Historic Bobowa Synagogue from 1778
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|Area code(s)||+48 18|
Bobowa [bɔˈbɔva] (Yiddish: באבאוו) is a town in the Gorlice County, Poland. Administratively attached to the Lesser Polish Voivodeship, it is located 18 kilometres from Gorlice, on the Biała Tarnowska river. It was formerly a village, granted town status on 1 January 2009. It lies approximately 18 kilometres (11 mi) west of Gorlice and 83 km (52 mi) south-east of the regional capital Kraków. Bobowa is located along Regional Road nr 981, it also has a rail station on the electrified line which goes from Tarnów to the border with Slovakia at Leluchów.
It is not known when the village of Bobowa appeared on the map of Poland. It probably was a Slavic gord, destroyed in 1240 (see Mongol invasion of Poland). Bobowa received Magdeburg rights town charter in 1339. By 1346, the town already had a parish church, and Bobowa at that time belonged to the Gryfita family (Gryf coat of arms). In the 1460 register Liber beneficiorum by Jan Długosz, one can find the information of Bobowa’s stone parish church, as well as two smaller, wooden churches. The town still belonged to the Gryfita family, and according to Długosz, it had three owners - Mikołaj, Jan and Gietko Gryfita. Furthermore, Bobowa had a court and wójt, who in 1467 was a man named Jan Lempart.
In the mid-16th century Bobowa emerged as a local center of the Protestant Reformation, and some time in the early 17th century, the town was purchased by the Jordan family. In 1740 its owner was Stanisław Łętowski. Following the Partitions of Poland, Bobowa in 1772 became part of Austrian province of Galicia, where it remained until late 1918. In 1934, the government of the Second Polish Republic stripped Bobowa of its town charter. It regained its town status on January 1, 2009.
Jews in Bobowa
Before the Holocaust in Poland, the town was home to a yeshiva, notable as a historic centre of Hasidism, created and led by the tsadik of the Bobov dynasty. In 1900 the Jewish population of Bobowa numbered 749.
It was also the home of Gen. Bolesław Wieniawa-Długoszowski who became "President of Poland for a day" in 1939. During the Second World War Bobowa became a "concentration village" where the Jews from the surrounding area were imprisoned. The General's brother Kazimierz was the mayor and was able to save at least one Jew. Almost all were finally killed. One of the few survivors, Professor Samuel P. Oliner of Humboldt State University, California, describes these events in his autobiography Restless Memories. He devoted his academic career to the study of altruism, having himself been rescued by a Polish peasant woman called Balwina.
After the war Grand Rabbi Shlomo Halberstam (1907 – August 2, 2000) re-established the Bobov (Hasidic dynasty) in America. He was the son of Rabbi Ben Zion Halberstam (1874–1941) of Bobov (Bobowa), who died in the Holocaust. Initially based in the neighbourhood of Borough Park in Brooklyn, New York, it now has branches in the Williamsburg section of Brooklyn; Monsey, New York; Miami; Montreal; Toronto; Antwerp; London and Israel.
Among the tourist attractions of Bobowa is the All Saints Church (14th century) and the St. Sophia Church at the local cemetery, built in the late 15th century and surrounded by a picturesque wall built in the 17th century. In addition, there is a 17th-century szlachta manor house (commonly referred to as the castle by the locals). This was Bolesław Wieniawa-Długoszowski's house. In the 17th century this house belonged to early Polish followers of Unitarianism. They cremated their dead; the massive walls of the house contain cremation urns buried within them. There are also remnants of fortifications from the same period. The village's Jewish heritage is represented by a 1778 synagogue and a Jewish cemetery. Bobowa is also one of two (besides Koniaków) villages in Poland famous for traditional art of lace-making. Since 2000 it houses an annual Bobbin lace Festival.
Rabbis of Bobowa
Media related to Synagogue in Bobowa at Wikimedia Commons
Notes and references
- Oliner S, Oliner P. The altruistic personality: Rescuers of Jews in Nazi Europe. New York: The Free Press; 1988.
- Oliner S. Restless Memories, Berkeley, California: Judah L. Magnes Museum; 1979.
- Gilbert M. The Boys; triumph over adversity. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson; 1996.
- Szuflada Generała Wieniawa, edited by Elżbieta Grabska and Marek Pitasz, Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy, Warsaw 1998
- Testimony held at Yad Vashem about Bobowa during the German occupation
- Encyclopedia of Jewish Communities in Poland, Volume III (Poland)
- Jewish Community in Bobowa on Virtual Shtetl