Body Worlds

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A plastinated body at the Museum of Natural History, San Diego, 2009

Body Worlds (German title: Körperwelten) is a traveling exhibition of preserved human bodies and body parts that are prepared using a technique called plastination to reveal inner anatomical structures. The exhibition's developer and promoter is German anatomist Gunther von Hagens, who invented the plastination technique in the late 1970s at the University of Heidelberg.

History[edit]

Gunther von Hagens' Body Worlds, San Diego, California, 2009

Body Worlds was first presented in Tokyo in 1995. Body Worlds exhibitions have since been hosted by more than 50 museums and venues in North America, Europe and Asia.

Body Worlds 2 & The Brain – Our Three Pound Gem (concerning the brain and nervous system) opened in 2005 at the California Science Center in Los Angeles. As of September 2010 it is showing at the Telus World of Science in Vancouver.[1]

Body Worlds 3 & The Story of the Heart (concerning the cardiovascular system) opened on 25 February 2006, at the Houston Museum of Natural Science. On 9 July 2009 this show appeared at the Buffalo Museum of Science in Buffalo, New York. As of May 2010, it is showing at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science in Denver, Colorado.[2]

Body Worlds 4 debuted 22 February 2008 at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester in England and was in the Cureghem Cellars in Brussels until March 2009.[3]

Body Worlds & The Mirror of Time (featuring human development and aging) debuted at The O2 in London in October 2008.[4]

Body Worlds Vital was inaugurated at the Universum museum of the National Autonomous University of Mexico in 2012.[5]

Körperwelten & Der Zyklus Des Lebens opened in Heidelberg in January 2009.[6]

Body Worlds exhibitions have received more than 37 million visitors,[7] making them the world's most popular touring attraction.[8]

The exhibit states that its purpose and mission is the education of laymen about the human body, leading to better health awareness.[9] All the human plastinates are from people who donated their bodies for plastination via a body donation program.

Plastinated human hand, Museum of Natural History, San Diego, 2009

Each Body Worlds exhibition [10] contains approximately 25 full-body plastinates with expanded or selective organs shown in positions that enhance the role of certain systems. More than 200 specimens of real human organs [11] and organ systems are displayed in glass cases, some showing various medical conditions.

Some of the specimens, such as the Tai Chi Man, demonstrate interventions, and include prosthetics such as artificial hip joints or heart valves.

Also featured is a liver with cirrhosis and the lungs of a smoker and non-smoker are placed side by side. A prenatal display features fetuses and embryos, some with congenital disorders.

To produce specimens for Body Worlds, von Hagens employs 340 people at five laboratories in three countries, China, Germany and Kyrgyzstan. Each laboratory is categorized by specialty, with the China laboratory focusing on animal specimens. One of the most difficult specimens to create was the giraffe that appears in Body Worlds & The Cycle of Life. The specimen took three years to complete – ten times longer than it takes to prepare a human body. Ten people are required to move the giraffe, because its final weight (like all specimens after plastination) is equal to the original animal.[citation needed]

Several Body Worlds exhibits (as well as Von Hagens himself) were featured in the 2006 film Casino Royale. Among the plastinates featured were the Poker Playing Trio (which plays a key role in one scene) and Rearing Horse and Rider.

Regulatory framework[edit]

Czech Republic[edit]

In July 2008, the Czech Senate passed a law to address illegal trading in human tissue and ban "advertising of donation of human cells and tissues for money or similar advantages".[12]

France[edit]

On Tuesday 21 April 2009, a French judge ruled concerning the Paris exhibition of "Our Body: The Universe Within", that exhibiting dead bodies for profit was a "violation of the respect owed to them". "Under the law, the proper place for corpses is in the cemetery", said Judge Louis-Marie Raingeard. Raingeard ordered the exhibition to close within 24 hours or face a fine of 20,000 euro (over 26,000 dollars) for each day it stayed open. The judge also ordered authorities to seize the 17 bodies on display and all of the organs on display from an unknown number of people for proper burial. Gunther Von Hagens issued a press statement denying any connection between the closed Chinese exhibition and his Body Worlds franchise.[13] Similar exhibitions had already been successfully staged in Lyon and Marseille.

United Kingdom[edit]

England and Wales[edit]

The UK Parliament created specific legislation for plastination exhibits in England and Wales under the Human Tissue Act 2004. This requires a licence to be granted by the Human Tissue Authority.[14] In March 2008, the Manchester Museum of Science and Industry was granted such a licence to hold Body Worlds 4 and a further licence was granted to the exhibition in the O2, London, in 2008.

The Human Tissue Act superseded the Anatomy Act 1832, which had been found by an independent commission (The Redfern Report)[15] to be inadequate on contemporary collection and use of human tissues, following the Alder Hey organs scandal.

Scotland[edit]

The Human Tissue (Scotland) Act 2006 – which amended the Anatomy Act 1984 – covers Scotland. Under the terms of this Act, licences for the handling of human remains, including display, must be granted directly by the Scottish Ministry.

"Subsection 9: If the Scottish Ministers think it desirable to do so in the interests of education, training or research, they may grant a license to a person to publicly display the body or, as the case may be, the part, and a person is authorized under this subsection to so display a body or a part of a body if, at the time of the display he is licensed under this subsection."

Various organizations gave evidence to the Scottish Executive during the consultation process, including the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, the Wellcome Trust, and the Museums Association.[16]

United States[edit]

Various legislation has been proposed and enacted in different American states. Most proposals concentrate on issues regarding the sale of human remains and the consent of the donors.

National legislation on consent and tissue donation issues is expressed in the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act (2006)[17] passed by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws which states that "an anatomical gift of a donor’s body or part may be made during the life of the donor for the purpose of transplantation, therapy, research, or education" and prohibits trafficking in donated human organs for profit.

In early 2008, former U.S. Republican Representative W. Todd Akin proposed an amendment to the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act of 1930[18] to "make it unlawful for a person to import plastinated human remains into the United States." The President of the American Association of Anatomists has expressed concern that the scope of the act is "too broad" and that "Preventing importation of all plastinated specimens could severely restrict their use for medical education.".[19] The bill of amendment was not enacted during the 2007-2008 Congressional session.[20]

California[edit]

California's proposed bill AB1519 (Ma), sponsored by Assemblywoman Fiona Ma,[21] tried to "require exhibitors to get a county permit; to do so, they would have to prove to county health officials that the people whose cadavers were on display — or their next of kin — had consented".[22]

Assembly Bill 1519 would have made California the first state to require such proof.[23] It was vetoed by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger on September 26, 2008.[24]

Florida[edit]

The state of Florida prohibits the sale or purchase of human remains and "Authorizes certain science centers located in this state to transport plastinated bodies into, within, or out of this state and exhibit such bodies for the purpose of public education without the consent of this state's anatomical board if the science center notifies the board of any such transportation or exhibition, as well as the location and duration of any exhibition, at least 30 days before such transportation or exhibition".[25]

Hawaii[edit]

In January 2009, Rep. Marcus Oshiro introduced two bills prompted by presentation of the BODIES Exhibition in that state.[26]

HB28 Relating to Dead Human Bodies would add to the prohibition against buying dead human bodies, the selling of dead human bodies and defines the term "dead human body" to include plastinated bodies and body parts. It would increase the fine for buying or selling a dead human body to up to $5,000.

HB29 Relating to Dead Human Bodies. Would prohibit the commercial display of dead human bodies without a permit from the Department of Health.[27]

New York[edit]

In June 2008, New York State Senate passed legislation regulating body exhibits. A bill that was sponsored by Senator Jim Alesi requires anyone showing an exhibit that uses real human bodies in New York museums to produce a permit detailing their origin.[28]

Pennsylvania[edit]

Representative Mike Fleck's proposed bill would require evidence of informed consent from the decedent or relatives of all humans whose remains are put on display.[29]

Washington[edit]

The state of Washington considered a bill that would "require written authorization to display human remains for a commercial purpose".[30]

Controversies[edit]

Body Worlds exhibitions have controversy and debate focused on various issues.

Religious objections[edit]

Religious groups, including representatives of the Catholic Church[31] and some Jewish rabbis[32] have objected to the display of human remains, stating that it is inconsistent with reverence towards the human body.

Sex plastinate[edit]

In 2003, while promoting a display in the Hamburg Museum of Erotica, Von Hagens announced his intention to create a sex plastinate.[33] In May 2009 he unveiled a plastinate of a couple having sex, intended for a Berlin exhibition.[34]

Lessening donor organ availability[edit]

In 2007 The Bishop of Manchester launched a campaign [35] to coincide with the opening of Body Worlds in that city, accusing the exhibitors of being "body snatchers" and "robbing the NHS", arguing that donation of bodies for plastination would deprive the National Health Service of organs for transplant. The site included a government petition calling for "a review of the law regarding the policies and practices of touring shows involving corpses".

Consent[edit]

Consent is a primary focus of discussion.[36] Paul Harris, director of North Carolina's State Board of Funeral Services, has stated, "Somebody at some level of government ought to be able to look at a death certificate, a statement from an embalmer, donation documents... That's a reasonable standard to apply."[37] Assemblywoman Fiona Ma (D-San Francisco) said, "These displays do have important educational benefits, but using bodies against a person's will is unacceptable".[23]

All whole body plastinates exhibited in Body Worlds come from donors who gave informed consent via a unique body donation program. Only adults over eighteen years of age can sign themselves up as a donor.[38] The pre-natal and infant specimens in the exhibitions are obtained from morphological collections previously held by universities and medical institutions.

Bodies from deceased persons who did not give consent – such as deceased hospital patients from Kyrgyzstan[39] and executed prisoners from China – have never been used in a Body Worlds exhibition. In January 2004, the German news magazine Der Spiegel reported that von Hagens had acquired corpses of executed prisoners in China; von Hagens countered that he did not know the origin of the bodies, and returned seven disputed cadavers to China.[40] In 2004, von Hagens obtained an injunction against Der Spiegel for making the claims.[41]

A commission set up by the California Science Center in Los Angeles in 2004 confirmed von Hagens' commitment to ethical practices, and published its Summary of Ethical Review.[42] The commission matched death certificates and body donation forms, and verified informed legal consent of the bodies in the exhibitions. However, to ensure the privacy and anonymity promised to body donors, Von Hagens' Institute for Plastination maintains a firewall between body donors' documentation and finished plastinated bodies. To date, more than 9,000 individuals have pledged to donate their bodies to the Institute for Plastination in Heidelberg, in Germany.

Gender portrayals[edit]

Body Worlds has been accused of perpetuating 'conservative' gender representations.[43] This article notes that male plastinates were presented in 'heroic' 'manly' roles, including The Rearing Horse and Rider, The Muscleman and his Skeleton, The Fencer, The Runner, and The Chess Player, while female plastinates were shown in terms of beauty, passivity or reproduction, such as the Reclining Pregnant Woman, a plastinate whose womb is exposed to show her fetus in "a pose taken straight from pornographic cliche"; and The Swimmer, "suspended, midair, in the graceful position of a swimmer. This figure also had significant quantities of hair on its head". Other female plastinates are The Figure Skater, The Yoga Lady , the Kneeling Lady , and The Archer.

Import law concerns[edit]

International trade experts have objected to the way in which bodies for commercial display are imported, because the way their categorization codes (as "art collections") do not require Centers for Disease Control stamps or death certificates, both of which are required for medical cadavers.[44] In most countries plastinated human specimens are classified under Customs Classification Code 97050000.48 "items in anatomical collections". This customs code encompasses "zoological, botanical, mineralogical or anatomical collections or items in such collections."[45]

Ethical concerns about cadaver displays[edit]

In an ethical analysis, Thomas Hibbs, professor of ethics and culture at Baylor University, a private Baptist-affiliated institution, compared cadaver displays to pornography, in that they reduce the subject to "the manipulation of body parts stripped of any larger human significance."[46]

In a 2006 lecture entitled "Plasti-Nation: How America was Won",[47] Lucia Tanassi, professor of medical ethics and anthropology at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, explored questions for ethicists regarding this new scientific frontier. Tanassi called it provocative that ethics committees have contributed to the popularization of the exhibits without setting forth any process of a line of inquiry, pointing to an ethics report from the California Science Center. As part of that review, bioethicist Hans Martin Sass was sent to Heidelberg to match donor consents with death certificates.[48]

Concerns have been expressed about the educational aspects, especially the inclusion of these displays for school field trips. St. Louis Diocese Archbishop Raymond Burke strongly suggested that Catholic Schools avoid scheduling field trips, stating that parents, and not children, should retain the freedom of deciding whether or not their children will view the exhibit.[49] Concerned with how "some kids process" these "graphic" images, Des McKay, school superintendent in Abbotsford, British Columbia (near Greater Vancouver), barred field trips to exhibits of plasticized human beings.[50] In an editorial to the Abbotsford News, Rev. Christoph Reiners questions what affect the exhibits will have on the values of children attending for school field trips.[51] Others—such as the Catholic Schools Office of Phoenix—acknowledge the educational content of Body Worlds.[52] Reporting on the exhibition at the O2 bubble in 2008/2009, Melanie Reid of The Times stated "(Body Worlds) should be compulsory viewing for every child of 10 or over" [53]

Press limitations[edit]

Von Hagens maintains copyright control over pictures of his exhibits. Visitors are not allowed to take pictures, and press photographers are required to sign agreements permitting only a single publication in a defined context, followed by a return of the copyright to Von Hagens. Because of a similar agreement applied to sound bites (O-Töne, in German) a German press organization suggested that the press refrain from reporting about the exhibition in Munich in 2003 .[54]

Selling plastinates[edit]

The Body Worlds website offers plastinated pieces for sale. There are a wide range of products from plastinated fruit jewelry to entire humans. Although some of the pieces require purchasers to be a qualified user—those intending to use the pieces for "research, educational, medical or therapeutic purposes"[55]—many pieces, including animal testicles and baby chicks, require no authorization. There are also extremely realistic plastinate impressions of human hearts and slices (including one slice of copulating humans) for sale to the general public.[56]

Competitors[edit]

The success of Body Worlds has given rise to several similar shows featuring plastinated cadavers, including BODIES... The Exhibition and Our Body: The Universe Within in the United States, Bodies Revealed in the United Kingdom, Body Exploration in the Republic of China, Mysteries of the Human Body in South Korea, Jintai Plastomic: Mysteries of the Human Body in Japan, Cuerpos Entrañables in Spain.

Some of these contain exhibits very similar to von Hagens' plastinates; Von Hagens has asserted copyright protection, and has sued Body Exploration and Bodies Revealed. The suits were based on a presumed copyright of certain positions of the bodies, but the counterparty asserts that the human body in its diversity cannot be copyrighted.

Such lawsuits[57] have not stopped the competition. While the Korean police in Seoul confiscated a few exhibits from Bodies Revealed,[58] the exhibition went on successfully.

Several of the competing exhibitions have been organized by the publicly traded US company Premier Exhibitions. They started their first Bodies Revealed exhibition in Blackpool, England which ran from August through October 2004. In 2005 and 2006 the company opened their Bodies Revealed and BODIES... The Exhibition exhibitions in Seoul, Tampa, Miami, New York City, and Seattle. Other exhibition sites in 2006 are Mexico City, Atlanta (GA), London, Great Britain and Las Vegas (Nevada).

Unlike Body Worlds, none of the competing exhibitions or their suppliers have a body donation programme. Dr. Roy Glover, a spokesperson for BODIES... The Exhibition said all their exhibits use unclaimed cadavers, deposited at the University of Dalian by Chinese authorities.[59] In May 2008, a settlement with the attorney general of New York obliged Premier Exhibitions to offer refunds to visitors when it could not prove consent for the use of the bodies in its exhibitions. New York Attorney General Andrew Cuomo commented: "Despite repeated denials, we now know that Premier itself cannot demonstrate the circumstances that led to the death of the individuals. Nor is Premier able to establish that these people consented to their remains being used in this manner."[60]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bodyworlds - Science World
  2. ^ Current Exhibitions, Denver Museum of Nature and Science. Retrieved 2010-05-19.
  3. ^ Cureghem Cellars Official BODY WORLDS site[dead link]
  4. ^ "Visit London BODY WORLDS at the O2 official site". Visitlondon.com. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  5. ^ "Body Worlds Vital". UNAM. Retrieved 1 February 2013. 
  6. ^ Körperwelten & Der Zyklus Des Lebens[dead link]
  7. ^ "Exhibitions". Bodyworlds.com. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  8. ^ "Fox news Dead Body Show Promotes Health, Exhibitor Says". Foxnews.com. 2008-10-24. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  9. ^ "Channel M No Smoking Day 12 March 2008". Channelm.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  10. ^ "Body Worlds Exhibitions". Bodyworlds.com. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  11. ^ "Plastinated Organs". Bodyworlds.com. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  12. ^ "Czech Senate toughens rules for handling of human tissue". Ceskenoviny.cz. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  13. ^ France Shuts Down Popular Bodies Show&page=1
  14. ^ HTA Licensing[dead link]
  15. ^ "UK, Main findings of the Redfern report". London: Guardian. 2001-01-31. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  16. ^ "Response by the Museums Association on the Human Tissue (Scotland) Bill". Museums Association. 2005-09-08. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  17. ^ "Anatomical Gift Act". Anatomical Gift Act. 2009-08-26. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  18. ^ "Amends the Tariff Act of 1930". Statesurge.com. 2008-04-16. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  19. ^ "American Association of Anatomists Newsletter Vol. 17, No. 3, September 2008" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  20. ^ "H.R. 5677: To amend the Tariff Act of 1930". Govtrack.us. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  21. ^ Ma. "California State bill AB1519 (Ma)". Leginfo.ca.gov. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  22. ^ Lifsher, Marc (2008-01-25). "Cadaver shows raise consent concerns - Los Angeles Times". Latimes.com. Archived from the original on 29 January 2008. 
  23. ^ a b "Legislation to Regulate Dead Body Exhibits Moves on to The Governor". Californiachronicle.com. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  24. ^ A.B. No. 1519 bill history, from the Government of California
  25. ^ "State of Florida Legislation". Leg.state.fl.us. 2007-07-01. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  26. ^ "Enact restrictions on cadavers shown in public exhibits". Starbulletin.com. 2009-01-29. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  27. ^ Posted by Georgette (2009-01-23). "Hawaii House Blog: Inspired by Bodies". Hawaiihouseblog.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  28. ^ "Rochester Homepage Cracking down on human body exhibits". Rochesterhomepage.net. 2008-06-19. Retrieved 2010-02-25. [dead link]
  29. ^ "Pennsylvania bodies exhibit regulatory bill". Legis.state.pa.us. 2008-03-10. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  30. ^ "State of Washington Bill Requiring written authorization to display human remains for a commercial purpose". Apps.leg.wa.gov. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  31. ^ Archdiocese of Vancouver - Body Worlds Exhibit[dead link]
  32. ^ DEBORAH SUSSMAN SUSSER Associate Editor (2007-02-09). "'Body Worlds' comes to Phoenix - Jewish News of Greater Phoenix". Jewishaz.com. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  33. ^ "Prof in Corpse Sex plan". News.sky.com. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  34. ^ Von Peter Kiefer Und Claudia Weingärtner. "Dr. Tod zeigt Leichensex in Berlin". Bild.de. Retrieved 2010-02-25.  (German)
  35. ^ Bishop of Manchester's campaign Site Corpseshow.info
  36. ^ "Looking Back and Looking Ahead". Science Direct. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  37. ^ Body exhibits titillate, but are they legal? — JSCMS[dead link]
  38. ^ "Body Donation Program". Bodyworlds.com. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  39. ^ "Kirghisien No Skeletons in the Closet — Facts, Background and Conclusions: A response to the alleged corpse scandals in Novosibirsk, Russia, and Bishkek, Kyrgizstan" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  40. ^ Angelique Chrisafis in Paris (2009-04-21). "French Judge Closes Body Worlds Style Exhibition of Corpses". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  41. ^ "Institute fur Plastination, Statement on Wrongful Allegations and False Reports by Media on the Origin of Bodies in BODY WORLDS Exhibitions, press release". Pressemeldinger.no. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  42. ^ "Body Worlds: An Anatomical Exhibition of Real Human Bodies Summary of Ethical Review 2004/2005" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  43. ^ Megan Stern: Shiny, happy people. 'Body Worlds' and the commodification of health., Radical Philosophy, 118, March/April 2003
  44. ^ Television broadcast: Channel 3SAT, 1/5/2000,"Die Leichenshow" ("The Cadaver Show")
  45. ^ Warenverzeichnis für die Außenhandelsstatistik (List of goods for statistics on exports), 1998 Edition of the Federal Bureau of Statistics.
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  47. ^ Plasti-Nation: How America Was Won. "Public Lectures: Plasti-Nation: How America Was Won Archives". Blog.lib.umn.edu. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  48. ^ "Origins of Exhibited Cadavers Questioned". NPR. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  49. ^ "St. Louis Ticket Broker | St Louis Cardinals & St Louis Blues Tickets | Mizzou Football Tickets from The Ticket Guys". Myfoxstl.com. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  50. ^ Vancouver, The (2006-10-01). "Abbotsford schools barred from taking ghoulish field trip". Canada.com. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  51. ^ dignity in Boston - Body worlds objectifies humanity[dead link]
  52. ^ Phelan, Mike (2007-02-15). "Phoenix Diocesan Newspaper". The Catholic Sun. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  53. ^ Melanie Reid, The Times: Not gory, not scary, just fascinating Retrieved 2010-05-19.
  54. ^ Keine O-Töne über Körperwelten Pressemitteilung, Deutscher Journalisten-Verband, 25 August 2003
  55. ^ "Donating Your Body For Plastination". Institute for Plastination. Retrieved 24 May 2014. 
  56. ^ "Menschliches Herz; natürlich - von Hagens Onlineshop". Plastination-products.com. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  57. ^ "Body Exhibits Attract Suits on Contracts, Copyrights". Law.com. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  58. ^ [1][dead link]
  59. ^ "NPR Origins of Exhibited Cadavers Questioned". Npr.org. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  60. ^ "Cuomo Settlement With 'Bodies... The Exhibition' Ends The Practice Of Using Human Remains Of Suspect Origins" (Press release). New York State Attorney General. 2008-05-29. Retrieved 2008-09-17. 
  • Gottfried Bogusch, Renate Graf, Thomas Schnalke. Auf Leben und Tod Beiträge zur Diskussion um die Ausstellung "Körperwelten", Schriften aus dem Berliner Medizinhistorischen Museum, 2003, VII, 136 S. 62 Abb., Softcover ISBN 978-3-7985-1424-9.
  • Lawrence Burns. Gunther Von Hagens' BODY WORLDS: Selling Beautiful Education, The American Journal of Bioethics 2007(4):12.
  • Liselotte Hermes da Fonseca. Wachsfigur - Mensch - Plastinat. Über die Mitteilbarkeit von Sehen, Nennen und Wissen, Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift für Literaturwissenschaft und Geistesgeschichte (1999), Heft 1.
  • Liselotte Hermes da Fonseca und Thomas Kliche (Hg.). Verführerische Leichen – verbotener Verfall, "Körperwelten" als gesellschaftliches Schlüsselereignis, Lengerich u.a.: Pabst Verlag 2006
  • Misia Sophia Doms. Die Ausstellung „Körperwelten" und der Umgang mit der endlichen Leiblichkeit, Volkskunde in Rheinland Pfalz 17/1 (2002). S. 62-108.
  • Gunther von Hagens. Body Worlds - The Anatomical Exhibition of Real Human Bodies. Amazon-UK.
  • Gunther von Hagens, No Skeletons in the Closet — Facts, Background and Conclusions. Institute for Plastination, 17 November 2003.
  • Franz Josef Wetz, Brigitte Tag (Ed.). Schöne Neue Körperwelten, Der Streit um die Ausstellung, Klett-Cotta Verlag, Stuttgart 2001. Sixteen authors discuss the various ethical and aesthetical aspects of Body Worlds, in German.
  • Angelina Whalley (Ed.). Pushing the Limits - Encounters with Gunther von Hagens, pp 45–36. 2005.
  • Linda Schulte-Sasse. Advise and Consent: On the Americanization of Body Worlds, Biosocieties, Volume 1, Issue 04, pp 369–384, Cambridge University Press (now published by Palgrave Macmillan), December 2006.

External links and sources[edit]