Bodrum

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Bodrum
District of Muğla Province
Clockwise from top left: 1st: View of Bodrum from castle of St.Peter, 2nd: Port Atami, 3rd: A view of Bodrum, 4th: Seaside at Bodrum , 5th: Marina in Bodrum, 6th: Bodrum Castle.
Clockwise from top left: 1st: View of Bodrum from castle of St.Peter, 2nd: Port Atami, 3rd: A view of Bodrum, 4th: Seaside at Bodrum , 5th: Marina in Bodrum, 6th: Bodrum Castle.
Bodrum is located in Turkey
Bodrum
Bodrum
Coordinates: 37°02′00″N 27°26′00″E / 37.03333°N 27.43333°E / 37.03333; 27.43333Coordinates: 37°02′00″N 27°26′00″E / 37.03333°N 27.43333°E / 37.03333; 27.43333
Country Turkey
Province Muğla
Government
 • Mayor Mehmet Kocadon ((CHP))
 • Kaymakam Feridun Cemal Özdemir
Area[1]
 • District 656.06 km2 (253.31 sq mi)
Population (2013)
 • Urban 36,401[2]
Website www.bodrum.bel.tr

Bodrum (Turkish pronunciation: [ˈbodɾum]) is a district and a port city in Muğla Province, in the southwestern Aegean Region of Turkey. It is located on the southern coast of Bodrum Peninsula, at a point that checks the entry into the Gulf of Gökova, and is also the center of the eponymous district. The city was called Halicarnassus of Caria in ancient times and was famous for housing the Mausoleum of Mausolus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Bodrum Castle, built by the Knights Hospitaller in the 15th century, overlooks the harbour and the marina. The castle grounds include a Museum of Underwater Archaeology and hosts several cultural festivals throughout the year. The city had a population of 136,317 in 2012.

Geography[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The name Bodrum derives from Petronium, named from the Hospitaller Castle of St. Peter (see history). The site was formerly known as Halicarnassus (Ancient Greek: Ἁλικαρνασσός,[3] Turkish: Halikarnas.)

Climate[edit]

Bodrum has a Mediterranean climate. A winter average high of 15 °C (59 °F) and in the summer 34 °C (93 °F), with very sunny spells. Summers are hot and mostly sunny and winters are mild and humid.

Climate data for Bodrum
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 15.1
(59.2)
15.2
(59.4)
17.6
(63.7)
21.1
(70)
26.0
(78.8)
31.2
(88.2)
34.2
(93.6)
34.0
(93.2)
30.3
(86.5)
25.6
(78.1)
20.3
(68.5)
16.5
(61.7)
23.93
(75.08)
Average low °C (°F) 8.3
(46.9)
8.0
(46.4)
9.7
(49.5)
12.7
(54.9)
16.5
(61.7)
20.8
(69.4)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
20.3
(68.5)
16.8
(62.2)
12.8
(55)
9.8
(49.6)
15.19
(59.33)
Precipitation mm (inches) 134.1
(5.28)
107.9
(4.248)
74.0
(2.913)
39.1
(1.539)
18.4
(0.724)
7.5
(0.295)
1.3
(0.051)
8.5
(0.335)
20.8
(0.819)
40.5
(1.594)
97.7
(3.846)
156.2
(6.15)
706
(27.794)
Avg. rainy days 12.3 11.2 8.5 6.9 3.7 2.1 1.5 1.0 2.8 5.3 8.8 13.2 77.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 148.8 151.2 198.4 225 285.2 318 337.9 322.4 273 223.2 168 139.5 2,790.6
Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [4]

History[edit]

Theatre of Halicarnassus in Bodrum, with the Bodrum Castle seen in the background.
See also: Halicarnassus

The first recorded settlers in Bodrum region were the Carians and the harbor area was colonized by Dorian Greeks as of the 7th century BC. The city later fell under Persian rule. Under the Persians, it was the capital city of the satrapy of Caria, the region that had since long constituted its hinterland and of which it was the principal port. Its strategic location ensured that the city enjoyed considerable autonomy. Archaeological evidence from the period such as the recently discovered Salmakis (Kaplankalesi) Inscription, now in Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology, attest to the particular pride its inhabitants had developed.[5]

Alexander the Great laid siege to the city after his arrival in Carian lands and, together with his ally, the queen Ada of Caria, captured it after fighting in 334 BCE.

Mausolus[edit]

Surviving substructures and ruins of the Mausoleum of Mausolus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, in Halicarnassus (modern Bodrum.)

Mausolus ruled Caria from here, nominally on behalf of the Persians and independently in practical terms, for much of his reign from 377 to 353 BC. When he died in 353 BC, Artemisia II of Caria, who was both his sister and his widow, employed the ancient Greek architects Satyros and Pythis, and the four sculptors Bryaxis, Scopas, Leochares and Timotheus to build a monument, as well as a tomb, for him. The word "mausoleum" derives from the structure of this tomb. It was a temple-like structure decorated with reliefs and statuary on a massive base. Today only the foundations and a few pieces of sculpture remain.

Petronium[edit]

Crusader Knights arrived in 1402 and used the remains of the Mausoleum as a quarry to build the still impressively standing Bodrum Castle (Castle of Saint Peter), which is a well-preserved example of the late Crusader architecture in the east Mediterranean. The Knights Hospitaller (Knights of St. John) were given permission to build it by the Ottoman sultan Mehmed I, after Tamerlane had destroyed their previous fortress located in İzmir's inner bay. The castle and its town became known as Petronium, whence the modern name Bodrum derives.

In 1522, Suleiman the Magnificent conquered the base of the Crusader knights on the island of Rhodes, who then relocated first briefly to Sicily and later permanently to Malta, leaving the Castle of Saint Peter and Bodrum to the Ottoman Empire.

20th century[edit]

Marina of Bodrum

Bodrum was a quiet town of fishermen and sponge divers until the mid-20th century; although, as Mansur points out, the presence of a large community of bilingual Cretan Turks, coupled with the conditions of free trade and access with the islands of the Southern Dodecanese until 1935 saved it from utter provincialism.[6] The fact that traditional agriculture was not a very rewarding activity in the rather dry peninsula also prevented the formation of a class of large landowners. Bodrum has no notable history of political or religious extremism either. A first nucleus of intellectuals started to form after the 1950s around the writer Cevat Şakir Kabaağaçlı, who had first come here in exile two decades before and was charmed by the town to the point of adopting the pen name Halikarnas Balıkçısı ('The Fisherman of Halicarnassus').[7]

Demographics[edit]

The population for the town of Bodrum was 35,795 in the 2012 census. The surrounding towns & villages had an additional 100,522, for a total for the province of 136,317.[8]

Government[edit]

The district of Bodrum is one of 957 in Turkey. It is part of the Aydin subregion, which, in turn, is part of the Aegean Region.

The district includes the municipalities of Bodrum, Turgutreis, Ortakent, Türkbükü, Yalıkavak, Gümüşlük, Bitez, Konacık, Yalı and Mumcular.[citation needed]

Economy[edit]

The district's major economic activity centers around tourism.[9]

Panoramic view of Cennet Koyu (Paradise Bay) in Göltürkbükü, Bodrum.

Infrastructure[edit]

Airports[edit]

There are no airports in the city. Two airports serve the city. Milas–Bodrum Airport is located 36 kilometres (22 mi) northeast of Bodrum, with both domestic and international flights.[10] Kos Island International Airport, 70 kilometres (43 mi) to the SW, is accessible by boats from Bodrum across a 20 kilometres (12 mi) stretch of the Aegean Sea. Aside from year-round flights to Greek destinations, Kos airport's traffic is seasonal.

Bus[edit]

There is a main bus stop in the city with transportation to other locations in Turkey.

Port[edit]

The port has ferries to other nearby Turkish and Greek ports and islands.[10]

Notable people[edit]

Bodrum Castle Mosque
Gulet type schooners near Bodrum

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Bodrum is twinned with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05. 
  2. ^ "Turkey: Registered Population". City Population. Retrieved 2014-04-11. 
  3. ^ Ἁλικαρνασσός, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus project
  4. ^ "İl ve İlçelerimize Ait İstatistiki Veriler- Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü". Dmi.gov.tr. 1971-11-30. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  5. ^ Signe Isager (1998). Study: "The Pride of Halicarnassus". Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 123 p. 1-23. 
  6. ^ Fatma Mansur (1972). Bodrum ISBN 90-04-03424-2. Brill Publishers. 
  7. ^ Bodream, Jean-Pierre Thiollet, Anagramme Ed., 2010, pp.62-66
  8. ^ Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012/
  9. ^ Bodrum
  10. ^ a b "BODRUM | Place to Visit | Things to Do | Famous For". Very Turkey. Retrieved 2014-03-20. 
  11. ^ "Aalborg Twin Towns". Europeprize.net/. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 

External links[edit]