|Predecessor(s)||Hole, Potter and Harrison|
Boddingtons was a regional brewery based in Manchester, England which owned pubs throughout the North West. Boddingtons was famous for Boddingtons Bitter ("Boddies"), a straw-golden, hoppy bitter which was one of the first beers to be packaged in cans containing a widget, giving it a creamy draught-style head. In the 1990s, the beer was promoted as The Cream of Manchester in a popular advertising campaign credited with raising Manchester's profile. According to William Hall of the Financial Times, Boddingtons became one of the city's most famous products after Manchester United and Coronation Street.
After Whitbread bought Boddingtons Brewery in 1989 the marketing budget was increased and distribution of the beer extended nationwide. Boddingtons achieved its peak market share in 1997 and was exported to over forty countries around the world. Boddingtons beer brands are now owned by the global brewer Anheuser–Busch InBev which acquired the Whitbread Beer Company in 2000. Strangeways Brewery closed in 2004 and production of pasteurised (keg and can) Boddingtons was moved to Samlesbury in Lancashire. Production of the cask conditioned beer moved to Hydes Brewery in Moss Side, Manchester, until it was discontinued in March 2012, ending the beer's association with the city.
Strangeways Brewery was founded in 1778 by two grain merchants, Thomas Caister and Thomas Fry, just north of what is currently Manchester city centre. Their principal customers were the cotton workers of Manchester, then a burgeoning mill town. Henry Boddington, born in 1813 in Thame, Oxfordshire, joined the brewery in 1832 as a repairman when the brewery was in the possession of Hole, Potter and Harrison. Like most Manchester breweries at the time, it was a modestly sized operation. Boddington had become a partner by 1848, and borrowed money to become its sole owner in 1853. Between Boddington's takeover until 1877, the brewery's output increased tenfold from 10,000 to 100,000 barrels a year, making it not only Manchester's largest brewery but one of the largest in the North of England, with over 100 tied houses. By 1883 Henry Boddington & Co. was a limited liability company. Henry Boddington's estate was valued at almost £150,000 when he died in 1886.
After Henry Boddington's death, his son, W. Slater Boddington became company chairman, and the company went public in 1888 when it was estimated to have assets of £320,465. The company owned 212 public houses by 1892, making it the twelfth largest tied estate in the United Kingdom. Its major local competitors were Groves and Whitnall, Threlfalls and the Manchester Brewing Company. After W. Slater Boddington's death in 1908, the family retained an interest in the company and continued to take a practical hand in its running. Henry's youngest son, Robert Slater Boddington (1862–1930) had a fifty-year association with the company and oversaw the installation of a bottling hall in the 1920s. Robert's third and fourth sons Philip (1893–1952) and Charles (1897–1982) served as joint chairman after their father's death, and Charles took sole responsibility after Philip died.
By the 1930s, the Boddington family shareholding had dwindled to around 40 per cent. In 1940 Strangeways Brewery was closed for several months after it was hit by a bomb during the Manchester Blitz, and production was moved temporarily to the nearby Hydes Brewery. The brewery was rebuilt with the most up-to-date and modern equipment of the time, and was the first in Europe to install stainless steel brewing vats. In 1961, the brewer Whitbread took a 13 per cent stake in the company. In 1962 the company purchased Richard Clarke & Co of Reddish, Stockport, adding 60 public houses to the firm.
Mergers and acquisitions 
In 1969 the large Allied Breweries combine initiated a hostile takeover bid for Boddingtons, which valued the company at £5 million. Charles Boddington took the unusual step of issuing a spirited defence of the company to the shareholders:
You will be only too aware that present-day pressures bear heavily towards the elimination of individuality and character in many consumer goods. There is an inexorable progression towards the mass-produced nationwide product of standardised quality. You, however, are still, at this moment in time, a shareholder in one of the remaining independent brewery companies whose traditional draught beers have a reputation for quality and individual character beyond the immediate area of the North of England in which we operate ... The takeover of Boddingtons and its consequent elimination can achieve very little. It will do nothing for the national economy, add nothing to the nation's exports, and contribute nothing at all to the quality of life that we are all used to enjoy.
The company's independence was maintained after Whitbread acted as a white knight by raising its stake in the company from 13 to 23 per cent, and the family and many small shareholders refused to sell their stakes. The chairman of Whitbread, Colonel Whitbread, is reputed to have said, "You are a very old firm. You have a very good name. You mustn't go out." It was likely the first time a company had won the emotional argument for independence, and the first time a small brewery had headed off an offer from a national company. In 1970 Charles Boddington retired and his son Ewart assumed the directorship.
In 1971 Allied Breweries sold its 35 per cent stake in the company, leaving Whitbread 25 per cent, the Boddington family 10 per cent and the remainder of company shares made up by small shareholders in the Manchester area. That year Guinness Draught stout and Heineken lager were introduced into the tied estate. During the 1970s the company operated within a 70-mile radius of Manchester, and growth was driven by the increasing popularity of its main product, Boddingtons Bitter. The Observer commented in 1974 that Boddingtons cheap pricing and distinctive flavour afforded it an unusually loyal following. In 1981 the same newspaper commented,
what has stood Boddingtons in good stead is the highly distinctive flavour of its brews, especially its bitters. In fact, in the North-West, Boddies is increasingly becoming a sort of cult brew.
In January 1982 Boddingtons bought the Oldham Brewery for £23 million, hoping to combine Oldham's strength in lager and keg bitter with their own expertise in cask ales. After the acquisition, the company owned 272 public houses, 70 per cent of which were within 20 miles of its Manchester brewery. In 1983 Boddingtons Bitter was distributed in the Home Counties for the first time. In 1985 Boddingtons paid £27.5 million for the 160,000 barrel capacity Higsons Brewery in Liverpool and its tied estate of 160 public houses to form a combine with a £65 million turnover. The Guardian commented that the company had paid mere asset value for Higsons as the company had been reporting poor profits. By this time Strangeways was producing only two beers, a bitter and a mild, with bitter constituting over 90 per cent of production. In 1986 the company employed 280 people and operated 530 tied houses, and while Strangeways Brewery had a capacity of 500,000 barrels a year, it was operating at around 50 per cent capacity. That year the company introduced its first lager, brewing Kaltenberg under license. In 1987 the company rejected a £270 million takeover bid by Midsummer Leisure. In 1988 the company closed the Oldham Brewery with the loss of 70 jobs, and shed 140 transport jobs at Higsons and Strangeways by contracting out delivery work to TNT.
Boddingtons remained independent until November 1989, when Ewart Boddington sold Strangeways Brewery and the Boddingtons brand (but not the tied estate) to Whitbread for £50.7 million. Whitbread was motivated to plug a gap in its portfolio by owning a credible national cask ale brand. The sale was amicable, with both parties aware that Whitbread capital and distribution could make the Boddingtons brand national, although some Boddington family board members had been resistant to the sale. Boddingtons had been in decline before the Whitbread takeover, and although it retained an almost "cult" following within its Manchester heartland, a meagre 5 per cent of sales were outside the North West.
Whitbread era 
Whitbread transformed the brand from regional to national, expanding production from 200,000 to 850,000 barrels a year between 1989 and 1995. By 1993 the cask version was outsold only by Tetley and John Smith's, and the majority of sales were outside of the North West. By 1994 it was the fourth-highest selling bitter brand in the country. The canned variant was distributed nationwide from 1990 and was the highest-selling canned bitter in the UK from 1992 until 2000. The beer was officially exported overseas from 1993, initially to Canada. The rise in sales of the beer coincided with the elevation of Manchester from "city of dark, beaten mills to the cultural magnet of Madchester". Manchester and the North of England were now fashionable in the public consciousness and rejuvenated from industrial slump. Whitbread chief executive Peter Jarvis commented in 1995 that:
|It was very fortuitous that the brewery was in Manchester. To outsiders, Manchester is a very attractive place – known the world over for soccer, art, music and broadcasting. It would be difficult to have a Cream of Wolverhampton even though Banks's beer is very good. People do not aspire to visit Wolverhampton. On the whole they try to by- pass it.|
Success was attributed to an excellent marketing campaign, and being the first canned ale to be sold with a widget after Guinness Bitter. In 1997 Boddingtons sales peaked, and 1998 saw a drop in sales of 10 per cent. Boddingtons had been turned into: "a fashion product ... and as with all fashion products, the drinkers moved on". In 1998 production of the Flowers ale brands was moved to Strangeways.
Interbrew takeover 
In May 2000 the Whitbread Beer Company was acquired by the Belgian brewer Interbrew, which owned Stella Artois. At that time one in eight barrels of Boddingtons was exported to some 40 countries worldwide, including China, the United States, Taiwan and the West Indies. In 2003, amidst falling sales, Interbrew relaunched the cask product in the North West of England, increasing its strength and adding more malt to the recipe. The relaunch was unsuccessful and the changes were reversed. The Strangeways Brewery kegging facility closed in February 2003 with the loss of 50 jobs.
In September 2004 the owners (now known as InBev) announced plans to close the Strangeways Brewery and move most production from Manchester to Magor in South Wales and Samlesbury, Lancashire, with the loss of 60 jobs. Two years earlier the brewery had employed 250 people. Boddingtons cask ale production, which accounted for less than 10 per cent of output, was moved to Hydes Brewery in Moss Side. The closure plan was made despite the company admitting the brewery was profitable but the brewery site had become a valuable property asset and was subsequently sold for £12 million to developers. A spokesman for the firm argued: "[The] building was built in the Victorian times and it is an old historic brewery but it was a victim of its age. It is an inflexible brewery – it can't bottle or can and customer needs have moved on". Production ended in February 2005 and the brewery was demolished in 2007. Bloomberg Businessweek described the move by InBev as "unsentimental".
In May 2010 it was speculated in The Times that InBev (Anheuser-Busch InBev from 2008 onwards) would attempt to sell the Boddingtons brand to another brewer after its failed attempt to sell the UK rights to Bass ale. The newspaper was damning of what it perceived as InBev's mismanagement of the brand, which had "declined under AB InBev's hands. The brand was once a leading part of the old Whitbread Beer Company, but its fortunes had dwindled since the closure in 2005 of the Strangeways Brewery."
In 2010 Boddingtons was the sixth-highest selling bitter in the United Kingdom, although sales had dropped by almost three quarters since the takeover by Anheuser–Busch InBev in 2000. In July 2011 AB InBev's UK president Stuart MacFarlane claimed "We still believe in the brand" whilst admitting to not advertising the brand for five years, instead reaping the rewards of memories of its advertising ten years ago. Contract brewing of Boddingtons Cask continued until March 2012 when production of the beer ended.
Boddingtons has a distinctive straw-golden coloured body with a creamy white head, which is achieved by the addition of nitrogen.
- Boddingtons Draughtflow/Draught Bitter (3.5% ABV)
- The nitrogenated and pasteurised variant of the beer available in kegs and cans. It is brewed in Samlesbury. The canned variant, launched in 1991, contains a widget to give the beer a creamy white head. The beer's ABV was reduced from 3.8% to 3.5% in late 2008. On draught in the United Kingdom it is typically served at 10–12 degrees Celsius, although an Extra Cold variant served at 3 to 5 degrees Celsius has been available since 2006. Its taste, or perceived lack of it, has been criticised by some, with Andrew Jefford describing it as a "blandly foamy nitrokeg travesty of the original [cask conditioned version]".
- Boddingtons Pub Ale (4.6% ABV)
- A higher ABV version of standard Boddingtons, brewed since 1993 for export markets. It was available in the United Kingdom from 1995–6 as Boddingtons Export.
- Boddingtons Cask (3.8% ABV)
- The original cask-conditioned variant of the beer, which made up the vast majority of sales until the 1990s. Between 2001 and 2010 production dropped from 290,000 barrels a year to 50,000 barrels.
Boddingtons initially eschewed advertising, preferring the quality of the product to speak for itself, until 1987, when it was first advertised on Granada television in the North West of England. The tagline from 1987 until 1991 was "If you don't get Boddies, you'll just get bitter". Under Whitbread's custodianship the comedian Frankie Howerd fronted the campaign in a series of six television advertisements which mainly aired in the North West in 1990–1991. Lowe Howard-Spink was the advertising agency responsible for the Howerd advertisements.
From July 1991 until 1999, a series of Boddingtons advertisements created by the Bartle Bogle Hegarty (BBH) agency used "The Cream of Manchester" tagline. The campaign, credited with revitalising the image of Manchester, was arguably third behind Manchester United and Coronation Street in raising the city's profile. Originally a set of print advertisements, the campaign was extended to television in 1992. The television advertisements featured beautiful women with unlikely Mancunian accents and "achieved the seemingly impossible task of making bitter glamorous". The most famous television advertisement featured a glamorous couple on-board gondolas on Manchester's River Irwell, in a parody of a well-known Cornetto ice cream advertisement. According to the Manchester Evening News, "it told the world something about the reinvention of the murky old city, that its once-filthy waterway could almost pass for Venice." Other advertisements parodied perfume and running shoe commercials.
The series won several international advertising awards for BBH. The brand's creaminess was emphasised through such items as face cream, ice cream, sun cream and whipped cream. Managing director of Whitbread, Miles Templeman, explained that:
We were thinking how to turn a second-rate north-west brand into something more stylish, to make it more appealing again. BBH thought of focusing on the creamy aspect, of selling a beer like a face cream.
A previously unknown Melanie Sykes launched her career as a television presenter following her appearances in the adverts from 1996 until 1999. Animated television advertisements starring the transgender playboy cow Graham Heffer ran from 1999 until 2002. The adverts attracted complaints from the public for allegedly promoting bestiality, homosexuality and drug-taking. Boddingtons become an official partner of the 2002 XVII Commonwealth Games held in Manchester in a deal worth at least £1 million. To mark the occasion, a special Boddingtons 5% ABV Commonwealth Ale cask ale was produced for the North West of England, and subsequently launched nationwide. The last Boddingtons television advertising campaign in 2005 was criticised for capitalising on the beer's Manchester heritage with a Happy Mondays soundtrack, even though production had moved out of the city. Mike Thompson, a former worker at the brewery and representative of the Transport & General Workers' Union, said:
This is at best cynical and at worst a slur on our great city, its heritage and the Strangeways workers. People have lost their livelihoods because of how this company has behaved. They will not be best pleased at what we can only see as pouring salt on the wounds.
- Hall, William (28 October 2004). "Manchester united in battle over Boddingtons". Financial Times (London). Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- "Display". Emu.msim.org.uk. 28 April 2006. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
- "Directory of UK real Ale Breweries". Quaffale.org.uk. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- "Boddies: 200 years of beers". BBC. October 2004. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- "Record of Life of Henry Boddington". Boddington-family.org.uk. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- Wilson, R. G. (Oct 2007). "Boddington, Henry (1813–1886)" (Subscription or UK public library membership required). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- "Blue Plaque to Henry Boddington in Thame". Oxfordshireblueplaques.org.uk. 4 November 2010. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- Richmond, Lesley; Turton, Alison, eds. (1990). The Brewing industry : a guide to historical records. Studies in British business archives. Manchester: Manchester University Press. pp. 75–6. ISBN 0-7190-3032-3. Retrieved 2013-05-14.
- "The beer trade: Boddingtons and the act". The Manchester Guardian. 23 February 1906. p. 4.
- Hornsey, Ian Spencer (2003). History of beer and brewing. RSC paperbacks 34. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry. p. 571. ISBN 1-84755-002-9.
- "Boddington family; Person record". Boddington-family.org.uk. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- "Boddington family; Person record". Boddington-family.org.uk. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- Oliver, Garrett, ed. (2012). The Oxford companion to beer. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-19-536713-3.
- Pearson, Lynn (1999). British breweries : an architectural history. London: Hambledon Press. p. 133. ISBN 1-85285-191-0.
- Mersey Ale CAMRA Newsletter 2005
- Greenhalgh, Alec (7 February 1970). "Battle of the beers". The Guardian (London). p. 11.
- Leach, Cyril (18 February 1970). "Support for Boddingtons'". The Guardian (London). p. 13.
- Mutch, Alistair (2006). Strategic and organizational change : from production to retailing in UK brewing 1950–1990. Routledge studies in business organization and networks. London; New York: Routledge. p. 126. ISBN 0-415-36050-1.
- Jones, David (9 June 1974). "The small beer versus the brewers". The Observer (London). p. 15.
- "Reward for aid in bid battle". The Guardian (London). 24 February 1971. p. 14.
- "City comment". The Guardian (London). 25 February 1972. p. 19.
- "Brewer confident of record". The Guardian (London). 17 November 1973. p. 15.
- "The toast is Boddingtons'". The Observer (London). 13 Sep 1981. p. 17.
- "Boddingtons' lifts dividend". The Times (London). 18 September 1982. p. 9.
- "Oldham aids brewer's results". The Guardian (London). 18 September 1982. p. 19.
- Huntingdonshire CAMRA, "A Look Back In Time" Opening Times Issue 136 Autumn 2008
- "Boddingtons' beer mug runneth over". The Observer (London). 6 July 1986. p. 40.
- Laurance, Ben (29 September 1989). "Boddington calls time on its breweries". The Guardian (London). p. 12.
- "Buoyant brewer". The Guardian (London). 21 March 1986. p. 25.
- "A heady brew from Boddington". The Observer (London). 20 October 1985. p. 32.
- The blog of a published beer historian: Shut up about Barclay Perkins: Quiz solution
- Gibbs, Geoffrey (9 September 1986). "Boddington braces up for Bavarian-style brew". The Guardian (London). p. 24.
- Rodgers, Peter (16 October 1987). "Midsummer drops Boddington offer". The Guardian (London). p. 23.
- Gibbs, Geoffrey (9 January 1988). "Brewer plans to shed 200 jobs". The Guardian (London). p. 19.
- Untitled Document
- "Hunts CAMRA Newsletter, Issue No. 69" (PDF). Retrieved 6 June 2012.[dead link]
- Blackhurst, Chris (1 October 2003). "The MT Interview: Miles Templeman". Management Today. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- Oxford, Esther (10 October 1993). "Cream-headed smoothie conquers south". The Independent (London). Retrieved 6 June 2012.
- Levi, Jim (6 November 1995). "Dream of a Job for the Cream Of Whitbread". Evening Standard.
- "Do Creative Commercials Sell?: Leo Burnett's Donald Gunn got so sick of the 'do award-winning ads shift product' debate that he decided to do some number crunching to settle the matter and nail the misconceptions once and for all". Campaign (Haymarket Business Publications). 22 September 1995.
- "The Hunt for a Classic". Financial Times. 27 October 1994. p. 15.
- "Boddies joins Whitbread in the New Year". The Grocer (William Reed). 25 November 1989. p. 32.
- "Whitbread's profits plunge 24% to £222m". The Herald. 19 May 1992. p. 17.
- Darby, Ian (19 November 1998). "New Whitbread role for Gilliland". Brandrepublic.com. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
- Protz, Roger (21 November 1998). "The cream of Durham". The Guardian. p. C85.
- "Ales in danger after closure". Gloucestershire Echo. 18 April 1998. p. 8.
- Broster, Paul (29 August 2000). "Howard Takes The Cream Of Manchester To Sales Record In His Singapore Bar". Manchester Evening News.
- Godsell, Melanie (28 March 2007). "Boddingtons plans revamp". Marketing Magazine (Haymarket Business Publications). p. 10. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- "Interbrew's Man U-turn". The Grocer (William Reed). 9 November 2002. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
- "InBev to close Boddington's". Modern Brewery Age. 20 September 2004. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- Wainwright, Martin (10 September 2002). "Boddington's Strangeways brewery loses 68 jobs in Interbrew shake-up". The Guardian (London).
- Wainwright, Martin (10 September 2004). "Boddies buries Mancunian past". The Guardian (London).
- Taylor, Paul R (13 July 2007). "Chimney survives rubble and strife". Manchester Evening News (M.E.N. Media).
- Snowdon, Neal (4 February 2005). "Boddingtons' bitter end". Manchester Evening News (M.E.N. Media). Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- Rooth, Ben (16 March 2007). "The bitter end for Boddies". Manchester Evening News (M.E.N. Media). Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- Leonard, Devin (25 October 2012). "The Plot to Destroy America's Beer". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
- Walsh, Dominic (26 May 2010). "Buyer sought for beer that Britain forgot". The Times (London).
- Alcoholic Drinks: Euromonitor from trade sources/national statistics, 2011
- "top 51–60". The Grocer (William Reed). 16 July 2011. p. 34.
- "Hydes hails a 'very satisfactory' year". North West Caterer. 19 January 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
- Bounds, Andrew (27 May 2012). "Beer brewers change in trying times". Financial Times (FT.Com).
- "Boddingtons suffers technical hitch". Marketing (Haymarket Business Publications). 18 April 1991. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
- "Boddingtons in £14m spend". Morning Advertiser. 5 December 2002. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- "InBev takes first dip in extra-cold waters". Morning Advertiser. 8 December 2005. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
- Jefford, Andrew (1 August 2003). "Thriving in a beer market". Financial Times.
- "Boddingtons Pub Ale" (PDF). Retrieved 7 June 2012.
- Benady, David (24 May 1996). "Boddington's Export to be axed after poor sales". Marketing Week. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- "Whitbread's widget targets bottled ales". The Grocer (William Reed). 8 April 1995. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- "Strong Boddies seduces Camra". Morning Advertiser. 29 January 2004. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
- Charity, Paul (22 February 2007). "Hydes: profits drop sharply". Morning Advertiser. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
- "Still Price Court Twivy D'Souza's first work for Boddingtons Bitter tries to set the beer apart from its rivals in the North with two commercials on the theme 'If you don't get Boddies, you'll just get bitter'". Campaign (Haymarket Business Publications). 8 October 1987.
- "TV commercials for Boddingtons Bitter feature Frankie Howerd". The Grocer (Wiliam Reed). 10 November 1990.
- "Frankie brings a titter to Boddingtons beer advertising". Campaign (Haymarket Business Publications). 2 November 1990.
- "The Top 250 Agencies". Campaign. 22 February 1991.
- "The bottom line is: does it sell?; The slick ads are sexy and witty, but the client also wants them to work. Tonight will decide which do that best, says Meg Carter". The Independent (London). 25 October 1994. p. 29.
- "Cream rises to the top in a category that plays more serious than usual". Advertising Age. 3 May 1993. p. 14.
- "Peter Kay most popular when it comes to 'bloke beer adverts'". The Telegraph (London: Telegraph Media Group). 2 September 2009. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- Cozens, Claire (17 January 2002). "Closing time for Boddingtons' cartoon cow". MediaGuardian (London: Guardian News and Media).
- Taylor, Paul (9 September 2004). "How city's pride fell to big business". Manchester Evening News (M.E.N. Media).
- "It's time to moo-ve on, Graham". Manchester Evening News (M.E.N. Media). 18 January 2002. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- "Ad of the week: Boddingtons' dairy cream". The Telegraph (London: Telegraph Media Group). 3 October 2000. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- Smith, Rose (28 February 2002). "Brand Health Check – Boddingtons – Boddingtons braves cream-free strategy". Marketing (Haymarket Business Publications). Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- "The cow jumps". The Grocer (Wiliam Reed). 29 September 2001. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
- Brownsell, Alex (30 July 2008). "Brand Health Check: Boddingtons". Marketing (Haymarket Business Publications). p. 24.
- "Boddies joins cream of Games sponsors". Manchester Evening News (M.E.N. Media). 15 January 2002. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- "Boddies toast success of the Games". Middleton Guardian (M.E.N. Media). 16 May 2002.
- "Games ale to go national". This is Lancashire (Weybridge: Newsquest). 27 July 2002.
- "Boddingtons in Manchester 'slur'". BBC News. 10 June 2005. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- Stevenson, Rachel (14 June 2005). "Boddingtons beer advert falls flat". The Independent (London). Retrieved 22 October 2011.
Further reading 
- Jacobson, Michael (1978). 200 Years of Beer: The Story of Boddingtons Strangeways Brewery, 1778–1978. Manchester: Boddington Breweries Ltd.
- Redman, N.B. (July 1995). "The history of the Boddingtons Brewery at Strangeways, Manchester". The Brewer. pp. 288–295.