenville Children's Museum, all of which feature "the latest in museum technology."[14]

Each Easter season, the university and the Museum & Gallery present the Living Gallery, a series of tableaux vivants recreating noted works of religious art using live models disguised as part of two-dimensional paintings.[15]

Library[edit]

Jerusalem Chamber, Mack Library, containing a collection of rare Bibles.

The 90,000-square-foot (8,400 m2) Mack Library (named for John Sephus Mack) holds a collection of more than 300,000 books and includes seating for 1,200 as well as a computer lab and a computer classroom.[16] (Its ancillary, a music library, is included in the Gustafson Fine Arts Center.) Mack Library's Special Collections includes an American Hymnody Collection of about 700 titles.[17] The "Jerusalem Chamber” is a replica of the room in Westminster Abbey in which work on the King James Version of the Bible was conducted, and it displays a collection of rare Bibles.[18] An adjoining Memorabilia Room commemorates the life of Bob Jones, Sr. and the history of the University.[19]

The library's Fundamentalism File collects periodical articles and ephemera about social and religious matters of interest to evangelicals and fundamentalists.[20] The university Archives holds copies of all university publications, oral histories of faculty and staff members, surviving remnants of university correspondence, and pictures and artifacts related to the Jones family and the history of the university.[21]

Academics[edit]

The university consists of seven colleges and schools that offer more than 60 undergraduate majors, including fourteen associate degree programs.[22] Although BJU's faculty is untenured faculty, most University employees consider their positions as much ministries as jobs.[23] It is common for retiring professors to have served the university for thirty, forty, and even occasionally, fifty years, a circumstance that has contributed to the stability and conservatism of an institution of higher learning that has virtually no endowment and at which faculty salaries are "sacrificial."[24]

Religious education[edit]

The School of Religion includes majors for both men and women, although only men (about 500 per year) train as ministerial students.[25] Many of these students go on to a seminary after completing their undergraduate degree. Others take ministry positions straight from college, and rising juniors participate in a church internship program to prepare them for the pastoral ministry. In 1995 there were 1,290 BJU graduates serving as senior or associate pastors in churches across the United States.[26]

The seminary building at Bob Jones

Fine Arts[edit]

The Division of Fine Arts has the largest faculty of the university's six undergraduate schools.[27] Each year the university presents an opera in the spring semester and Shakespearean plays in both the fall and spring semesters.[28] A service called “Vespers,” presented occasionally throughout the school year, combines music, speech, and drama.[29] The Division of Fine Arts includes an RTV department with a campus radio and television station, WBJU. More than a hundred concerts, recitals, and laboratory theater productions are also presented annually.[30]

Each fall, as a recruiting tool, the university sponsors a "High School Festival" in which students compete in music, art, and speech (including preaching) contests with their peers from around the country.[31] In the spring, a similar competition sponsored by the American Association of Christian Schools, and hosted by BJU since 1977, brings thousands of national finalists to the university from around the country. In 2005, 120 of the finalists from previous years returned to BJU as freshmen.[32]

Science[edit]

Howell Memorial Science Building

Bob Jones University supports young-earth creationism,[33] all their faculty are young Earth creationists[34] and the university rejects evolution, calling it "at best an unsupportable and unworkable hypothesis".[35]

The school offers undergraduate majors in biology (zoo and wildlife, and cell biology [36]), premed, chemistry, engineering, and physics and also offers courses in astronomy. Between 80% and 100% of the premed graduates are accepted to medical school every year.[37] The Department of Biology hosts two research programs on campus, one in cancer research, the other in animal behavior.[38] In 2008 no member of the BJU science faculty held a degree in geology,[39] and the university offered only one introductory course in the subject.[40] Although ten of the sixteen members of the science faculty have undergraduate degrees from BJU, all earned their doctorates from accredited, non-religious institutions of higher learning.[39]

The university's nursing major is approved by the South Carolina State Board of Nursing, and a BJU graduate with a BSN is eligible to take the National Council Licensure Examination to become a registered nurse.[40] The BJU engineering program was accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET).[41]

Rankings and accreditation[edit]

Bob Jones, Sr. was leery of academic accreditation almost from the founding of the college, and by the early 1930s, he had publicly stated his opposition to holding regional accreditation.[42] Not surprisingly, Jones and the college were criticized for this stance, and academic recognition, as well as student and faculty recruitment, were hindered.[43]

In 1944, Jones wrote to John Walvoord of Dallas Theological Seminary that while the university had "no objection to educational work highly standardized….We, however, cannot conscientiously let some group of educational experts or some committee of experts who may have a behavioristic or atheistic slant on education control or even influence the administrative policies of our college." [44] Five years later, Jones reflected that “it cost us something to stay out of an association, but we stayed out. We have lived up to our convictions.”[45] In any case, lack of accreditation seems to have made little difference during the post-war period, when the university more than doubled in size.[43]

Because graduates did not have the benefit of accredited degrees, the faculty felt an increased responsibility to prepare their students.[46] Early in the history of the college, there had been some hesitancy on the part of other institutions to accept BJC credits at face value, but by the 1960s, BJU alumni were being accepted by most of the major graduate and professional schools in the United States.[47] Undoubtedly helpful was that some of the university’s strongest programs were in the areas of music, speech, and art, disciplines in which ability could be measured by audition or portfolio rather than through paper qualifications.[48]

By the early 2000s (decade), however, the university quietly reexamined its position on accreditation as degree mills proliferated and various government bureaucracies, such as law enforcement agencies, began excluding BJU graduates on the grounds that the university did not appear on appropriate federal lists.[48] In 2004, the university began the process of joining the Transnational Association of Christian Colleges and Schools. Candidate status—effectively, accreditation—was obtained in April 2005, and full membership in the Association was conferred in November 2006.[49] In December 2011, BJU announced its intention to apply for regional accreditation with the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS).[50]

In Forbes national university ranking, Bob Jones was unranked in 2011,[51] #606 in 2010,[52] and #279 in 2009.[53] In 2014, the Educate to Career College Ranking Index listed BJU as 15th in the nation.[54]

Extracurriculars[edit]

Davis Field House

After BJU abandoned intercollegiate sports in 1933,[55] its intramural sports program included competition in soccer, basketball, softball, volleyball, tennis, badminton, flag football, table tennis, racquetball, and water polo. The university also competed in intercollegiate debate within the National Educational Debate Association, in intercollegiate mock trial and computer science competitions, and participated at South Carolina Student Legislature.[56] In 2012, BJU joined Division I of National Christian College Athletic Association (NCCAA) and in 2014 participated in intercollegiate soccer, basketball, cross-country, and golf.[57] The teams are known as the Bruins.

The university requires all unmarried incoming freshman students under the age of 23 to join one of 45 "societies."[58] Societies meet about every second Friday for entertainment and fellowship; societies also hold a weekly prayer meeting. Societies field sports, debate, and Scholastic Bowl teams. The latter compete in an annual single-elimination tournament that concludes with a clash between the top two teams before a university-wide audience on the Thursday before Commencement. Questions include a wide range of biblical and academic topics.[59] The university also has a student-staffed newspaper (The Collegian),[60] and yearbook (Vintage).[61]

Early in December, thousands of students, faculty, and visitors gather around the front campus fountain for an annual Christmas carol sing and lighting ceremony, culminating in the illumination of tens of thousands of Christmas lights.[62] On December 3, 2004, the ceremony broke the Guinness World Record for Christmas caroling with 7,514 carolers.[63]

In place of a spring break, students and faculty are required to attend a six-day Bible Conference in late March.[64] The Conference attracts fundamentalist preachers and laymen from around the country, and some BJU class reunions are held during the week.[65]

Ancillary ministries[edit]

Unusual Films[edit]

Both Bob Jones, Sr. and Bob Jones, Jr. believed that film could be an excellent medium for mass evangelism, and in 1950, the university established Unusual Films within the School of Fine Arts.[66] (The studio name derives from a former BJU promotional slogan, "The World's Most Unusual University".)[67] Bob Jones, Jr. selected a speech teacher, Katherine Stenholm, as the first director. Although she had no experience in cinema, she took summer courses at the University of Southern California and received personal instruction from Hollywood specialists, such as Rudolph Sternad.[68]

Unusual Films has produced seven feature-length films, each with an evangelistic emphasis: Wine of Morning, Red Runs the River, Flame in the Wind, Sheffey, Beyond the Night, The Printing, and Milltown Pride.[69] Wine of Morning (1955), based on a novel by Bob Jones, Jr., represented the United States at the Cannes Film Festival.[70] The first four films are historical dramas set, respectively, in the time of Christ, the U.S. Civil War, 16th-century Spain, and the late 19th-century South—the latter a fictionalized treatment of the life of Methodist evangelist, Robert Sayers Sheffey. Beyond the Night closely follows an actual 20th-century missionary saga in Central Africa, and The Printing uses composite characters to portray the persecution of believers in the former Soviet Union. In 1999, Unusual Films began producing feature film for children, including "The Treasure Map",[71] "Project Dinosaur",[72] and "Appalachian Trial".[73] They also released a short animated film for children, "The Golden Rom".[74] Unusual Films returned to their customary format in 2011 with their release of "Milltown Pride", a historical film set in 1920s Upstate South Carolina.[75]

Unusual Films also maintains a student film production program. The Cinema Production program is designed to give professional training in all facets of motion picture production. This training combines classroom instruction with hands-on experience in a variety of areas including directing, editing, and cinematography. Before graduation, seniors produce their own high definition short film in which they write, direct, and edit.[76]

BJU Press[edit]

Main article: BJU Press

BJU Press originated in the need for textbooks for the burgeoning Christian school movement,[77] and today it is the largest book publisher in South Carolina.[78] The Press publishes a full range of K-12 textbooks. More than a million pre-college students around the world use BJU textbooks, and the Press has about 2,500 titles in print.

BJU Press also offers distance learning courses via online, DVD, and hard drive.[79] Another ancillary, the Academy of Home Education, is a "service organization for homeschooling families," that maintains student records, administers achievement testing, and issues high school diplomas. The Press sold its music division, SoundForth, to Lorenz Publishing on October 1, 2012.[80]

Pre-college programs[edit]

The university operates Bob Jones Academy, an elementary, middle, and high school.[81] The school of about 1500 students is the largest K-12 private school in the Carolinas and one of the largest in the Southeast.[82]

Controversies[edit]

Religious[edit]

Billy Graham[edit]

Billy Graham, who attended BJU for one semester, was later at odds with the University

One of the earliest controversies to center on BJU was the break that occurred in the late 1950s between separatist fundamentalists and neo-evangelicals represented by the newly prominent evangelist Billy Graham. Graham had briefly attended Bob Jones College, and the university conferred an honorary degree on him in 1948.[83] During the 1950s, however, Graham began distancing himself from the older fundamentalism and, in preparation for his 1957 New York Crusade, he sought broad ecumenical sponsorship.[84]

Bob Jones, Sr. argued that if members of Graham’s campaign executive committee had rejected major tenets of orthodox Christianity, such as the virgin birth and the deity of Christ, then Graham had violated 2 John 9-11, which prohibits receiving in fellowship those who do “not abide in the teaching of Christ.”[85] In the 1960s, Graham further irritated fundamentalists by gaining the endorsement of Cardinal Richard Cushing for his Boston campaign and accepting honorary degrees from two Roman Catholic colleges.[86]

As was his policy, Graham ignored criticism of his campaigns[87] and, in 1966, claimed not to know why the University opposed them;[88] but members of his staff openly accused Jones of jealousy on the grounds that Jones’s evangelistic meetings had never been as large as Graham’s.[89] Graham’s father-in-law, L. Nelson Bell, mailed a fiery ten-page letter to most members of the BJU faculty and student body (as well as to thousands of pastors across the country) accusing Jones of “hatred, distortions, jealousies, envying, malice, false witnessing, and untruthfulness.”[90]

In what seemed to the Joneses to be a deliberate affront, Graham held his only American campaign of 1966 in Greenville, South Carolina.[91] Under penalty of expulsion, the university forbade any BJU dormitory student from attending the Graham meetings.[92] In a four-page position paper delivered to students in 1965, Bob Jones, Jr., condemned Billy Graham's "ecumenical evangelism" as unscriptural and "heretical," noting that Graham shared his platform with Catholic priests and that one could not "be a good Catholic and a good, spiritual Christian." When Graham arrived in Greenville, Jones, Jr. emphasized that the basis of the university's position was scriptural and not personal. "The Bible commands that false teachers and men who deny the fundamentals of the faith should be accursed; that is, they shall be criticized and condemned. Billy approves them, Billy condones them, Billy recommends them....I think that Dr. Graham is doing more harm in the cause of Jesus Christ than any living man; that he is leading foolish and untaught Christians, simple people that do not know the Word of God, into disobedience to the Word of God."[93]

The negative publicity caused by the rift with Graham, itself a reflection of a larger division between separatist fundamentalists and neo-evangelicals, precipitated a decline in BJU enrollment of about 10% in the years 1956-59. Seven members of the university board (of about a hundred) also resigned in support of Graham, including Graham himself and two of his staff members. By 1966, when Graham appeared in Greenville, BJU enrollment had strongly rebounded and continued to grow thereafter until the mid-1980s.[94]

King James Version of the Bible[edit]

King James Version of the Bible

The university requires use of the King James Version (KJV) of the Bible in its services and classrooms, but it does not hold that the KJV is the only acceptable English translation or that it has the same authority as the original Hebrew and Greek manuscripts.[95] The King-James-Only Movement—or more correctly, movements, since it has many variations—became a divisive force in fundamentalism only as conservative modern Bible translations, such as the New American Standard Bible (NASB) and the New International Version (NIV) began to appear in the 1970s. BJU has taken the position that orthodox Christians of the late 19th and early 20th centuries (including fundamentalists) agreed that while the KJV was a substantially accurate translation, only the original manuscripts of the Bible written in Hebrew and Greek were infallible and inerrant.[96] Bob Jones, Jr. called the KJV-only position a "heresy" and "in a very definite sense, a blasphemy."[97]

The university's stand has been condemned by some other fundamentalists. In 1998, Pensacola Christian College produced a widely distributed videotape, arguing that this "leaven of fundamentalism" was passed from the 19th-century Princeton theologian Benjamin B. Warfield (1851–1921) to Charles Brokenshire (1885–1954), who served BJU as Dean of the School of Religion, and then to current BJU faculty members and graduates.[98] Ironically, Peter Ruckman, a BJU graduate, has argued the most extreme version of the KJV-only position, that all translations of the Bible since the KJV have been of satanic origin.[99]

Criticism of Catholicism and Mormonism[edit]

The three Bob Joneses, especially Bob Jones, Jr., sharply criticized the Roman Catholic Church. For instance, Jones, Jr. once said that Catholicism was "not another Christian denomination. It is a satanic counterfeit, an ecclesiastic tyranny over the souls of men....It is the old harlot of the book of the Revelation—'the Mother of Harlots.'" All popes, Jones asserted, "are demon possessed."[100] In 2000, then-president Bob Jones III referred, on the university's web page, to Mormons and Catholics as "cults which call themselves Christian."[101] Furthermore, in 1966, BJU awarded an honorary doctorate to the Rev. Ian Paisley, future British MP, leader of the Democratic Unionist Party, and Moderator of the Free Presbyterian Church of Ulster, who has referred to the Pope as a "Roman anti-Christ." [102] Bob Jones III has argued that the university is not so much anti-Catholic or anti-Mormon as it is opposed to the idea that all men, regardless of religious beliefs, will eventually get to heaven: "Our shame would be in telling people a lie, and thereby letting them go to hell without Christ because we loved their goodwill more than we loved them and their souls…. All religion, including Catholicism, which teaches that salvation is by religious works or church dogma is false. Religion that makes the words of its leader, be he Pope or other, equal with the Word of God is false. Sola Scriptura. From the time of the Protestant Reformation onward, it has been understood that there is no commonality between the Bible way, which is justification by faith in the shed blood of Jesus Christ, and salvation by works, which the faithful, practicing Catholic embraces."[103]

Sexual abuse study[edit]

In 2012, following allegations of sexual abuse and the mishandling of sexual abuse reports, the university hired a third-party, Godly Response to Abuse in the Christian Environment (GRACE), to conduct an impartial investigation. On January 27, 2014, the university abruptly terminated the contract with GRACE a month before the results of the study were to be published, then a month later rehired the group. [104]

Racial[edit]

Segregation[edit]

Although BJU admitted Asians and other ethnic groups from its inception, it did not enroll black students until 1971, eight years after the University of South Carolina and Clemson University had been integrated by court order. From 1971 to 1975, BJU admitted only married blacks, although the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) had already determined in 1970 that "private schools with racially discriminatory admissions policies" were not entitled to federal tax exemption. Late in 1971, BJU filed suit to prevent the IRS from taking its tax exemption, but in 1974, in Bob Jones University v. Simon, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the university did not have standing to sue until the IRS actually assessed taxes.[105] Over a year later, on May 29, 1975, the University Board of Trustees authorized a change in policy to admit "students of any race," a move that occurred shortly before the announcement of the Supreme Court decision in Runyon v. McCrary (427 U.S. 160 [1976]), which prohibited racial exclusion in private schools.[106]

In May 1975, as it prepared to allow unmarried blacks to enroll, BJU adopted more detailed rules prohibiting interracial dating and marriage—threatening expulsion for any student who dated or married interracially, who advocated interracial marriage, who was "affiliated with any group or organization which holds as one of its goals or advocates interracial marriage," or "who espouse, promote, or encourage others to violate the university's dating rules and regulations."[107] In 1982 BJU's then-president Bob Jones III, during interviews in which he defended the school's tax-exempt status, cited nine passages from the Bible - drawn both from the Old and New Testaments - which he claimed demonstrated that God intended races to be segregated:[108] "The Bible clearly teaches, starting in the 10th chapter of Genesis and going all the way through, that God has put differences among people on the earth to keep the earth divided", he said, adding that inter-racial marriage was "playing into the hands of the antichrist and the one-world system."[109]

In 2000, following a media uproar prompted by the visit of presidential candidate George W. Bush to the university, Bob Jones III abruptly dropped the interracial dating rule, announcing the change on CNN's "Larry King Live".[110] Jones III said that interracial dating had been prohibited since the 1950s, having originated in a complaint by parents of a male Asian student who thought that their son had "nearly married" a white girl. Jones also admitted, "We can't point to a verse in the Bible that says you shouldn't date or marry inter-racial."[111] Five years later when asked for his view of the rule change, the then president, Stephen Jones, replied, "I've never been more proud of my dad than the night he...lifted that policy."[112]

Bob Jones University v. United States (1983)[edit]

Rodeheaver Auditorium

On January 19, 1976, the Internal Revenue Service notified the university that its tax exemption had been revoked retroactively to December 1, 1970. The school appealed the IRS decision all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court, arguing that the University met all other criteria for tax-exempt status and that the school's racial discrimination was based on sincerely held religious beliefs, that "God intended segregation of the races and that the Scriptures forbid interracial marriage." [113] The university was not challenged about the origin of its interracial dating policy, and the District Court accepted "on the basis of a full evidentiary record" BJU's argument that the rule was a sincerely held religious conviction, a finding affirmed by all subsequent courts.[114] In December 1978, the federal district court ruled in the university's favor; two years later, that decision was overturned by the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals.

On January 8, 1982, just before the case was to be heard by the U.S. Supreme Court, President Ronald Reagan authorized his Treasury and Justice Departments to ask that the BJU case be dropped and that the previous court decisions be vacated. Political pressure quickly brought the Reagan administration to reverse itself and to ask the Court to reinstate the case. Then, in a virtually unprecedented move, the Court invited William T. Coleman, Jr. to argue the government's position in an amicus curiae brief, thus ensuring that the prosecution's position would be the one the Court wished to hear.[115] The case was heard on October 12, 1982, and on May 24, 1983, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled against Bob Jones University in Bob Jones University v. United States (461 U.S. 574). The university refused to reverse its interracial dating policy and (with difficulty) paid a million dollars in back taxes. Also, in the year following the Court decision, contributions to the university declined by 13 percent.[116]

Apology for "racially hurtful" policies (2008)[edit]

In November 2008, the university declared itself "profoundly sorry" for having allowed "institutional policies to remain in place that were racially hurtful."[117] That year BJU enrolled students from fifty states and nearly fifty countries, representing diverse ethnicities and cultures, and the BJU administration declared itself "committed to maintaining on the campus the racial and cultural diversity and harmony characteristic of the true Church of Jesus Christ throughout the world."[118]

By 2005, the university had established two 501(c)(3) charitable organizations to provide scholarship assistance solely for minority students.[119] Although BJU never reapplied for federal tax-exempt status, and it continues to pay federal taxes, a number of its ancillaries, including Bob Jones Academy and the BJU Museum & Gallery, are tax-exempt entities.[120]

Political[edit]

As a twelve-year-old, Bob Jones, Sr. made a twenty-minute speech in defense of the Populist Party. Jones was a friend and admirer of William Jennings Bryan but also campaigned throughout the South for Herbert Hoover (and against Al Smith) during the 1928 presidential election. Even the authorized history of BJU notes that both Bob Jones, Sr. and Bob Jones, Jr. “played political hardball” when dealing with the three municipalities in which the school was successively located. For instance, in 1962, Bob Jones, Sr. warned the Greenville City Council that he had “four hundred votes in his pocket and in any election he would have control over who would be elected.” [121]

Republican powerhouse[edit]

Both Ronald Reagan (left) and Strom Thurmond (right) played influential roles in the political life of BJU

From the inception of Bob Jones College, a majority of students and faculty were northerners, and therefore many were already Republicans living in the "Solid South." [122] After South Carolina Senator Strom Thurmond switched his allegiance to the Republican Party in 1964, BJU faculty members became increasingly influential in the new state Republican party, and BJU alumni were elected to local political and party offices. In 1976, candidates supported by BJU faculty and alumni captured the local Republican party with unfortunate short-term political consequences, but by 1980 the religious right and the "country club" Republicans had joined forces.[123] From then on, most Republican candidates for local and statewide offices sought the endorsement of Bob Jones III and greeted faculty/staff voters at the University Dining Common.[124]

National Republicans soon followed. Ronald Reagan spoke at the school in 1980, although the Joneses supported his opponent, John Connally, in the South Carolina primary.[125] (Later, Bob Jones III denounced Reagan as "a traitor to God's people" for choosing George H.W. Bush—whom Jones called a "devil"—as his vice president. Even later, Jones III shook Bush's hand and thanked him for being a good president.)[126] In the 1990s, other Republicans such as Dan Quayle, Pat Buchanan, Phil Gramm, Bob Dole, and Alan Keyes also spoke at BJU.[127] Democrats were rarely invited to speak at the university, in part because they took political and social positions (especially support for abortion rights) opposed by the Religious Right.[128]

2000 election[edit]

On February 2, 2000, George W. Bush, as candidate for President, spoke during school's chapel hour.[129] Bush gave a standard stump speech making no specific reference to the university. His political opponents quickly noted his non-mention of the university's ban on interracial dating. During the Michigan primary, Bush was also criticized for not stating his opposition to the university's anti-Catholicism. (The John McCain campaign targeted Catholics with a "Catholic Voter Alert," phone calls reminding voters of Bush's visit to BJU.)[130] Bush denied that he either knew of or approved what he regarded as BJU's intolerant policies. On February 26, Bush issued a formal letter of apology to Cardinal John Joseph O'Connor of New York for failing to denounce Bob Jones University's history of anti-Catholic statements. At a news conference following the letter's release, Bush said, "I make no excuses. I had an opportunity and I missed it. I regret that....I wish I had gotten up then and seized the moment to set a tone, a tone that I had set in Texas, a positive and inclusive tone."[129] Also during the 2000 Republican primary campaign in South Carolina, Richard Hand, a BJU professor, spread a false e-mail rumor that John McCain had fathered an illegitimate child. (The McCains have an adopted daughter from Bangladesh, and later push polling also implied that the child was biracial.)[131]

Withdrawal from politics[edit]

Although the March 2007 issue of Foreign Policy listed BJU as one of "The World's Most Controversial Religious Sites" because of its past influence on American politics,[132] BJU has seen little political controversy since Stephen Jones became president. When asked by a Newsweek reporter if he wished to play a political role, Stephen Jones replied, "It would not be my choice." Further, when asked if he felt ideologically closer to his father's engagement with politics or to other evangelicals who have tried to avoid civic involvement, he answered, "The gospel is for individuals. The main message we have is to individuals. We’re not here to save the culture." [133] In a 2005 Washington Post interview, Jones dodged political questions and even admitted that he was embarrassed by "some of the more vitriolic comments" made by his predecessors. "I don't want to get specific," he said, "But there were things said back then that I wouldn't say today."[134] In October 2007 when Bob Jones III, as "a private citizen," endorsed Mitt Romney for the Republican nomination for president, Stephen Jones made it clear that he wished "to stay out of politics" and that neither he nor the university had endorsed anyone.[135] Despite a hotly contested South Carolina primary, none of the candidates appeared on the platform of BJU's Founders' Memorial Amphitorium during the 2008 election cycle.[136] In April 2008 Stephen Jones told a reporter, "I don't think I have a political bone in my body."[137]

Student life[edit]

Religious atmosphere[edit]

"I believe in the inspiration of the Bible (both the Old and the New Testaments); the creation of man by the direct act of God; the incarnation and virgin birth of our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ; His identification as the Son of God; His vicarious atonement for the sins of mankind by the shedding of His blood on the cross; the resurrection of His body from the tomb; His power to save men from sin; the new birth through the regeneration by the Holy Spirit; and the gift of eternal life by the grace of God."

— BJU Creed

Religion is a major aspect of life and curriculum at BJU. The BJU Creed, written in 1927 by journalist and prohibitionist Sam Small, is recited by students and faculty four days a week at chapel services.[138]

The university also encourages church planting in areas of the United States "in great need of fundamental churches," and it has provided financial and logistical assistance to ministerial graduates in starting more than a hundred new churches.[139] Bob Jones III has also encouraged non-ministerial students to put their career plans on hold for two or three years to provide lay leadership for small churches.[140] Students of various majors participate in Missions Advance (formerly Mission Prayer Band), an organization that prays for missionaries and attempts to stimulate campus interest in world evangelism.[141] During summers and Christmas breaks, about 150 students participate in teams that use their musical, language, trade, and aviation skills to promote Christian missions around the world.[30] Although a separate nonprofit corporation, Gospel Fellowship Association, an organization founded by Bob Jones Sr. and associated with BJU, is one of the largest fundamentalist mission boards in the country.[142] Through its "Timothy Fund," the university also sponsors international students who are training for the ministry.[143]

Rules of conduct[edit]

Strict rules govern student life at BJU.[144] Some of these are based directly on the university's interpretation of the Bible. For instance, the 2011-12 Student Handbook states, "Students are to avoid any types of entertainment that could be considered immodest or that contain profanity, scatological realism, sexual perversion, erotic realism, lurid violence, occultism and false philosophical or religious assumptions." Grounds for immediate dismissal include stealing, immorality (including sexual relations between unmarried students), possession of hard-core pornography, use of alcohol or drugs, and participating in a public demonstration for a cause the university opposes.[145] Similar "moral failures" are grounds for terminating the employment of faculty and staff. In 1998, a homosexual alumnus was threatened with arrest if he visited the campus.[146]

Other rules are not based on a specific biblical passage. For instance, the Handbook notes that "there is no specific Bible command that says, 'Thou shalt not be late to class,' but a student who wishes to display orderliness and concern for others will not come in late to the distraction of the teacher and other students."[147] In 2008 a campus spokesman also said that one goal of the dress code was "to teach our young people to dress professionally" on campus while giving them "the ability to...choose within the biblically accepted options of dress" when they were off campus.[148]

Additional rules include the requirement that freshman resident hall students sign out before leaving campus and that resident hall students abide by a campus curfew of 10:30 pm, with lights out at midnight.[149] Students are forbidden to go to movie theaters while in residence, or listen to most contemporary popular music.[150] Male students are required to have conservative hairstyles, and facial hair is prohibited for students under 25.[151] Women are expected to dress modestly and wear knee-length dresses or skirts to class and religious services.[152] The university prohibits students from wearing clothing that displays the logos of Abercrombie & Fitch or its subsidiary Hollister because these companies have "shown an unusual degree of antagonism to biblical morality."[153]

Athletics[edit]

BJU's athletic teams compete in Division I of the National Christian College Athletic Association (NCCAA) and are collectively known as the Bruins. The school began its inaugural intercollegiate season with four teams: men's soccer, men's basketball, women's soccer, and women's basketball. Intercollegiate golf and cross country teams were added in the 2013-2014 school year.[154]

Notable people[edit]

Faculty[edit]

Christian novelist Jamie Langston Turner (an alumna) teaches poetry and writing at BJU.[155]

Alumni[edit]

A number of BJU graduates have become influential within fundamentalist and evangelical Christianity, including Ken Hay, the founder of The Wilds Christian camps;[156] Billy Kim, former president of Baptist World Alliance;[157] and Moisés Silva, president of the Evangelical Theological Society.[158] BJU alumni also include the third pastor (1968–1976) of Riverside Church, Ernest T. Campbell; the former president of Northland Baptist Bible College, Les Ollila;[159] late president of Baptist Bible College, Ernest Pickering;[160] and the former president of Clearwater Christian College Richard Stratton.[161]

One BJU alumnus, Asa Hutchinson, has served in Congress,[162] and several others have served in state government: Michigan state senator Alan Cropsey, Pennsylvania state representative Gordon Denlinger, Pennsylvania state representative Mark M. Gillen, former Speaker Pro Tempore of the South Carolina House of Representatives Terry Haskins, member of the South Carolina House of Representatives Wendy Nanney, Pennsylvania state representative Sam Rohrer, member of the Missouri House of Representatives Ryan Silvey, Maryland state senator Bryan Simonaire, South Carolina state senator Danny Verdin.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "BJU Listing". S.C. Secretary of State. Retrieved 4 September 2013. 
  2. ^ Greenville News, August 28, 2014, 6A. "Approximately 2,800 students from all 50 states and more than 40 countries will attend classes this year at BJU."
  3. ^ On the move to Greenville see John Matzko, "'This Is It, Isn't It, Brother Stone?' The Move of Bob Jones University from Cleveland, Tennessee, to Greenville, 1946-47," South Carolina Historical Magazine, 108 (July 2007), 235-256. The former Cleveland campus currently serves as the home of Lee University, an institution supported by the Church of God.
  4. ^ BJU Presidential Announcement
  5. ^ "Investiture of Stephen D. Pettit as Fifth President of Bob Jones University" http://www.bju.edu/about/president/program.pdf; Christian Century, November 2011.
  6. ^ Dalhouse, Mark Taylor (1996). An Island in the Lake of Fire: Bob Jones University, Fundamentalism & the Separatist Movement. University of Georgia Press. p. 149. 
  7. ^ Dalhouse, Mark Taylor (1996). An Island in the Lake of Fire: Bob Jones University, Fundamentalism & the Separatist Movement. University of Georgia Press. pp. 148–151. 
  8. ^ BJU Catalog (2011-12), 235; John Matzko, "'This is it, Isn't it, Brother, Stone?' The Move of Bob Jones University from Cleveland, Tennessee, to Greenville, 1946-47," South Carolina Historical Magazine 108:3 (July 2007), 255-56. The University updated its dining common and snack bar, which includes a Chick Fil' A, Brody's Grill, and Papa Johns.
  9. ^ a b Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. pp. 193–196. Jones Jr., Bob (1985). Cornbread and Caviar. BJU Press. pp. 48–49.  “A Collector’s Dream” Greenville Piedmont, 9 February 1989, A1.
  10. ^ a b c Museum & Gallery Collections
  11. ^ BJU Museum & Gallery website history of the West paintings.
  12. ^ [1] Example of fundamentalist criticism of BJU for promoting Catholicism. David Gibson, "Looking for Catholic art? Fundamentalist Bob Jones University has it" Christian Century, Nov 22, 2011.
  13. ^ David Gibson, "Looking for Catholic art? Fundamentalist Bob Jones University has it" Christian Century, Nov 22, 2011.
  14. ^ "Extraordinary art made more accessible,"Greenville News, March 17, 2008; "Sacred art museum opens today", Greenville News, April 19, 2008. Greenville News April 19, 2009
  15. ^ Greenville News, April 9, 2006; "A dramatic transformation: BJU's 'Living Gallery' breathes life into religious masterworks," Greenville News, March 25, 2008.
  16. ^ Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. p. 434. 
  17. ^ American Hymnody Collection.
  18. ^ J.S. Mack Library – Jerusalem Chamber
  19. ^ J.S. Mack Library – Archives[dead link].
  20. ^ The Fundamentalism File, created in 1978, has more than 100,000 non-book items, mostly articles listed under 5,000 subject headings; it also contains the papers of three notable 20th-century fundamentalists: G. Archer Weniger (1915-1982), W. O. H. Garman (1899-1983), and Gilbert Stenholm (1915-1989). BJU Library website, Fundamentalism File, Introduction to the File
  21. ^ BJU Archives Research. For instance, the archives hold decades of working scripts for university stage performances.
  22. ^ BJU website
  23. ^ Turner, Daniel (1997). Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. BJU Press. pp. 251–252. Wright, Melton (1984). Fortress of Faith: The Story of Bob Jones University. BJU Press. p. 194. : "Bob Jones University has a scholarly, dedicated faculty who regard teaching as not just a profession but as a Christian calling."
  24. ^ Voice of the Alumni [publication of the BJU Alumni Association], 1996-2006. In 1993, the CFO Roy Barton said that teachers' salaries were kept as "low as possible in order to offer affordable higher education to Christians." Barton said he could name "dozens of people who work here for half or a third of what they could be earning on the outside, but they are here because of a desire to be part of the ministry of training young people." Greenville News, April 18, 1993, "Upstate Business," 11. In the same Greenville News issue, Bob Jones III said, "Everyone here is like a missionary." (10)
  25. ^ BJU School of Religion.
  26. ^ Dalhouse, Mark Taylor. An Island in the Lake of Fire: Bob Jones University, Fundamentalism & the Separatist Movement. pp. 148–151. 
  27. ^ Of about 350 faculty members listed in the 2007-08 catalog, around a hundred, or roughly 30% taught in the Division of Fine Arts. Bob Jones University Catalog, 2007-08, 341-47.
  28. ^ Concert, opera, & drama series, BJU website. In 2011 the university won second place in the professional division of the National Opera Association 2009-10 video competition for its production of Samson et Dalila. NOA website.
  29. ^ Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. pp. 87–89, 191. . Turner gives a detailed description of the development of Vespers from a recital potpourri to a themed program with a specific Christian message. BJU website
  30. ^ a b "Investing in Lives for Eternity", BJU Advancement brochure (2008), 6, Bob Jones University Archives, Mack Library.
  31. ^ High school students to compete in Fall Festival Article from BJU website by Jeanne Petrizzo describing the festival
  32. ^ BJU Collegian article from BJU website
  33. ^ "Gap Theory Statement". Bob Jones University. 2013. 
  34. ^ "Biology". Bob Jones University. 2013. 
  35. ^ "Teaching Science: Distinctiveness". Bob Jones University. 2013. 
  36. ^ http://www.bju.edu/academics/college-and-schools/arts-and-science/natural-science/biology/
  37. ^ http://www.bju.edu/academics/programs/premed-predent/
  38. ^ http://www.bju.edu/academics/programs/biology/
  39. ^ a b BJU science faculty.
  40. ^ a b Bob Jones University Catalog, 2007-08, 90.
  41. ^ "BJU Engineering Program Earns ABET Accreditation | BJU Public Relations". Blogs.bju.edu. 2013-08-07. Retrieved 2014-08-15. 
  42. ^ However, in the earliest college catalog (called “An Epoch in Education”) Jones wrote, “Having met all the requirements, we have made application for admission to the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools.” (32)
  43. ^ a b Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. p. 68. 
  44. ^ Jones to Walwoord, May 8, 1944 in Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. pp. 354–355. 
  45. ^ Jones to James O. Buswell, May 12, 1949, in Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. p. 68. 
  46. ^ Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. p. 203. 
  47. ^ "BJU's reputation in academic circles gradually became more respected for the intellectual preparation and strong character of its graduates. By the 1960s several graduate schools actively courted university alumni, and BJU graduates were accepted into most of the major graduate programs in the country despite the school's opposition to regional accreditation." Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. pp. 203, 353–355. 
  48. ^ a b Michael Collins, "Accreditation at Bob Jones University" (2007), unpublished paper, Bob Jones University Archives, Mack Library.
  49. ^ BJU is also a founding member of the American Association of Christian Colleges and Seminaries, a small group of institutions "clearly identified with the historic Christian fundamentalist tradition."American Association of Christian Colleges and Seminaries.
  50. ^ Greenville News, December 7, 2011. The university said that "significant changes" in SACS' approach to accreditation, including "respect [for] the stated mission of the institution, including religious mission” had addressed its earlier concerns about regional accreditation. BJU website.
  51. ^ "National University Rankings". Forbes. 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2012. 
  52. ^ "National University Rankings". Forbes. 2010. Retrieved 23 February 2012. 
  53. ^ "National University Rankings". Forbes. 2009. Retrieved 23 February 2012. 
  54. ^ "BJU ranked as 15th-best value," Greenville News, September 8, 2014, 3A; www.educatetocareer.org.
  55. ^ Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. p. 41. 
  56. ^ BJU Catalog (2008-09), 323-27; "BJU debate team wins national award," Greenville News, April 25, 2008. The BJU debate team "received NEDA's President's Award three years in a row in recognition of the school's outstanding debate program." "Investing in Lives for Eternity," BJU Advancement brochure (2008), 6, Bob Jones University Archives, Mack Library.
  57. ^ Greenville News, December 6, 2011.
  58. ^ BJU Catalog, 2011-12, 243.
  59. ^ BJU Catalog, 2011-12, 240.
  60. ^ The Collegian Online
  61. ^ BJU Catalog, 2011-12, 244.
  62. ^ Jeanne Petrizzo, "Nearly 100,000 lights to illuminate campus" Collegian article
  63. ^ Guinness World Records. In November 2007, BJU also broke a previous record (set a year earlier in Rochester, New York) for the largest kazoo ensemble. That year during the annual Turkey Bowl game in Alumni Stadium, 3,800 students, staff and visitors played kazoos as part of the halftime entertainment. "BJU enters Guinness Book for second time", Greenville News, July 25, 2008.
  64. ^ BJU Catalog, 2007-08, 320-21.
  65. ^ BJU Catalog, 2007-08, 326, 329.
  66. ^ Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. pp. 196–197. 
  67. ^ Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. p. 143. 
  68. ^ Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. pp. 196–199. ; biographical information on Sternad
  69. ^ List of movies produced by Unusual Films
  70. ^ "Wine of Morning was selected by the University Film Producers Association to represent the United States at the International Congress of Motion Picture and Television Schools in Cannes, France, and following a showing at the Congress, garnered praise from the international film community. Wine of Morning was also awarded four 'Christian Oscars' from the National Evangelical Film Foundation for Best Film, Best Actor, Best Director, and Best Producer." Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. p. 198. . There may have been some Cold War posturing involved in the nomination of this film. The president of the UFPA wrote to Stenholm that the "excellence of your production, Wine of Morning...will provide the high quality which it is desirable to use in these international showings. We feel that the contrast between your film with its religious background and [the Russian entry] would be most revealing and that the contrast would reflect credit on our way of life." ("Bob Jones Religious Film To Represent US Colleges," The (Columbia, SC) State, May 2, 1958, 12C).
  71. ^ "The Treasure Map". IMDb.com. Retrieved 21 January 2014. 
  72. ^ "Project Dinosaur". IMDb.com. Retrieved 21 January 2014. 
  73. ^ "Appalachian Trial". IMDb.com. Retrieved 21 January 2014. 
  74. ^ "The Golden Rom". IMDb.com. Retrieved 21 January 2014. 
  75. ^ "Milltown Pride". IMDb.com. Retrieved 21 January 2014. 
  76. ^ Bob Jones University Undergraduate Catalog. 2013–2014. pp. 112, 193–195. 
  77. ^ Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. pp. 236, 264. 
  78. ^ Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. pp. 264–267.  Although it published its first trade book, a history of fundamentalism, in 1973, its first text was George Mulfinger and Emmet Williams, Physical Science for Christian Schools published in 1974.
  79. ^ Until May 2009, BJU Press offered elementary and high school classes via satellite over the BJ HomeSat Network and BJ LINC (Live Interactive Network Classroom), an interactive satellite system that allowed a teacher in Greenville to communicate with Christian school students across the country. In 2006, about 45,000 students participated in BJU's distance-learning programs.Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. pp. 264–266. ; Greenville News, 20 September 2006, 9A; BJU Catalog, 2007-08, 329.
  80. ^ "Christian Music from BJU Press". Retrieved 10 January 2013. 
  81. ^ BJA website.
  82. ^ Greenville News, February 19, 2011. About 30% of BJA students are children of BJU staff members.
  83. ^ Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. p. 167. 
  84. ^ Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. pp. 171–181.  "The Protestant Council leadership was made up largely of clergy who denied the virgin birth of Christ, His deity, His bodily resurrection from the dead...and virtually every other historic Christian doctrine for which Bob Jones, Sr., his university, and other Fundamentalist leaders had fought....To further increase the breadth of his appeal, Graham began to accept invitations to speak at liberal seminaries in the Northeast—Union, Colgate, and other centers of American Modernism." (174) William Martin, A Prophet with Honor: The Billy Graham Story (New York: William Morrow, 1991), 98.
  85. ^ Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. p. 180. 
  86. ^ Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. pp. 185–186. 
  87. ^ Lewis F. Brabham, A New Song in the South: The Story of the Greenville S.C. Billy Graham Crusade (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1966), 128.
  88. ^ "When Billy Graham arrived in Greenville for the March 1966 crusade, he issued a statement to the Greenville newspapers saying he really did not know what accounted for the split between him and Bob Jones University." Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. p. 184. 
  89. ^ Graham associate T. W. Wilson, who had attended BJC, wrote Bob Jones, Sr., "What is the matter? Many times I have heard you say, 'I have preached to more people than any man in America.' Now that you can say this no longer, could it be that you have actually let the green-eyed old Monster of Jealousy creep into your heart?" Wilson to Jones, May 21, 1957, quoted in Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. p. 179. 
  90. ^ Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. pp. 182–183. 
  91. ^ Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. p. 183.  Graham had only three campaigns scheduled that year: London, Berlin, and Greenville, South Carolina.
  92. ^ "No Bob Jones University dormitory student will be permitted to go to a single meeting of the Greenville crusade. No Bob Jones University adult student, if he is married or lives in town, may attend the crusade and remain as a student." Bob Jones, Jr., Chapel talk, February 8, 1965, Mack Library Archives, quoted in Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. p. 184. . An exception was made for Bob Jones Academy students who lived in town with their parents.
  93. ^ Jones, "The Position of Bob Jones University in Regard to the Proposed Billy Graham Crusade in Greenville, A Chapel Talk by Dr. Bob Jones, Jr., on February 8, 1965"; Greenville News, March 4, 1966, quoted in Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. pp. 184–185. 
  94. ^ Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. pp. 179–188, 253. 
  95. ^ Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. pp. 244–245.  "Statement about Bible Translations," BJU website.
  96. ^ Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. pp. 244–245. 
  97. ^ Jones Jr., Bob. Cornbread and Caviar. p. 179. 
  98. ^ Documents on the BJU-Pensacola controversy archived on a private website.
  99. ^ Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. p. 244. 
  100. ^ Philip Jenkins, The New Anti-Catholicism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice (Oxford University Press, 2004), 24. "Pope Paul VI, archpriest of Satan, a deceiver and an anti-Christ, has, like Judas, gone to his own place....[A] "pope must be an opportunist, a tyrant, a hypocrite, and a deceiver or he cannot be a pope....A pope claims to be Christ's vice-regent on earth; that is, he blasphemously and arrogantly claims to have the divine prerogatives to forgive sins, to assign his enemies to hell...and to speak on matters of faith and morals with the same infallibility as the Holy Bible."(1978)Faith for the Family (October 1978, 2, 4)
  101. ^ Beliefnet.com
  102. ^ The Independent, March 25, 2007. After the death of Pope John XXIII in 1963, Paisley held a rally objecting to the lowering of the Union flag at Belfast City Hall in conjunction with "the lying eulogies now being paid to the Roman Antichrist".
  103. ^ Sullivan County News; Greenville News, February 18, 2002
  104. ^ New York Times, February 12, 2014;Washington Post, February 7, 2014; Religion News, February 25, 2014.
  105. ^ [2] BOB JONES UNIVERSITY v. SIMON, 416 U.S. 725 (1974)
  106. ^ Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. pp. 226–227. 
  107. ^ Bob Jones University v. United States (461 U.S. 574, 581)
  108. ^ Associated Press "Theologians dispute Jones' Theory". The Daily Item, Sumter. February 2, 1982
  109. ^ Christopher Connell, "Uniqueness caused Bob Jones University to lose tax status". The Times-News, November 24, 1982.
  110. ^ For negative commentary on this announcement by Bob Jones III, see Anonymous BJU Graduate, "Dancing with Compromise" (April 2000), The Multiracial Activist.
  111. ^ Christianity Today article;"Larry King Live" transcript
  112. ^ Susannah Meadows, "Passing the Torch at Bob Jones U." Newsweek Web Exclusive [MSNBC link expired], January 29, 2005, hard copy at Fundamentalism File, Mack Library, BJU.
  113. ^ Bob Jones University v. United States (461 U.S. 574 @725)
  114. ^ Bob Jones University v. United States (461 U.S. 574, footnote 28)
  115. ^ Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. p. 230.  "On April 19, the Court announced that it would not allow the NAACP to join the case, and in a step considered unprecedented by legal scholars and 'extraordinary' even to the NAACP's leadership, the Supreme Court Appointed a prosecutor of its own—black attorney and civil rights activist William T. Coleman. Bob Jones III commented that 'this puts the court in the position of creating an issue to be litigated and insisting that an issue be heard when one of the two litigants declares "no contest."'"
  116. ^ Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. p. 236. 
  117. ^ USA Today, November 24, 2008; Statement about Race at Bob Jones University. In the statement, the university admitted to having "conformed to the culture" rather than providing "a clear Christian counterpoint to it." Earlier that year some BJU alumni expressed concern that the university had never repudiated its racist past and petitioned the school to make a formal apology. Greenville News, November 22, 2008.
  118. ^ Statement about Race at Bob Jones University.
  119. ^ Financial Aid. The Minority Scholarship Fund provides scholarship assistance to African-American, African, Pacific Islander, Asian, and Native American students; and the Hispanic Assistance Fund provides funds for students of Hispanic heritage. "Investing in Lives for Eternity," BJU Advancement brochure (2008), 11-12, Bob Jones University Archives, Mack Library. For a more jaundiced view of BJU's adaptation to a growing black presence on campus see Florence Williams, "Being Black at Bob Jones U.," August 14, 2003,KillingtheBuddha.com[dead link]
  120. ^ BJU webpage; "Investing in Lives for Eternity," BJU Advancement brochure (2008), 15, Bob Jones University Archives, Mack Library. The University's endowment is only $7.5 million, and donations account for only two to three percent of the budget.Greenville Journal, December 11, 2009, 27.
  121. ^ Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. pp. 3, 10, 78, 246, 428. 
  122. ^ Turner, 246; Interviews of Mary Gaston Stollenwerck Jones by Margaret Beall Tice, (September–October 1973), University Archives, Mack Library, BJU. Bob Jones, Sr. had held many evangelistic campaigns in the North prior to founding the college, and he correctly guessed that a new college in Florida would be more attractive to northerners than a new college in his home state of Alabama.
  123. ^ Alan Ehrenhalt, The United States of Ambition: Politicians, Power and the Pursuit of Office (New York: Random House, 1991), 98-99. "With its factions bitterly opposed to each other, the Republican party lost virtually all its state legislative seats in Greenville County, even as Gerard Ford was carrying the county against Jimmy Carter by more than 3,000 votes." (98)
  124. ^ "As late as 1978 the state representative for most of the Bob Jones precincts was Sylvia Dreyfus, a liberal Jewish Democrat. That does not happen anymore. These days, when elections are held in the districts that surround the university, anybody who does not have a Bob Jones connection does not have a realistic chance." Ehrenhalt, 99.
  125. ^ "GOP debaters politick in state," Greenville News, February 29, 1980. Reagan said he was "surprised" by Jones's endorsement of Connally.
  126. ^ Washington Post, May 4, 2005
  127. ^ Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. p. 248. 
  128. ^ Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. pp. 246–248. . As Bob Jones Jr. wrote in his memoirs, "While the lecture platform of Bob Jones University will never be open to dishonest Liberals like Ted Kennedy, conservative politicians and honorable statesmen have been speaking from that platform for many years." Jones Jr., Bob (1985). Cornbread and Caviar. BJU Press. p. 197. 
  129. ^ a b New York Times website[dead link]
  130. ^ CNN website[dead link]
  131. ^ CNN website
  132. ^ "The World's Most Controversial Religious Sites". The others mentioned were the Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo; Potala Palace in Tibet; Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh state, India; and the Temple Mount/Haram al-Sharif in Jerusalem.
  133. ^ Susannah Meadows, "Passing the Torch at Bob Jones U." Newsweek "Web Exclusive" [MSNBC link expired], January 29, 2005, hard copy at Fundamentalist File, Mack Library, BJU.
  134. ^ Washington Post, April 4, 2005.
  135. ^ Greenville News, October 21, 2007.
  136. ^ Candidate Ron Paul did speak in a large classroom to an overflow crowd. BJU's vice president for administration said, “We purposefully chose a room in the Alumni building because we do not want candidates to hold rallies on campus. We want interested students, faculty and staff to benefit from the educational experience of listening to a candidate, and hopefully, as a result, be able to make a more informed voting decision.” BJU Collegian, January 25, 2008.
  137. ^ Greenville Journal (April 4, 2008), 32.
  138. ^ BJU website.
  139. ^ BJU website on church planting
  140. ^ Turner, Daniel. Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. pp. 270–271. 
  141. ^ BJU Student Life[dead link]; Collegian, 24 (February 4, 2011), 1.
  142. ^ GFA Missions websiteBJU website. BJU's website calls it an "additional ministry."
  143. ^ BJU website[dead link]; "Timothy program offers foreign students Bible training," Collegian, April 12, 2007.
  144. ^ Student Handbook (pdf) (Archive). In January 2012, College Magazine.com identified BJU as number 1 among the "Ten Most Prude Colleges" ahead of other religious universities such as Bringham Young (3) and Notre Dame (6).
  145. ^ BJU Student Handbook, 2011-12, 28,45.
  146. ^ Christianity Today website: "In October, alumnus Wayne Mouritzen, a 60-year-old retired pastor, received a letter from the fundamentalist school's dean of students saying "as long as you are living as a homosexual, you, of course, would not be welcome on the campus and would be arrested for trespassing if you did visit." The ban does not apply to the campus art museum, which could lose its tax-exempt status for such action."
  147. ^ BJU Day Student Handbook, 07-08, 7.
  148. ^ "BJU Changes Dress Code," Greenville Journal, May 2, 2008, 18.
  149. ^ "Student Expectations," BJU website[dead link]
  150. ^ BJU Student Handbook, 2011-12, 28-29.. "While students are at the University, our goal is to teach them to appreciate music that is spiritually edifying and culturally valuable. For the BJU student, this precludes most of the music of our popular culture including rock, rap, jazz and country, as well as religious music that borrows from these styles." Bob Jones University Student Handbook (2010-11), 28.
  151. ^ BJU Student Handbook, 2012-13, p. 39.
  152. ^ BJU Student Handbook, 2011-12, 31-33.
  153. ^ BJU Student Handbook, 2011-12, 32.
  154. ^ "BJU athletics". Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  155. ^ "About Turner". Turner. Retrieved 20 March 2012.  She is the winner of a Christy Award and her novel Winter Birds was named one of the "one hundred best books" of 2006 by Publishers Weekly.Publishers Weekly Best Books list[dead link]
  156. ^ "Staff profile". The Wilds. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
  157. ^ "Billy Kim retires as pastor of Korean megachurch". ABP. 4 January 2005. Retrieved 20 March 2012. [dead link]
  158. ^ "Translator profiles". Crossway. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
  159. ^ "Chancellor bio". NI. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
  160. ^ "The Making of Biblical Separation". Baptist Bulletin. 1 May 2008. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
  161. ^ "Stratton bio". Clearwater. Retrieved 20 March 2012. [dead link]
  162. ^ "Hutchinson bio". U.S. Congress. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Dalhouse, Mark Taylor (1996). An Island in the Lake of Fire: Bob Jones University, Fundamentalism & the Separatist Movement. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0-8203-1815-9. 
  • Johnson, R.K. (1982). Builder of Bridges: The Biography of Dr. Bob Jones, Sr. BJU Press. ISBN 0-89084-157-8. 
  • Jones Jr., Bob (1985). Cornbread and Caviar. BJU Press. ISBN 0-89084-306-6. 
  • Turner, Daniel L. (1997). Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University. BJU Press. ISBN 1-57924-710-5. 
  • Wright, Melton (1984). Fortress of Faith: The Story of Bob Jones University. BJU Press. ISBN 0-89084-252-3. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 34°52′26″N 82°21′51″W / 34.87391°N 82.36417°W / 34.87391; -82.36417