Boeing 737 MAX

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Boeing 737 MAX
Boeing 737 MAX computer-generated image.jpg
Artist's conception of the Boeing 737 MAX
Role Narrow-body jet airliner
National origin United States
Manufacturer Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Introduction 2017 (scheduled)
Status Under development
Unit cost
737-7: US$85.1 million[1]
737-8: US$103.7 million[1]
737-9: US$109.9 million[1]
Developed from Boeing 737 Next Generation

The Boeing 737 MAX is a family of aircraft being developed by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. The new family is based on the Boeing 737 Next Generation family, which it is to replace. It will be the fourth generation of the 737 family. The primary change is the use of the larger and more efficient CFM International LEAP-1B engines. The airframe is to receive some modifications as well. The 737 MAX is scheduled for first delivery in 2017, 50 years after the 737 first flew. Boeing has firm orders for the 737 MAX totaling 1,700 as of December 2013.[2]

Development[edit]

Since 2006, Boeing has discussed replacing the 737 with a "clean-sheet" design (internally named "Boeing Y1") that could follow the Boeing 787 Dreamliner.[3] A decision on this replacement was postponed, and delayed into 2011.[4]

In 2010, Airbus launched the Airbus A320neo with new engines to improve fuel burn and operating efficiency; it is planned to enter service in 2016. The decision was met with positive reaction by many airlines, which began making major orders for the improved aircraft.[5][6][7] Pressure from the airlines for more fuel efficient aircraft caused Boeing to pursue upgrading the 737 with new engines instead of the new Boeing Y1 design.[8] On August 30, 2011, the company's board of directors approved the 737 MAX project. Boeing predicted that the 737 MAX will provide a 16% lower fuel burn than the current Airbus A320, and 4% lower than the Airbus A320neo.[9] Boeing expects the 737 MAX to meet or exceed the range of the Airbus A320neo.[10] The first 737 MAX aircraft is scheduled to be delivered in 2017.[9] In December 2013, Boeing stated that a recent internal audit forecasts a 14% lower fuel burn than current 737NG series aircraft.[11]

The three variants of the new family are the 737 MAX 7, 737 MAX 8 and 737 MAX 9 which are based on the 737-700, −800 and −900ER, respectively,[12] the best-selling versions of the 737 Next Generation family.[2] Boeing has stated that the fuselage lengths and door configurations from the Boeing 737 Next Generation family will be retained on the 737 MAX variants. On July 23, 2013, Boeing announced it completed the firm configuration for the 737 MAX 8.[13]

Customers[edit]

Initially, the customers for the 737 MAX were not disclosed, except for American Airlines. On November 17, 2011, Boeing released the names of two other customers – Lion Air and Aviation Capital Group. At that time, Boeing reported 700 commitments from 9 customers for the 737 MAX.[14][15] Then on December 13, 2011, Southwest Airlines announced they would be the launch customer for the 737 MAX with a firm order of 150 aircraft and 150 options.[16] By December 2011, Boeing had 948 commitments and firm orders from 13 customers for the 737 MAX.[17][18] On March 10, 2014 Indian budget airline SpiceJet ordered 42 Boeing 737 MAX jets.[19][importance?]

Design[edit]

As production standard, the 737 MAX will feature the Boeing Sky Interior with overhead bins and LED lighting based on the Boeing 787's interior, as well as winglets.[20]

Improving fuel efficiency[edit]

Boeing's design improves fuel efficiency in a number of ways. The most significant improvements are to the wing, the interface of wing and engine, and use of winglets. The 737NG's wing creates transonic shock waves on the inboard wing at the interface with the CFM-56-7B engine. The 737 MAX wing's integration of the Leap engine's nacelle reduces this drag by 0.5%. In addition, the Leap engine is mounted higher and further forward of the wing's leading edge than the CFM-56-7B is on the 737NG's wing.

New wingtip device on the 737 MAX

A new type of wingtip device is to be introduced on the new 737 versions. Boeing designed the device to maximize lift specifically on airplanes with wingspans that fit Category C airport gates. The device is a direct descendant of the winglet designed for the McDonnell Douglas MD-12. Resembling a three-way hybrid between a blended winglet, wingtip fence, and raked wingtip, Boeing states that this new design should deliver an additional 1.5% improvement in fuel economy over the 10–12% improvement already expected for the 737 MAX.[21] The fuel savings could be even higher if a laminar flow surface treatment being applied meets expectations. Boeing told Aviation Week and Space Technology that the 737-8 MAX with the new winglet can have a 1.8% better fuel burn than a blended winglet-equipped aircraft on flights of 3,000 nautical miles with 162 passengers. The advantage increases with flight length, but a short flight of 500 nautical miles has a 1% lower fuel burn with the aircraft flying at Mach 0.79.[22]

Flight deck and flight controls[edit]

The manufacturer plans no major modifications in the flight deck as it wants to maintain commonality with the 737 Next Generation family. There will however be 4 new large format displays supplied by Rockwell Collins. These are 15.1-inch landscape LCD displays that will increase situational awareness and efficiency currently used on the 787 Dreamliner. Boeing also plans to add more fly-by-wire control systems to the 737 MAX family, although Albaugh said that changes would be "very minimal." Boeing has confirmed that fly-by-wire controls will be added to the spoilers.[23]

Engines[edit]

Boeing spent most of 2011 evaluating two fan diameters of the CFM International Leap-1B engine: 66.1 in (168 cm) or 68.1 in (173 cm), both of which would require few changes to the landing gear to maintain a 16.9 in (42.9 cm) ground clearance beneath the engines. Boeing Commercial Airplanes CEO Jim Albaugh stated the larger fan diameter would produce less fuel burn, but because it is bigger, it produces more drag and is heavier, and would need more extensive airframe changes.[24]

Both fan diameters are an increase from the 61.8 in (157 cm) CFM56-7B engine on the Boeing 737 Next Generation. The updated airliner is also expected to feature external nacelle chevrons for noise reduction, similar to those on the 787 and 747-8. While the smaller Leap-1B engine would have a lower bypass ratio and higher specific fuel consumption (SFC) than the baseline 78 in (198 cm) Leap-X and 80.7 in (205 cm) Pratt & Whitney PW1100G engine options for the A320neo, the smaller engine will weigh less and create less drag on the airframe. The 66.1 in (168 cm) engine integrated on the airframe would offer an SFC improvement of 10–12% over the current 737NG CFM56-7B engine. Industry sources report that assessments are underway to revise the tail cone, natural laminar flow nacelle and a hybrid laminar flow vertical stabilizer for additional fuel burn decrease and drag reduction.[25]

In November 2011, Boeing announced the selection of the 68.1 in (173 cm) fan diameter. Because of the larger fan diameter compared to the 737 Next Generation family, the nose landing gear will have to be lengthened by 6–8 inches (15–20 cm) to maintain the required ground clearance.[26][27] Firm configuration for the 737 MAX is currently scheduled for 2013.[28] On May 17, 2012, Boeing announced a further modification to the fan diameter with an increase to 69.4 inches (176 cm). The larger fan will be paired with a smaller engine core than previously identified as part of a series of minor design changes before the final configuration is set in mid-2013.[29]

There will also be a new digital regulator for the engine bleed air systems which should improve its reliability.[30]

Variants[edit]

  • 737 MAX 7 – Replacement for the 737-700 and 737-700ER
  • 737 MAX 8 – Replacement for the 737-800; longer fuselage than the -700/MAX 7
  • 737 MAX 9 – Replacement for the 737-900ER; longer fuselage than the -800/MAX 8

Specifications[edit]

Boeing 737 MAX design specifications
737 MAX 7 737 MAX 8 737 MAX 9
Seating capacity 126 (2-class, typical) 162 (2-class, typical) 180 (2-class, typical)
Overall length 110 ft 4 in  (33.6 m) 129 ft 6 in  (39.5 m) 138 ft 2 in  (42.1 m)
Wingspan 117 ft 9 in  (35.9 m)
Overall height 41 ft 0 in  (12.5 m)
Cruising speed Mach 0.79 (522 mph, 842 km/h)
Maximum take-off weight 159,400 lb  (72,303 kg) 181,200 lb  (82,191 kg) 194,700 lb  (88,314 kg)
Range fully loaded 3,800 nmi (7,038 km) 3,620 nmi (6,704 km) 3,595 nmi (6,658 km)
Engine (× 2) CFM International LEAP-1B
Fan tip diameter 69.4 in (1.76 m)

Sources: 737 MAX specifications[31][32]

Orders[edit]

Boeing 737 MAX firm orders
Date of
initial order
Country Customer MAX 7 MAX 8 MAX 9 Orders
Dec 13, 2011 United States Southwest Airlines[n 1][n 2] 30[33] 170[34] 0 200[2]
Jan 24, 2012 Norway Norwegian Air Shuttle 0 100 0 100[35]
Feb 22, 2012 Indonesia Lion Air[n 3] 0 0 201 201[36]
Jul 6, 2012 Australia Virgin Australia 0 23 0 23[37]
Jul 3, 2012 United States Air Lease Corporation (ALC) 0 69 15 84[2]
Jul 12, 2012 United States United Airlines 0 0 100 100[38]
Sep 20, 2012 Ireland Avolon 0 10 5 15[39]
Oct 1, 2012 N/A Unidentified Not Available NA NA 307[2]
Oct 1, 2012 Brazil Gol Transportes Aéreos 0 60 0 60[40]
Oct 3, 2012 United States/Ireland GECAS 0 95 0 95[41][42]
Oct 11, 2012 United States Alaska Airlines 0 20 17 37[43]
Nov 4, 2012 Kuwait ALAFCO 0 20 0 20[44]
Nov 5, 2012 Mexico Aeromexico 0 60 0 60[45]
Nov 14, 2012 Singapore SilkAir 0 31 0 31[46]
Jan 2, 2013 United States Aviation Capital Group 0 50 10 60[47]
Feb 1, 2013 United States American Airlines 0 100 0 100[2]
Feb 13, 2013 Iceland Icelandair 0 9 7 16[48]
May 14, 2013 Turkey Turkish Airlines 0 40 10 50[49]
Jun 19, 2013 United States CIT Group 0 30 0 30[50]
Jul 10, 2013 United Kingdom TUI Travel 0 40 20 60[2][51]
Aug 7, 2013 Czech Republic Travel Service Airlines 0 3 0 3[52]
Sep 26, 2013 Canada WestJet Airlines 25 40 0 65[53]
Dec 31, 2013 United Arab Emirates Flydubai 0 75 0 75[54]
Feb 11, 2014 Myanmar Myanma Airways 0 4 0 4[citation needed]
Feb 19, 2014 Turkey SunExpress 0 15 0 15[54]
Mar 10, 2014 India SpiceJet 0 42 0 42[54]
Mar 19, 2014 South Africa Comair 0 8 0 8
Apr 1, 2014 Canada Air Canada 0 33 28 61[55]
Totals 55 1,147 413 1,922[2]
Notes
  1. ^ Launch customer of 737 MAX 8 variant.
  2. ^ Launch customer of 737 MAX 7 variant.
  3. ^ Launch customer of 737 MAX 9 variant.

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Jet Prices". Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Retrieved November 27, 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "737 Model Orders and Deliveries data." Boeing, September 2013. Retrieved October 17, 2013.
  3. ^ "Boeing firms up 737 replacement studies by appointing team." Flight International, March 3, 2006. Retrieved April 13, 2008.
  4. ^ Hamilton, Scott. "737 decision may slip to 2011: Credit Suisse." Flightglobal, 2010. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
  5. ^ "Airbus launches A320neo". Australia Aviation. December 1, 2010. Retrieved September 5, 2011. 
  6. ^ Bryan, Victoria; Jones, Rhys (June 23, 2011). "Airbus wins record $18 billion order from AirAsia". Reuters. Retrieved September 5, 2011. 
  7. ^ Rothman, Andrea; Wang, Jasmine (June 24, 2011). "AirAsia Tops IndiGo Record Order as Asia Dominates Air Show". Bloomberg. Retrieved September 5, 2011. 
  8. ^ O'Keeffe, Niall. "Caution welcomed: Boeing's 737 Max". Flight International, September 12, 2011.
  9. ^ a b "Boeing Launches 737 New Engine Family with Commitments for 496 Airplanes from Five Airlines". Boeing. August 30, 2011. Retrieved September 5, 2011. 
  10. ^ Ostrower, Jon. "Boeing says 737 MAX to meet or exceed A320neo range". Flightglobal.com. Retrieved February 19, 2012. 
  11. ^ Norris, Guy. "MAXimizing performance". Aviation Week and Space Technology, December 2, 2013, pp. 36-37.
  12. ^ Ostrower, Jon (August 30, 2011). "Boeing designates 737 MAX family". Air Transport Intelligence. Retrieved September 5, 2011. 
  13. ^ "Boeing Completes 737 MAX 8 Firm Configuration". Boeing, July 23, 2013.
  14. ^ "Lion Air commits to up to 380 Boeing 737s". November 17, 2011. Retrieved November 17, 2011. 
  15. ^ "ACG Becomes third identified 737 MAX customer". November 17, 2011. Retrieved November 17, 2011. 
  16. ^ "Southwest Airlines' Proud History of the Boeing 737". December 13, 2011. Retrieved December 13, 2011. 
  17. ^ "737 MAX commitments top 948". Retrieved December 15, 2011. 
  18. ^ Bader, Tim (December 13, 2011). "Boeing 737 MAX Logs First Firm Order from Launch Customer Southwest Airlines". Boeing. Retrieved December 26, 2011. 
  19. ^ [1]
  20. ^ "Boeing Introduces 737 MAX With Launch of New Aircraft Family". Boeing. August 30, 2011. Retrieved September 5, 2011. 
  21. ^ Matt Molnar (May 2, 2012). "Boeing Says Radical New Winglets on 737 MAX Will Save More Fuel". NYCAviation. Retrieved May 3, 2012. 
  22. ^ Norris, Guy. "Working winglet" Aviation Week and Space Technology, December 2, 2013, pp. 36-37.
  23. ^ Rockwell Collins, Rockwell Collins wins Boeing 737 MAX contract for large-format flight displays
  24. ^ Ostrower, Jon (August 31, 2011). "Boeing narrows 737 MAX engine fan size options to two". Air Transport Intelligence. Retrieved September 5, 2011. 
  25. ^ Ostrower, Jon (August 30, 2011). "More details emerge on configuration of re-engined 737". Flight International. Retrieved September 5, 2011. 
  26. ^ "Boeing reveals 737 Max configuration details". Flight International, November 3, 2011.
  27. ^ "Boeing Cites 600 Commitments For 737 MAX". Reuters. Airwise News. Retrieved November 4, 2011. 
  28. ^ Ostrower, Jon (November 7, 2011). "Boeing completes initial review of 737 MAX configuration". Air Transport Intelligence. Retrieved November 7, 2011. 
  29. ^ Ostrower, Jon (May 17, 2012). "Boeing Tweaks Engine for New 737 MAX". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 17, 2012. 
  30. ^ Boeing Media Release
  31. ^ Boeing 737 Technical Information, Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
  32. ^ Flight, Boeing Defines the 737 MAX
  33. ^ "Boeing, Southwest Airlines Announce Launch of 737 MAX 7". May 15, 2013. Retrieved May 15, 2013. 
  34. ^ http://www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/southwest-converts-20-737s-to-max-392703/
  35. ^ Bader, Tim (January 25, 2012). "Boeing and Norwegian Announce order for 100 737 MAX; 22 Next-Generation 737s". Boeing. Retrieved January 25, 2012. 
  36. ^ "Boeing, Lion Air Finalize Historic Order". 
  37. ^ "Virgin Australia orders 23 737 MAX aircraft, delivery between 2019 and 2021". 
  38. ^ "Boeing, United Airlines Finalize Historic Order". 
  39. ^ "Boeing, Avolon Finalize Order for 737 MAXs and Next-Generation 737s". Boeing. 
  40. ^ "Gol orders 60 737 MAX aircraft"
  41. ^ "Boeing, GECAS Announce Order for 20 737 MAXs and 20 Next-Generation 737s". Boeing. Jan 20, 2014. 
  42. ^ "Boeing, GECAS Finalize Order for up to 100 737 MAXs and Next-Generation 737s". Boeing, Oct 3, 2012.
  43. ^ "Boeing, Alaska Airlines Announce Order for 737 MAXs and Next-Generation 737s". Boeing, Oct 11, 2012.
  44. ^ "Boeing, ALAFCO Firms up Order for 20 Boeing 737 MAXs". Boeing via mediaroom.com. November 4, 2012. Retrieved November 13, 2012. 
  45. ^ Blachly, Linda (November 4, 2012). "Aeromexico finalizes 737 MAX order". ATWOnline. Retrieved November 13, 2012. 
  46. ^ Staff. "SilkAir finalizes order for 54 737s". Global Travel Industry News. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  47. ^ "Boeing 737 MAX Gets Milestone Order From Aviation Capital Group". PRNewswire. Daily Markets. Retrieved January 2, 2013. 
  48. ^ "Icelandair Group and Boeing finalize orders for 737 MAX". GlobeNewswire. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  49. ^ "Boeing, Turkish Airlines Finalize Order for 50 737 MAXs, 20 Next-Generation 737s". Boeing via mediaroom.com. May 14, 2013. 
  50. ^ "Boeing, CIT Announce Order for 30 737 MAX 8s". Boeing. June 19, 2013. 
  51. ^ "Current Year Orders". The Boeing Company. August 6, 2013. Retrieved August 10, 2013. 
  52. ^ "Boeing, Travel Service Finalize Order for Three 737 MAXs". Boeing via mediaroom.com. August 7, 2013. Retrieved August 8, 2013. 
  53. ^ "Media Advisory - WestJet Boeing Max signing ceremony". WestJet Airlines (via westjet.com). September 28, 2013. Retrieved September 28, 2013. 
  54. ^ a b c "Boeing, flydubai Finalize Order for 75 737 MAXs". Boeing(via boeing.com). January 6, 2014. Retrieved January 6, 2014. 
  55. ^ http://boeing.mediaroom.com/2014-04-01-Boeing-Air-Canada-Finalize-Order-for-61-737-MAXs

External links[edit]