List of terms used for Germans
There are many alternative ways to describe the people of Germany, though in English the official designated nationality as well as the standard noun is German. (see also demonym). During the early Renaissance, "German" implied that the person spoke German as a native language. Until German unification, people living in what is now Germany were named for the region they lived in, examples include Bavarians and Brandenburgers. Some other terms are humorous or derogatory slang, and used mainly by people from other countries, although they can be used in a self-deprecating way by German people themselves. Other terms are serious or tongue-in-cheek attempts to coin words as alternatives to the ambiguous standard terms.
- 1 English
- 2 Other countries
- 2.1 Austria
- 2.2 Bosnia and Herzegovina
- 2.3 Brazil and Portugal
- 2.3.1 Alemão (official)
- 2.3.2 Boche (offensive)
- 2.3.3 Bratwurst/salsichão (jocose)
- 2.3.4 Chucrute, Chucrutes or Sauerkraut (derogatory)
- 2.3.5 Fritz, Fritzin/Hans/Klaus/Lars (colloquialism)
- 2.3.6 Germânico (descriptive and only as an adjective)
- 2.3.7 Germano (descriptive)
- 2.3.8 Godo/Visigodo/Suevo/Vândalo (historically descriptive and jocose)
- 2.3.9 Huno (historical and offensive)
- 2.3.10 Kaiser boch/Schoppen bier/Bier garten (jocose)
- 2.3.11 Strudel/Pretzel (jocose)
- 2.3.12 Teutão (descriptive/poetical)
- 2.3.13 Teuto (descriptive, used as a noun or as an adjective)
- 2.3.14 Teutónico/Teutônico (descriptive, only as an adjective and literary)
- 2.3.15 Tedesco or Tudesco (descriptive, only as an adjective and literary)
- 2.4 Bulgaria
- 2.5 Croatia
- 2.6 China
- 2.7 Czech Republic
- 2.8 Estonia
- 2.9 Finland
- 2.10 France
- 2.11 Hungary
- 2.12 Italy
- 2.12.1 Tedesco (official)
- 2.12.2 Crucco (offensive)
- 2.12.3 Tetesken (colloquialism)[dubious – discuss]
- 2.12.4 Mangiapatate (offensive)
- 2.12.5 Mangiacrauti (offensive)
- 2.12.6 Kartoffeln
- 2.12.7 Teutonici
- 2.12.8 Teutoni
- 2.12.9 Fritz[dubious – discuss]
- 2.12.10 Germani[dubious – discuss]
- 2.12.11 Nazi[dubious – discuss]
- 2.13 Luxembourg
- 2.14 Macedonia
- 2.15 Malaysia
- 2.16 Netherlands
- 2.17 Poland
- 2.18 Romania
- 2.19 Russia
- 2.20 Serbia
- 2.21 Slovenia
- 2.22 Spain
- 2.23 Switzerland
- 2.24 Turkey
- 2.25 Non-Germans living in Germany
- 2.26 Bavaria (Southern Germany)
- 2.27 Northern Germany
- 2.28 Germany
- 3 See also
- 4 References
Most of the following expressions are obsolete and no longer in use.
Initially the word Dutch could refer to any Germanic-speaking area, language or people, deriving from Deutsch, which means "German" in German and is derived from the Indogermanic word tiutsch, meaning belonging to or being part of the people. For example:
- The Chronography and History of the whole world, Vol. II (1677) mentions the mathematician that "...the Dutch call Leibnitz," adding that Dutch is spoken in the parts of Hungary adjoining to Germany.
- Versions of the traditional drinking song "Drunk last night" include the lyrics: "Oh, there's the Amsterdam Dutch and the Rotterdam Dutch / The Potsdam Dutch and the other damned Dutch"
The phrase "Pennsylvania Dutch" is a corruption of the German word for German, "Deutsch". To this day, descendants of German immigrants who resettled in Pennsylvania continue to refer to themselves as Pennsylvania Dutch. They may identify themselves as being Pennsylvania German, too. Some may or may not be members of the plain sects found in southcentral-southeastern Pennsylvania such as Mennonites or the Amish.
The early 20th-century American baseball player, Johannes Peter "Honus" Wagner (1874-1955), was known as the Flying Dutchman, referent to the Richard Wagner opera and Honus Wagner's base stealing prowess.
Today, aside from that exception, the word Dutch is only used to refer to the people of the Netherlands or the Dutch language spoken in the Netherlands and in Flanders - the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium.
Almain is a historical term for Germans (often specifically the ones living in the South of Germany) borrowed from French and ultimately comes from the Latin name for the Germanic tribe of the Alamanni. It was used alongside "Dutch" but unlike Dutch had a more limited meaning. It fell out of use when "German" was introduced but remained a poetical term (like Teuton) for quite a while.
The origin of the term was Attila The Hun, the notorious Hunnenrede (Hun speech) of Emperor Wilhelm II on 27 July 1900, when he bade farewell to the German expeditionary corps sailing from Bremerhaven to defeat the Boxer Uprising. The relevant part of the speech was:
"Kommt ihr vor den Feind, so wird derselbe geschlagen! Pardon wird nicht gegeben! Gefangene werden nicht gemacht! Wer euch in die Hände fällt, sei euch verfallen! Wie vor tausend Jahren die Hunnen unter ihrem König Etzel sich einen Namen gemacht, der sie noch jetzt in Überlieferung und Märchen gewaltig erscheinen läßt, so möge der Name Deutsche in China auf 1000 Jahre durch euch in einer Weise bestätigt werden, daß es niemals wieder ein Chinese wagt, einen Deutschen scheel anzusehen!"
Trans: "When you meet the enemy, he will be defeated! No quarter will be given! No prisoners will be taken! Those who fall into your hands are forfeit to you! Just as a thousand years ago, the Huns under their King Etzel made a name for themselves which shows them as mighty in tradition and myth, so shall you establish the name of Germans in China for 1000 years, in such a way that a Chinese will never again dare to look askance at a German."
The theme of Hunnic savagery was then developed in a speech of August Bebel in the Reichstag in which he recounted details of the cruelty of the German expedition which were taken from soldiers' letters home, styled the Hunnenbriefe (letters from the Huns).
The Kaiser's speech was widely reported in the European press and then became the basis for the characterisation of the Germans during World War I as barbarians and savages with no respect for European civilisation and humanitarian values.
Heini is a common German colloquial term with a slightly derogatory meaning similar to "moron" or "idiot", but it could be of different origin.
Alongside Fritz, Hans or Jerry, WWII-era American servicemen sometimes called their German counterparts Hermann. Since Hitler's second-in-command was Hermann Göring, it was believed that Herman was a common name for Germans. Additionally, the name was used to highlight the Germans' alleged savagery, because Hermann was the name of an ancient barbarian chieftain responsible for defeating the Romans at Teutoburger Wald.
Jerry was a nickname given to Germans during the Second World War by soldiers and civilians of the Allied nations, in particular by the British. Although the nickname was originally created during World War I, it did not find common use until World War II.
Jerry has analogues from different eras in Tommy (British), Charlie (Vietnam—"Victor Charlie" for VC (Viet Cong), later shortened to just "Charlie"), Sammy[disambiguation needed] (Somalia), Ivan (Russians) and Yank (US Americans).
The name is most likely a simple alteration of the word German. Some have claimed that the World War I German helmet, shaped like a chamber pot or jeroboam, was the initial impetus for creation. One ongoing use of "jerry" is found in the term jerrycan.
Recently the term "Eric" has become popular amongst British troops, originating from an episode of the British TV comedy Auf Wiedersehen, Pet, in which the name "Eric" was used instead of "Jerry" in an attempt to confuse some Germans who were fluent in English.
Since World War II, Kraut has, in the English language, come to be used as a derogatory term for a German. This is probably based on sauerkraut, which was very popular in German cuisine at that time (and even today). The stereotype of the sauerkraut-eating German pre-dates this, as it appears in Jules Verne's depiction of the evil German industrialist Schultze as an avid sauerkraut eater in "The Begum's Millions."
In a more poetical sense Germans can be referred to as "Teutons". The usage of the word in this term has been observed in English since 1833. The word originated via an ancient Germanic tribe, the Teutons (see also Teutonic and the Teutonic Order).
Pronounced [boʃ], boche is a term used in World War I, often collectively ("the Boche" meaning "the Germans"). A shortened form of the French slang portmanteau alboche, itself derived from Allemand ("German") and caboche ("head" or "cabbage"). Also spelled "Bosch" or "Bosche".
Rhine Monkey (derogatory)
Adaptation of the taxonomic "platyrrhine monkey" referring to monkeys of the New World (characterized by nostrils which are rounded and are oriented towards their ears as opposed to Old World monkeys whose nostrils are oriented downwards), with an obvious double meaning involving the Rhine.
British term, essentially military, much used during WW2. While its use has been largely associated with POWs, it is more RAF slang than anything else, while explains the POW association; owing to the high numbers of RAF Bomber Command prisoners in German camps in the middle of the War, RAF slang was dominant. A goon is someone who is a bit of an idiot, clueless and thuggish.
Squarehead and Boxhead
After World War II, settlements and camps sprang up around British garrisons in the former West Germany, and the colloquial term of "Boxhead" became common amongst British troops and their families. This term has its origins in "square-heads" as a reference to the almost square-shaped helmets used by the Germans in both world wars.
Another British military term, used in both WW1 and WW2. Probably refers to the stereotypical 'square' crew-cut hairstyles affected by many Germans, officers in particular, during WW1. British postwar usage, common in BAOR, derived from the above.
Due to historical events, Germans are often called Hitler in a derogatory manner. In one particularly notorious episode of Fawlty Towers, John Cleese insults a German family by imitating Hitler and marching the goose step.
Other, more general references to World War II and the Holocaust are sometimes mentioned in drinking songs to mock either the Germans, or their Jewish victims. During the World Cup, British Rugby lads sing Ten German Bombers (to the tune of Comin' Round the Mountain), Hitler Has Only Got One Ball, and Two World Wars and One World Cup (to the tune of Camptown Races). In America, white Jocks used to tease more academically-minded Jewish students with a song called Dashing Through the Reich (to the tune of Jingle Bells) about SS Einsatzgruppen cruising through Germany in a black Mercedes-Benz 770 and machine-gunning Jews. A group of Oxford University students were recently expelled for singing this song.
The Austrian ethnic slur for a German is Piefke. Like its Bavarian counterpart Saupreiß (literally: sow-Prussian) the term Piefke historically characterized the people of Prussia only. Its exact origin is unclear, but it was meant to be derogatory most notably because of the term's Polish roots: Referring to every Prussian as Piefke, which is a typical example of a Germanized Polish family name (Piwka), suggested that all Prussians were merely Germanized Poles. The term increased in usage during the 19th century because of the popularity of the Prussian composer Johann Gottfried Piefke. Since Prussia and its eastern territories ceased to exist, the term now refers to the cliché of a pompous (Protestant northern) German in general and a Berliner in particular. However, the citizens of the free Hanseatic cities and the former northern duchies of Oldenburg, Brunswick and Mecklenburg are also quite offended by the terms Piefke and Saupreiß (offense for every German who is not native Bavarian). In 1990, Austrian playwright Felix Mitterer wrote and co-directed a TV mini-series, Die Piefke-Saga, about Germans on holiday in Tyrol. Sometimes the alteration "Piefkineser" is used. Some Austrians use the playful term "Piefkinesisch" (Pief-Chinese) to refer to German spoken in a distinctly German (not Austrian) accent.
The term Marmeladinger (from Southern German/Austrian "Marmelade" = jam [cook.]) has its origin in the trenches of World War I. While Austrian infantry rations included butter and lard as spread German troops had to make do with cheaper "Marmelade" as ersatz which they disdainfully called "Heldenbutter" (Hero's butter) or "Hindenburgfett". This earned them ridicule from their Austrian allies who would call them Marmeladebrüder (jam brothers) or Marmeladinger ("-inger" being an Austrian derivational suffix describing a person through a characteristic item or action). Germans would conversely call Austrians Kamerad Schnürschuh (comrade shoe-lace) because Austrian unlike German infantry boots used laces. This term has also survived and is to this day still used as a Northern German pejorative for Austrians.
Nijemac (standard, formal term)
Nijemac (Нијемац, plural: Nijemci, Нијемци) is a word for German(s) in all three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bosnian, Serbian, and Croatian (Serbo-croatian). The word "Nijemac" is derived from the word "nijem" (нијем, plural: нијеми) meaning mute, dumb but in modern usage does not have any emotional connotation.
Švabo (slang, very informal term)
In slang, word "švabo" (швабо, plural: švabe, швабе) is used in a sense that is not considered very offensive although this word was frequently used in context of describing Nazis in films about World War II and Yugoslav Partisans, see Partisan film. Word "švabo" means Swabian, coming from the name for Germans who lived in the former Kingdom of Hungary, especially in the Danube, see Danube Swabians.
From Latin Alemannī, of Germanic origin; related to Gothic alamans a totality of people. Alemão bravo, Alemão brigão, Querela de alemão, from French expression Querelle d'allemand, a contention about trifles, soon provoked and soon appeased. Association with people who start fighting for no reason. Rigor alemão and Rigidez/Disciplina alemã make reference to the Teutonic discipline.
In Portugal, the term boche, a word derived from World War II French word, is popular as a slang term to refer to Germans, nearly always in a derogatory way.
Jocosely used. Just like spaghetti (or espaguete) is used for Italians.
Chucrute, Chucrutes or Sauerkraut (derogatory)
Related to English Kraut and French choucroute. Mostly used in Brazil to designate late 19th and early 20th-century German, Austrian and Swiss immigrants.
Fritz, Fritzin/Hans/Klaus/Lars (colloquialism)
Mostly in Brazil. From German masculine proper names. Not especially polite, but not offensive either.
Germânico (descriptive and only as an adjective)
From the Latin exonymic demonym Germanus, and toponym Germania.
It can refer to the ancient tribes found by the Romans or to modern Germans. Especially used in expressions like germano-brasileiro, germano-brasiliense, germano-brasiliano, meaning German Brazilian.
Godo/Visigodo/Suevo/Vândalo (historically descriptive and jocose)
Relative to the Goths, Visigoths, Suebi and Vandals. Occasionally used in a jocose way, to designate Germans, especially in expressions such as visigodo derrubador de porta de castelo and suevo do aríete, rompe-muralhas, making reference to the Barbarian Invasions. From Latin Gothī, Visigothī, Suevus and Vandallus, all of Germanic origin.
Huno (historical and offensive)
Kaiser boch/Schoppen bier/Bier garten (jocose)
Expressions that may have a jocose connotation in reference to a drunkard German.
Strudel and pretzel are used to express an attractive German descendant in the same way that terms like pão and pão-de-ló, sugarloaf varieties, are used for pretty people.
Relative to the Teutons and is still used occasionally in a non-official way, to designate Germans. From Latin Teutonī, the Teutons, of Germanic origin.
Teuto (descriptive, used as a noun or as an adjective)
Especially used in the expressions Teuto-brasileiro, Teuto-brasílio, Teuto-brasiliano, also meaning German Brazilian.
Teutónico/Teutônico (descriptive, only as an adjective and literary)
From Latin Teutonī, the Teutons, of Germanic origin.
Tedesco or Tudesco (descriptive, only as an adjective and literary)
Nemtsi (neutral, official)
("Nemets" in singular) is from common Slavic etymology, meaning "mute", i.e. one whose speech is not understandable.
Shvabi (slang, neutral)
Shvabi ("Shvaba" in singular, derived from Swabian) is a slang word for Germans.
Fritsove ("frits" in singular) is a derogatory word for Germans that was widely used among the opponents of Germany, of which Bulgaria was an ally during both world wars. It was in use mostly during the first half of the 20th century, but it is rarely used nowadays.
In singular "Prusak", derived from Prussian, is a rarely used term for Germans, which bears mostly negative connotations.
from Swabian—see Danube Swabians for more. The word also applies to, and is often adopted as a nickname by Croatian Gastarbeiters. Strangely, the normal word for an ethnic German, or a German citizen, Nijemac, originally means "one who can't speak" ("nijem" means "mute"), is not a slur. It is the standard term for an ethnic German/German citizen. Meanwhile, Švabo should be an ethnonym (and, in fact, the most of German speaking people the Croats and Serbs historically have had close contacts with had indeed been of Swabian origin).
Deguo Ren (Common)
Since the word "Déyìzhì" (德意志), transliterated from German "Deutsch", is almost always shortened to "Déguó" (德國/德国, "Dé" for "Déyìzhì", guó for "country, nation"), a further "rén" (人, people) is added to form the word Déguó Rén(德國人/德国人),"People of the German Nation", i.e., Germans. This is the most common word used to address "Germans".
Rierman Ren (For Ethnic Germans)
Rìěrmàn(日耳曼/日爾曼) is transliterated from "German", a further "rén"(人,people) is added to form the word Rìěrmàn Rén(日耳曼人/日爾曼人), this is usually used in the sense of "Ethnic Germans"(as in "Ethnic Germans in Sudetenland")
This word carries a somewhat negative meaning of a stereotypical German being proud, withdrawn, cold and serious. Today, this phrase, when pronounced as "Ga-Men", can mean "disdain, indifferent, or uninterested to someone or something".
Němec (official term)
From the Slavic etymology, meaning "mute".
Originally meaning "the one who came from the hills". In medieval times, German inhabitants in Czech-German borderlands often lived in hilly, mountainous areas, and when they came to lowland Czech towns to buy and sell their wares, they were addressed as "those who came down from hills". "From hills" is "z kopců" in Czech, thus "skopčáci" (plural). When English language books and movies concerning World War II are translated to Czech, "Skopčák" is often used to translate "Jerry" or "Kraut".
From the German name "Friedrich", it has been used for German soldiers. It is considered as colloquial, not very polite, but not offensive either.
Saks (historical, sometimes offensive)
Similar to the word sakslane ("German"), it was originally used for Germans, Saxons more precisely, but was later mostly used for German nobility in Estonia. Since then it has been offensively used for ethnic Estonian nobility. It is still sometimes used for Germans.
Fritz, Günter, Helmut, Horst (colloquialism)
A variety of German first names that are perceived typical are used. They are considered as colloquial, not very polite, but not very offensive either.
Hapankaali (mildly offensive)
Literally sauerkraut, used rarely in similar fashion than Kraut in English.
Literally Lapland burner. Refers to the scorched earth tactics used by retreating German army during the Lapland War.
Literally lederhose (or someone who wears them), similar to spaghetti for Italians and rather common.
Natsi (very offensive)
The same as Nazi in English, quite common.
From German language negative word nichts/nix (nothing) and -manni for "man". Rarely used.
Saku, Saksmanni, Sakemanni (inoffensive to slightly offensive)
From the Finnish word Saksa, meaning Germany (originally Saxony). Saku is a Finnish male name; sakemanni is a combination of "Saksa + -manni, referring to "man". Especially sakemanni is relatively common.
Boches (offensive, historical)
Apheresis of the word alboche, which in turn is a blend of allemand (French for German) and caboche (slang for head). Used mainly during the First and Second World Wars, and directed especially at German soldiers.
Casque à pointe (historical)
Casque à pointe is derived from the French name for the traditional Prussian military helmets worn by German soldiers from the 1840s until World War I. In modern British and American sign language, the word for Germany continues to be an index finger pointed to the top of the forehead, simulating the Pickelhaube.
Chleuh (slightly offensive)
From the name of the Chleuh, a North African ethnicity — a term with racial connotations. It also denotes the absence of words beginning in Schl- in French. It was used mainly in World War II (for example, in the film Inglourious Basterds) but is also used now in a less offensive way like in the film Taxi.
Doryphores (offensive, historical)
Doryphore means Colorado potato beetle in French. This term was used during World War II, but is less common than Boche, Fritz or Frisés. It refers to the fact that the Germans during the Occupation took large part of the production of France's agriculture and industry.
Fritz (offensive, historical)
From the German Christian name, used since World War I. Frisés and Fridolins are variations of Fritz.
Relative to the Teutons and is still used occasionally in a non-official way, to designate Germans. In the standard High German language Teutsch is an archaic way of rendering Deutsch, with the same meaning (often translated as "Teutonic").
In Hungarian, the country of Germany is called Németország and a German person is német (plural németek). The German language is Németül. It also comes from the Slavic etymology, meaning "mute".
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danube_Swabians. Members of German minority often declare themselves as Sváb/Szász (Swabians/Saxons) instead of Német. Frequently used as adjective for cultural happenings and food of the German minority. As there is no hostility toward Germans, Hungarian don't really have offensive terms for the members of the local German minority nor for Germans in general.
Jürgen (a little unfriendly)
Comes from the German male name Jürgen. Also used in expressions like "Jürgen feje van" ("Has a head like Jürgen") for the meaning, "looks German". (Tall, blonde, has blue/gray eyes...)
In Italian, although Germany is called Germania, German is tedesco.
The common (especially Northern)[dubious ] Italian ethnophaulism for a German is crucco, which roughly translates as pighead.[dubious ] Etymologically, the term most likely derives from the Croatian word kruh, which means bread, because Austria-Hungary sent people of Croatian descent to garrison its Italian dominions. In World War II Italian soldiers originally referred to the Yugoslavian combatants as crucchi and the North-Eastern war zone was dubbed terra crucca. In the course of the war the term underwent a shift of meaning: During the German invasion the Italian partisans called the German soldiers crucchi. Today it's a disrespectful way to address people from all German speaking regions in general (cruccolandia),[dubious ] even the German-speaking population of the province of South Tyrol, who are themselves Italian citizens.
It is simply the Italian word for "German"(Tedesco), purposefully corrupted in a comic way by pseudo-German stylization. Even if not really rude, it is not considered a polite thing to say in front of a German, because it derides German "harsh-sounding" pronunciation, and implies a low knowledge of Italian language.
Translated as potato eaters, this slightly offensive term refers to the alleged German habit of eating potatoes at every meal. It is in current usage with ordinary people and it is sometimes used in dubbed feature films as a translation for "Krauts".
Literally "kraut (cabbage) eater(s)", sometimes use even with "wurstel", because of the cliché of the "kraut-and-wurstel-eater beer-drinker German"
It refers to their, supposed, eating habit/cuisine. It comes from the German word for potatoes (Kartoffeln). Kartoffel itself is derived from the Italian "tartufo" meaning truffle.
Every so often used in the emphatic slang of the football commentaries: la squadra teutonica (as the German team), i giocatori teutonici or i teutonici (as the German players). Although not exactly derogatory (many nations are jocularly identified in Italy with their ancestors), it conveys some unwelcome associations because as an adjective, "teutonico" defines rigid, pernickety, inflexible attitudes.
Only used in old-fashioned poetic language. It is the Italian adjective for "Teutons", a Germanic tribe, but it's also used to describe all the German population.
This term applies to all German speakers.
More used as adjective, doesn't mean "German", but "Germanic" (either historic and meliorative), similar to other expressions like "Italic", "Gallic", etc. (sometimes ironical about fascist rhetorical propaganda, in which "Germanico" (Germanic) was preferred to "Tedesco"(German)).
"Germanico" (pl. germanici) is frequently used in Southern Switzerland to distinguish between Austrian, Swiss German or people from Liechtenstein which are culturally Germans (tedeschi).
Not often used anymore, see Hitler. Because of intense history between Italy and Germany is even rarely used.
Derived from the local name for Prussian. Used to describe any German since the establishment of a Prussian Garrison in Fortress Luxembourg in 1815. Still commonly used today but most popular with World War II survivors.
Germany; (Macedonian: Германија)- official formal use.
literally: Man of Germany, (Orang = Man, person)
In Dutch the most common term for the German people, after the regular/official one, is "mof". It is regarded as a derogative term, used exclusively for Germans and reflected Dutch resentment of the German occupation of the Netherlands during the Second World War and the respective German actions. The use of the word has been gradually fading since the late 1990s. The word "Mofrika" (Germany) is a portmanteau of Africa and "mof".
In the late 16th century the area now known as East Frisia and Emsland and the people that lived there were referred to as "Muffe". At the time that the Netherlands were by far the richest country in the whole of Europe, and these people were looked down upon greatly by the Dutch. The area of Western Lower Saxony was at that time very poor and a good source for many Dutch people looking for cheap labour. The inhabitants of this region were known to be rather reserved and were often described as "grumpy", "rude" and "unsophisticated" by the Dutch. Later the term was used to describe the whole of Germany, which, at the time, wasn't much better off economically than Western Lower Saxony, mainly due to the various wars waged on its territory by foreign powers. The term seemed to have died out around 1900 but returned following the German invasion of the Netherlands in 1940.
In Frisian (minority) language and Gronings dialect the word poep or poebe is used, as well as poepelân (Fr.), poepenlaand (Gr.) for Germany itself. In Gronings and Dutch poep means faeces, though the word does not seem to originate from that. A theory is that when Bernhard von Galen and his Westphalian troops arrived at Groningen in the 17th century to conquer the city, they used the word "Puppe" (meaning puppet). The people from Groningen laughed about that because it sounds exactly like poebe, which means faeces. Another theory is that it originates from that same era, but from the word Bube, being a fondle word for boy. From the city of Groningen it spread out into the province of Groningen and the border region with Drenthe.
In the Dutch language the word "Oosterbuur" (Eastern neighbour) nearly always refers to the German people or Germany itself, as Germany and the Germans are located to the East of the Netherlands and Belgium. Similarly, the Flemish refer to the Dutch as "Noorderburen" (Northern Neighbours) and the Dutch use "Zuiderburen" (Southern neighbours) for the Belgians.
Used in the Netherlands in parts of the Limburg and in the East of the Netherlands, meaning 'Prussian'.
Niemiec (plural Niemcy) - official term. Derived as in other Slavic languages from nem meaning "mute". See Names of Germany.
Niemiaszek (plural niemiaszki). Derogatory diminutive of Niemiec (see above).
Niemra (plural Niemry) - German woman, especially rather old, or ugly. See Niemiec above.
Helga from German name Helga. It is a term to describe a German woman, usually tall, blue-eyed, blond and strongly built, which are considered typical physical features of German women. It also implies the negative opinion about this kind of look.
The name fryc, plural fryce (after "Fritz", short for Friedrich/Frederick), widely considered as typically German, is sometimes used as a noun for Germans.
Szwab (plural szwaby; literally Swabian), is derogatory when referring to any Germans instead of just the inhabitants of Swabia. The origin of this usage remains unclear, as Swabia and Poland are relatively far apart.
Szkop (plural szkopy) is another, similarly derogative term (original, now obsolete meaning: "castrated ram", but see also the term Skopčák for Czech); during World War II, it was first used for German soldiers and later for any German.
The formal term is German (plural germani). The traditional term, still widely used in common language, is neamţ (plural nemţi). The root of the term is originally Slavic, meaning "mute", because of the mutual unintelligibility between the languages. The original meaning was not passed into Romanian, and the word is generally not used in a derogatory sense, although its colloquialism in contrast to the formal alternatives for "German" (German, pl. germani) and, rarely, "Austrian" (austriac, pl. austrieci) was used in certain offensive or polemic contexts. It appears in placenames like Piatra Neamţ ("The German rock").
Other names existed for specific German minorities, usually in relation with their place of origin. Transylvanian Saxons (immigrated starting from the 12th century), were called "saşi". Germans in Banat were called "şvabi", in reference to Schwaben, even though only few of the immigrants came from there.
The standard Russian term for a "German person" is nyemets (singular, Russian: немец) or nyemtsy (plural, Russian: немцы). The roots of the term lie in Slavic etymology, with the original meaning being "mute, unintelligible, incomprehensible". The term was initially used to designate any foreigner from Western Europe, but was eventually reserved for Germans only. It no longer means "mute" and has no negative meaning in modern Russian. Germany is called Germaniya (Russian: Германия).
A derisive inflection of nemets, nemchura ("немчура") is also in use. In general, Russian language abounds in suffixes that may bear diminutive or derisive connotation, so one may also see such forms as "nemchishka", "nemchik" ("Germanie"), "nemchatina" ("German meat"). In late 1980s and early 1990s the term bundes was also popular (from "Bundesrepublik Deutschland").
Frits / Hans (historical, a little unfriendly)
Since World War II the names "Fritz" and "Hans" (Фриц Frits, Ганс Gans) have been widely used to denote Germans, especially German soldiers. In Russian, "Hans" is rendered as Ганс and is pronounced as Gans in standard Russian, which makes it worse (Gans (f) in German means "goose" or "(female) fool").
Fashisty / Natzisty (hostile)
Translated as Fascists / Nazis in English, the terms "fashisty" (Russian: фашисты) and "natzisty" (Russian: нацисты) were also used as Russian colloquial slang used for invading soldiers and civilian population of Nazi Germany. Application of this term to modern-day Germans is considered extremely hostile and is seldom used.
In the meaning of "citizen of Germany" the word "Germanets" is also in colloquial use, together with the vulgarism German (pronounced with the last syllable accented: "germAn"). Germanets was also extensively used on an official level during WWI to refer to soldiers (especially) and or/citizens of the enemy German Empire, as a way to differentiate them from ethnic Germans as a whole.
Official plural form for Germans (singular: Nemac). Derived from "Nemačka" meaning "Germany".
Švabe (informal, friendly)
Official term. Derived as in other Slavic languages from nem meaning mute.
Švab (pl. švabi/švabje) (offensive)
Mildly offensive, literally meaning the Swabians.
Nemškutarji / Nemčurji (offensive)
A term reserved for the Germans that have Slovene ancestry and have been Germanized, now usually in connection with the population of the Austrian parts of Carinthia and southern Styria. During World War II the use was broader to include all collaborators of Nazi Germany in Slovenian lands.
Alemanes (official, descriptive)
In Spain the official term for Germans is alemanes, originating from a Germanic tribe, the Alamanni.
Kartofen (colloquial, jocose)
From the German word for potatoes (Kartoffeln) and refers to their, supposed, eating habit/cuisine.
Cabezas cuadradas (colloquial, offensive)
Meaning ("square heads", after the alleged German inclination for fixed rules instead of improvisation).
Teutones or Germanos (formal, poetic, friendly)
Germanos is mostly referred to the ancient tribes found by the Romans. Teutones, also the name of a Germanic tribe, is sometimes used as a literary synonym.
As seen before, the nickname of the National Socialist political party that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.
In Early Modern Spanish (for example in Don Quixote), tudescos (cognate with Deutsch and the Italian tedeschi) was used sometimes as a general name for Germans and sometimes restricted to Lower Saxony.
Swiss German for Swabian
Swiss German for (literally) Pig-Swabian
German for Rubber-Neck. The term has been verified to be in use since the 1970s at least. Its actual meaning is subject to debate. Theories include the stereotype of Germans talking too much or nodding their heads endlessly when listening to superiors.
Used by the Turks of Germany.
Used for any Germanic people, including the Dutch and Flemish.
Often used to denote the German national Football team.
Non-Germans living in Germany
The term Kartoffel, meaning potato in German, is an offensive term commonly used by many foreigners (especially Turks, Afghans and Russians) living in Germany.
Preiß (colloquial or offensive)
While commonly equated with Piefke, and thus thought of as being used for every German who is not native Bavarian, Preiß actually only refers to people born north of the river Main, and therefore specifically not to people from Swabia or Baden (western neighbours of Bavaria) or further south (Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol (Italy)). In this context, the river Main, as the border between Preußen and Bavaria, is referred to as the Weißwurstäquator (Bavarian-German spelling: Weißwurschtäquator; Weißwurst is a Bavarian white veal sausage, thus literally: white sausage equator). However, Franconians, from North Bavaria, being citizens of the Free State of Bavaria, are not referred to as Preissen, even though they often insist on being not Bavarians, and would not be accepted as Bavarians by most other Bavarians. Thus they might be described as "the Prussians of Bavaria". Preiß might be regarded as offensive, especially for those Germans who never were under Prussian rule. The derogatory element became important because of the alleged, or real, threat of Prussian predominance over the Bavarians, who, after stripping their King of real power (Bavaria's participation in the 1870-71 Franco-Prussian war was due to an enforced treaty after the defeat of 1866) saw themselves as champions of progress - "for love of Bavaria", as Kurt Wilhelm in the highly popular drama Brandner Kaspar lets one of his characters comment sarcastically. Indeed the anti-Prussianism as, for instance, professed by G. K. Chesterton would meet the heartiest Bavarian support.
As of today, the conflict between Bavarians and Prussians restrict themselves to occurrences as answering the question "Could you show me the way to the Central Station" (using a supposedly non-Bavarian expression) with "Yes, I could" or the like. However, the Christian Social Union still feels the need for a distinct political party for Bavaria only (not a regional subdivision of the Christian Democrats, but a "(little) sister party"), and the failure of Bavarians to reach the most important state offices does not remain unnoted (President Herzog had made his career outside of Bavaria as a CDU (not CSU) member; both Franz-Josef Strauß 1980 and Edmund Stoiber 2002 just failed to secure the chancellorship, with the suspicion of a "Bavaria malus" among the non-Bavarian electorate).
"Preiß" has bred the admittedly insulting word Saupreiß, literally: pig-Prussian. However, additions as in Saupreiß, japanischer, taking away the national character for a plainly artistical composition (this being a somewhat joking reference to the many Japanese tourists in Munich), originated in the late 20th century as a parody on the Saupreiß term, have a mostly good-natured meaning.
Bazi is an offensive term used in Northern Germany to describe Bavarians. Derived from the ambiguous Bavarian/Austrian dialect term denoting a sly fellow.
The term "Ossi" (derived from the German word Osten which means east) is used in Germany for people who were born or live in the area of the former German Democratic Republic.
The term "Wessi" (derived from the German word Westen which means west) is used in Germany for people who were born or live in the old states of Germany. Sometimes it's also modified to "Besserwessi" (from the German word Besserwisser which means Know-it-all) which reflects the stereotype that people from the Western part of Germany would be arrogant.
In 2010 there was a lawsuit in Germany because a job applicant was declined with the hint "Ossi" and a minus on her application documents. A German court decided that this would be a discrimination but not because of ethnical reasons, since East Germans are no ethnicity.
- Offensive terms per nationality
- Anti-German sentiment
- German language
- Hans Strudel
- Vandals, Vandalism
- Chronography and History of the whole world, Vol. II (London, 1677: 154)
- Die Reden Kaiser Wilhelms II., Hg. v. Johannes Penzler. Bd. 2: 1896-1900. Leipzig o.J., S. 209-212. Deutsches Historisches Museum
- Klaus Mühlhahn (2007). Kolonialkrieg in China: die Niederschlagung der Boxerbewegung 1900-1901. ISBN 9783861534327
- Nicoletta Gullace. "Barbaric Anti-Modernism: Representations of the "Hun" in Britain, North America, Australia and Beyond". Picture This: World War I Posters and Visual Culture
- Allen, Irving (1983). The Language of Ethnic Conflict: Social Organization and Lexical Culture. Columbia University Press. p. 57. ISBN 0-231-05557-9.
- etymonline, origin of "heinie"
- Schleswig in Iowa
- etymonline, origin of "Jerry"
- etymonline, origin of "teuton"
- National Library of Scotland Digital Archive (click "More information")
- Boche, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language
- The Germans
- Oxford Tory song
- Anton Karl Mally: "Piefke". Nachträge. In: Muttersprache. Zeitschrift zur Pflege und Erforschung der deutschen Sprache [Wiesbaden], Vol. 94, 1983/84, number 3-4, pp. 313-327.
- Anton Karl Mally: „Piefke“. Herkunft und Rolle eines österreichischen Spitznamens für den Preußen, den Nord- und den Reichsdeutschen, in: Muttersprache. Zeitschrift zur Pflege und Erforschung der deutschen Sprache, [Wiesbaden] 1984, number 4, pp. 257-286.
- "趣说八十八句上海闲话". 360doc.com. Retrieved August 18, 2012.
- "茄门的两义 - 基础吴语问题 - 吳語協會 - Powered by Discuz!". Wu-chinese.com. Retrieved August 18, 2012.
- Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Boche". Encyclopedia Americana.
- Germany in sign language
- Prisma Etymologisch woordenboek, ISBN 90-274-9199-2. "Mof heeft historisch gezien niet de huidige betekenis (die van een verwijzing naar de Duitsers en hun acties tijdens de Tweede wereldoorlog) maar ..."
- Why Germans are called "moffen" (Dutch)
- Don Quixote, Second Part, chapter LIV, Miguel de Cervantes: Sancho Panza meets some pilgrims (alemán o tudesco) from Augsburg.
- tudesco in the Diccionario de la Real Academia Española.
- Don Quixote, Second part, chapter V: ¿Cuántos son los alemanes, tudescos, franceses, españoles, italianos y esguízaros? "How many are the Almains, Dutch, Frenchmen, Spaniards, Italians and Swiss?"
- Bruno Ziauddin: Grüezi Gummihälse. Warum uns die Deutschen manchmal auf die Nerven gehen. Rowohlt, Reinbek 2008, ISBN 978-3-499-62403-2