Boeing 777

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Boeing 777
United Airlines B777-200 N780UA.jpg
Boeing 777-200 of United Airlines, the 777's launch customer
Role Wide-body jet airliner
National origin United States
Manufacturer Boeing Commercial Airplanes
First flight June 12, 1994
Introduction June 7, 1995, with United Airlines
Status In service
Primary users Emirates
United Airlines
Air France
Singapore Airlines
Produced 1993–present
Number built 1,188 through March 2014[1]
Unit cost
777-200ER: US$261.5 million[2]
777-200LR: US$296.0 million[2]
777-300ER: US$320.2 million[2]
777F: US$300.5 million[2]
777-8X: US$349.8 million[3]
777-9X: US$377.2 million[3]

The Boeing 777 is a family of long-range wide-body twin-engine jet airliners developed and manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It is the world's largest twinjet and has a typical seating capacity for 314 to 451 passengers, with a range of 5,235 to 9,380 nautical miles (9,695 to 17,372 km). Commonly referred to as the "Triple Seven",[4][5] its distinguishing features include the largest-diameter turbofan engines of any aircraft, six wheels on each main landing gear, a circular fuselage cross-section, and a blade-shaped tail cone.[6] Developed in consultation with eight major airlines, the 777 was designed to replace older wide-body airliners and bridge the capacity difference between Boeing's 767 and 747. As Boeing's first fly-by-wire airliner, it has computer-mediated controls; it is also the first entirely computer-designed commercial aircraft.

The 777 is produced in two fuselage lengths as of 2014. The original 777-200 variant entered commercial service in 1995, followed by the extended-range 777-200ER in 1997. The stretched 777-300, which is 33.3 ft (10.1 m) longer, entered service in 1998. The longer-range 777-300ER and 777-200LR variants entered service in 2004 and 2006 respectively, while a freighter version, the 777F, debuted in February 2009. Both longer-range versions and the freighter feature General Electric GE90 engines and extended raked wingtips. The earlier 777-200, -200ER and -300 versions are equipped with GE90, Pratt & Whitney PW4000 or Rolls-Royce Trent 800 engines. The 777-200LR is the world's longest-range airliner and can fly more than halfway around the globe; it holds the record for the longest distance flown non-stop by a commercial aircraft.[7][8]

United Airlines first placed the 777 into commercial airline service on June 7, 1995. As of February 2014, 60 customers had placed orders for 1,548 aircraft of all variants, with 1,178 delivered;[1] the most common and successful variant is the 777-300ER with 464 delivered and over 700 orders.[1] Emirates operates the largest 777 fleet, with 127 passenger and freighter aircraft as of June 2013.[9] The 777 has been involved in four hull-loss accidents as of March 2014; the Asiana Airlines Flight 214 accident in July 2013 was its first fatal crash in 18 years of commercial service.

The 777 ranks as one of Boeing's best-selling models. Airlines have acquired the type as a comparatively fuel-efficient alternative to other wide-body jets and have increasingly deployed the aircraft on long-haul transoceanic routes. Direct market competitors include the Airbus A330-300, upcoming Airbus A350 XWB, and the out-of-production A340 and McDonnell Douglas MD-11. The 787 Dreamliner, which entered service in 2011, shares design features with the 777. In November 2013, Boeing announced the development of upgraded 777-8X and 777-9X models, collectively named 777X, featuring composite wings and GE9X engines and further technologies developed for the 787.

Development[edit]

Background[edit]

In the early 1970s, the Boeing 747, McDonnell Douglas DC-10, and the Lockheed L-1011 TriStar became the first generation of wide-body passenger airliners to enter service.[10] In 1978, Boeing unveiled three new models: the twin-engine Boeing 757 to replace its venerable 727, the twin-engine 767 to challenge the Airbus A300, and a trijet 777 concept to compete with the DC-10 and L-1011.[11][12][13] The mid-size 757 and 767 launched to market success, due in part to 1980s extended-range twin-engine operational performance standards (ETOPS) regulations governing transoceanic twinjet operations.[14] These regulations allowed twin-engine airliners to make ocean crossings at up to three hours' distance from emergency diversionary airports.[15] Under ETOPS rules, airlines began operating the 767 on long-distance overseas routes that did not require the capacity of larger airliners.[14] The trijet 777 was later dropped, following marketing studies that favored the 757 and 767 variants.[16] Boeing was left with a size and range gap in its product line between the 767-300ER and the 747-400.[17]

By the late 1980s, DC-10 and L-1011 models were approaching retirement age, prompting manufacturers to develop replacement designs.[18] McDonnell Douglas was working on the MD-11, a stretched and upgraded successor of the DC-10,[18] while Airbus was developing their A330 and A340.[18] In 1986, Boeing unveiled proposals for an enlarged 767, tentatively named 767-X,[19] to target the replacement market for first-generation wide-bodies like the DC-10,[15] and to complement existing 767 and 747 models in the company lineup.[20] The initial proposal featured a longer fuselage and larger wings than the existing 767,[19] along with winglets.[21] Later plans expanded the fuselage cross-section but retained the existing 767 flight deck, nose, and other elements.[19]

Airline customers were unimpressed with the 767-X proposals, and instead wanted an even wider fuselage cross-section, fully flexible interior configurations, short- to intercontinental-range capability, and an operating cost lower than any 767 stretch.[15] Airline planners' requirements for larger aircraft had become increasingly specific, adding to the heightened competition among aircraft manufacturers.[18] By 1988, Boeing realized that the only answer was a new design, which became the 777 twinjet.[22] The company opted for the twin-engine configuration given past design successes, projected engine developments, and reduced-cost benefits.[23] On December 8, 1989, Boeing began issuing offers to airlines for the 777.[19]

Design effort[edit]

The design phase for Boeing's new twinjet was different from the company's previous commercial jetliners. For the first time, eight major airlines – All Nippon Airways, American Airlines, British Airways, Cathay Pacific Airways, Delta Air Lines, Japan Airlines, Qantas, and United Airlines – had a role in the development of the airliner.[24] This was a departure from industry practice, where manufacturers typically designed aircraft with minimal customer input.[12] The eight airlines that contributed to the design process became known within Boeing as the "Working Together" group.[24] At the first group meeting in January 1990, a 23-page questionnaire was distributed to the airlines, asking each what it wanted in the new design.[15] By March 1990, Boeing and the airlines had decided upon a basic design configuration: a cabin cross-section close to the 747's, capacity up to 325 passengers, flexible interiors, a glass cockpit, fly-by-wire controls, and 10 percent better seat-mile costs than the A330 and MD-11.[15] Boeing also selected its Everett factory in Washington, home of 747 production, as the final assembly site for the 777.[25]

On October 14, 1990, United Airlines became the 777's launch customer when it placed an order for 34 Pratt & Whitney-powered aircraft valued at US$11 billion with options on an additional 34.[26][27] The development phase coincided with United's replacement program for its aging DC-10s.[28] United required that the new aircraft be capable of flying three different routes: Chicago to Hawaii, Chicago to Europe, and non-stop from Denver, a hot and high airport, to Hawaii.[28] ETOPS certification was also a priority for United,[29] given the overwater portion of United's Hawaii routes.[26] In January 1993, a team of United developers joined other airline teams and Boeing designers at the Everett factory.[30] The 240 design teams, with up to 40 members each, addressed almost 1,500 design issues with individual aircraft components.[31] The fuselage diameter was increased to suit Cathay Pacific, the baseline model grew longer for All Nippon Airways, and British Airways' input led to added built-in testing and interior flexibility,[15] along with higher operating weight options for the basic aircraft.[32]

The 777 was the first commercial aircraft designed entirely on computer.[20][26][33] Each design drawing was created on a three-dimensional CAD software system known as CATIA, sourced from Dassault Systemes and IBM.[34] This lets engineers assemble a virtual aircraft, in simulation, to check for interference and verify that the thousands of parts fit properly—thus reducing costly rework.[35] Boeing developed their own high-performance visualization system, FlyThru, later called IVT (Integrated Visualization Tool) to support large-scale collaborative engineering design reviews, production illustrations, and other uses of the CAD data outside of engineering.[36] Boeing was initially not convinced of CATIA's abilities and built a physical mock-up of the nose section to verify its results. The test was so successful that additional mock-ups were canceled.[37]

Production and testing[edit]

The production process included substantial international content, with an unprecedented level of global subcontracting for a Boeing jetliner,[38] exceeded only by the later 787.[39] International contributors included Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Kawasaki Heavy Industries (fuselage panels),[40] Fuji Heavy Industries, Ltd. (center wing section),[40] Hawker de Havilland (elevators), and Aerospace Technologies of Australia (rudder).[41] An agreement between Boeing and the Japan Aircraft Development Corporation, representing Japanese aerospace contractors, made the latter risk-sharing partners for 20 percent of the entire development program.[38] The initial 777-200 model was launched with propulsion options from three manufacturers, General Electric, Pratt & Whitney, and Rolls-Royce,[42] giving the airlines their choice of engines from competing firms.[43] Each manufacturer had agreed to develop an engine in the 77,000 lbf (340 kN) and higher thrust class (a measure of jet engine output) to power the world's largest twinjet.[42]

Aircraft factory. Rectangular building with six doors, one of which is open to reveal an emerging airliner. The background is a forest; small vehicles and taxiways surround the factory.
An Air India Boeing 777-200LR is rolled out of the Boeing Everett Factory

To accommodate production of its new airliner, Boeing doubled the size of the Everett factory at the cost of nearly US$1.5 billion[26] to provide space for two new assembly lines.[28] New production methodologies were developed, including a turn machine that could rotate fuselage subassemblies 180 degrees, giving workers access to upper body sections.[34] Major assembly of the first aircraft began on January 4, 1993.[44] By the start of production, the program had amassed 118 firm orders, with options for 95 more from 10 airlines.[45] Total investment in the program was estimated at over US$4 billion from Boeing, with an additional US$2 billion from suppliers.[46]

On April 9, 1994, the first 777, line number WA001, was rolled out in a series of 15 ceremonies held during the day to accommodate the 100,000 invited guests.[47] The first flight took place on June 12, 1994,[48] under the command of chief test pilot John E. Cashman.[49] This marked the start of an 11-month flight test program that was more extensive than testing for any previous Boeing model.[50] Nine aircraft fitted with General Electric, Pratt & Whitney, and Rolls-Royce engines[48] were flight tested at locations ranging from the desert airfield at Edwards Air Force Base in California[51] to frigid conditions in Alaska, mainly Fairbanks International Airport.[52] To satisfy ETOPS requirements, eight 180-minute single-engine test flights were performed.[53] The first aircraft built was used by Boeing's nondestructive testing campaign from 1994 to 1996, and provided data for the -200ER and -300 programs.[54] At the successful conclusion of flight testing, the 777 was awarded simultaneous airworthiness certification by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and European Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) on April 19, 1995.[48]

Entry into service[edit]

Airliner takeoff. The jet's nose is angled upwards as it lifts above the runway, with landing gear still deployed.
The first Boeing 777-200 in commercial service, United Airlines' N777UA

Boeing delivered the first 777 to United Airlines on May 15, 1995.[55][56] The FAA awarded 180-minute ETOPS clearance ("ETOPS-180") for the Pratt & Whitney PW4084-engined aircraft on May 30, 1995, making it the first airliner to carry an ETOPS-180 rating at its entry into service.[57] Longer ETOPS clearance of 207 minutes was approved the following October.[58] The first commercial flight took place on June 7, 1995, from London Heathrow Airport to Dulles International Airport near Washington, D.C.[59]

On November 12, 1995, Boeing delivered the first model with General Electric GE90-77B engines to British Airways,[60] which placed the aircraft into service five days later.[61] Initial service was affected by gearbox bearing wear issues, which caused the airline to temporarily withdraw its 777 fleet from transatlantic service in 1997.[61] British Airways' aircraft returned to full service later that year,[51] and General Electric subsequently announced engine upgrades.[51]

The first Rolls-Royce Trent 877-powered aircraft was delivered to Thai Airways International on March 31, 1996,[60] completing the introduction of the three powerplants initially developed for the airliner.[62] Each engine-aircraft combination had secured ETOPS-180 certification from the point of entry into service.[63] By June 1997, orders for the 777 numbered 323 from 25 airlines, including satisfied launch customers that had ordered additional aircraft.[48] Operations performance data established the consistent capabilities of the twinjet over long-haul transoceanic routes, leading to additional sales.[64] By 1998, the 777 fleet had approached 900,000 flight hours.[65] Boeing states that the 777 fleet has a dispatch reliability (rate of departure from the gate with no more than 15 minutes delay due to technical issues) above 99 percent.[66][67][68][69]

Initial derivatives[edit]

Airliner takeoff. Side view of jet ascending in the sky, with landing gear in partially retracted position.
A Malaysia Airlines 777-200ER

After the original model, Boeing developed an increased gross weight variant of the 777-200 with greater range and payload capability.[70] Initially named 777-200IGW,[71] the 777-200ER first flew on October 7, 1996,[72] received FAA and JAA certification on January 17, 1997,[73] and entered service with British Airways on February 9, 1997.[73] Offering greater long-haul performance, the variant became the most widely ordered version of the aircraft through the early 2000s.[70] On April 2, 1997, a Malaysia Airlines -200ER named "Super Ranger" broke the great circle "distance without landing" record for an airliner by flying eastward from Boeing Field, Seattle to Kuala Lumpur, a distance of 10,823 nautical miles (20,044 km), in 21 hours and 23 minutes.[65]

Following the introduction of the -200ER, Boeing turned its attention to a stretched version of the airliner. On October 16, 1997, the 777-300 made its first flight.[72] At 242.4 ft (73.9 m) in length, the -300 became the longest airliner yet produced (until the A340-600), and had a 20 percent greater overall capacity than the standard length model.[74] The -300 was awarded type certification simultaneously from the FAA and JAA on May 4, 1998,[75] and entered service with launch customer Cathay Pacific on May 27, 1998.[72][76]

From the start of the development program, Boeing had considered building ultra-long-range variants.[77] Early plans centered on a 777-100X proposal,[78] which would have been a shortened version of the -200 with reduced weight and increased range,[78] similar to the 747SP.[79] However, the -100X would have carried fewer passengers than the -200 while having similar operating costs, leading to a higher cost per seat.[78][79] By the late 1990s, design plans shifted to longer-range versions of existing models.[78] A more powerful engine in the 100,000 lbf (440 kN) and higher thrust class was required, leading to active discussions between Boeing and the engine manufacturers. General Electric offered to develop the GE90-115B engine,[43] while Rolls-Royce proposed developing the Trent 8104 engine.[80] In 1999, Boeing announced an agreement with General Electric, beating out rival proposals.[43] As part of the deal with General Electric, Boeing agreed they would only offer GE90 engines on new 777 versions.[43]

Longer-range models[edit]

 Aircraft engine, forward-facing view with a Boeing engineer in front to demonstrate the engine's size. The engine's large circular intake contains a center hub with a swirl mark, surrounded by multiple curved fan blades.
A GE90 engine mounted on a 777-300ER with a Boeing engineer to show the engine's size. A single GE90 engine has powered GE's test 747 during flight.[81]

On February 29, 2000, Boeing launched its next-generation twinjet program,[82] initially called 777-X,[77] and began issuing offers to airlines.[70] Development of the long-range models was slowed by the airline industry downturn, which lasted through the early 2000s.[72] The first model to emerge from the program, the 777-300ER, was launched with an order for ten aircraft from Air France,[83] along with additional commitments.[70] On February 24, 2003, the -300ER made its first flight, and the FAA and EASA (European Aviation Safety Agency, successor to the JAA) certified the model on March 16, 2004.[84] The first delivery to Air France took place on April 29, 2004.[72] The -300ER, which combined the -300's added capacity with the -200ER's range, became the top-selling 777 variant in the late 2000s,[85] gaining orders as airlines replaced comparable four-engine models with twinjets because of their lower operating costs.[86]

The second long-range model, the 777-200LR, rolled out on February 15, 2005, and completed its first flight on March 8, 2005.[72] The -200LR was certified by both the FAA and EASA on February 2, 2006,[87] and the first delivery to Pakistan International Airlines occurred on February 26, 2006.[88] On November 10, 2005, the first -200LR set a record for the longest non-stop flight of a passenger airliner by flying 11,664 nautical miles (21,602 km) eastward from Hong Kong to London.[8] Lasting 22 hours and 42 minutes, the flight surpassed the -200LR's standard design range and was logged in the Guinness World Records.[7][89]

The production freighter model, the 777F, rolled out on May 23, 2008.[90] The maiden flight of the 777F, which used the structural design and engine specifications of the -200LR[91] along with fuel tanks derived from the -300ER,[92] occurred on July 14, 2008.[93] FAA and EASA type certification for the freighter was received on February 6, 2009,[94] and the first delivery to launch customer Air France took place on February 19, 2009.[95][96]

Initially second to the 747 as Boeing's most profitable jetliner,[97] the 777 became the company's most lucrative model in the 2000s.[98] Program sales accounted for an estimated US$400 million of Boeing's pretax earnings in 2000, US$50 million more than the 747.[97] By 2004, the airliner comprised the bulk of wide-body revenues for the Boeing Commercial Airplanes division.[99] In 2007, orders for second-generation 777 models approached 350 aircraft,[100] and in November of that year, Boeing announced that all production slots were sold out to 2012.[86] The program backlog of 356 orders was valued at US$95 billion at list prices in 2008.[101]

Production updates[edit]

Aircraft takeoff. Quarter view of aircraft ascending in the sky, with landing gear still deployed.
An All Nippon Airways 777-300ER taking off

In 2010, Boeing announced plans to increase 777 production from 5 aircraft per month to 7 aircraft per month by mid-2011, and 8.3 per month by early 2013.[102] Complete assembly of each 777-300ER requires 49 days.[103] In November 2011, Boeing began assembly of the 1,000th 777, a -300ER model for Emirates;[103] the aircraft was rolled out in March 2012.[104] In late 2011, the FAA assigned a common type rating to the 787 and 777, allowing pilots qualified on either aircraft to operate both models, due to related design features.[105] The smaller 787 was the first stage of a replacement aircraft initiative called the Boeing Yellowstone Project.[106] According to industry reports, the 777 could eventually be replaced by a new product family, the Boeing Yellowstone 3, which would draw upon technologies from the 787.[100]

By the late 2000s, the 777 was facing the possibility of increased competition from Airbus' planned A350 XWB and internally from proposed variants of the 787,[100] both airliners that promise fuel efficiency improvements. As a consequence, the 777-300ER received an engine and aerodynamics improvement package for reduced drag and weight.[107] In 2010, the variant further received a 5,000 lb (2,300 kg) maximum zero-fuel weight increase, equivalent to a higher payload of 20–25 passengers; its GE90-115B1 engines received a 1–2.5 percent thrust enhancement for increased takeoff weights at higher-altitude airports.[107] More design changes were targeted for late 2012, including possible extension of the wingspan,[107] along with other major changes, including a composite wing, new powerplant, and different fuselage lengths.[107][108][109] Emirates was reported as working closely with Boeing on the project, with the possibility of being the launch customer for new versions of the 777.[110]

777X program[edit]

View of airport tarmac with terminal building and multiple airliners parked adjacent to it.
A row of Emirates 777s at Dubai International Airport. The carrier has been involved in discussions on the 777X.

In September 2011, Boeing released more details on proposed new 777 versions, collectively referred to as 777X and tentatively designated 777-8X and 777-9X.[111] The 777-9X is to feature extended horizontal stabilizers compared to the 777-300ER and a fuselage stretch of 7.0 ft (2.13 m) to a total length of 250 ft 11 in (76.5 m) to accommodate 407 passengers.[112][113] The 777-9X's planned length exceeds the 250 ft 2 in (76.3 m) length of the 747-8, currently the world's longest airliner. Wingspan was expected to increase from the current 212 ft 7 in (64.8 m) to 234 ft (71.3 m), and incorporate the use of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer in its construction.[92][111] In addition, gross weight was tentatively slated to decrease slightly from the current 775,000 lb (352,000 kg) to approximately 759,000 lb (344,000 kg) for the -9X model.[112] Boeing was also studying an ultra long-range replacement for the 777-200LR, conceptually dubbed the 777-8LX, which would share the –9X's fuel capacity and gross weight. Its range will be 9,480 nmi (10,910 mi; 17,560 km) compared to 9,395 nmi (10,812 mi; 17,400 km) for the -200LR,[112] and its fuselage length will be 228.17 ft (69.5 m).[111] Preliminary estimates placed entry into service for the first 777X variants at around 2019.[114][115]

In February 2012, General Electric disclosed studies on a slightly smaller engine, dubbed the GE9X, to power the 777X. It was to feature the same fan diameter from the GE90-115B (128 in or 325 cm) and a thrust decrease to new ratings of 99,500 lbf (443 kN) per engine for the –9X and –8LX.[116][117][118] Rolls-Royce and Pratt & Whitney also proposed powerplants for the 777X, including the RB3025 concept, based on the Trent 1000 and Trent XWB engines, and an adaptation of PW1000G engine architecture to produce up to 100,000 lbf (440 kN) of thrust.[111] However, in March 2013 the General Electric GE9X was selected as the exclusive engine to power the 777X.[119] GE subsequently recently updated the GE9X specifications to reflect growing concerns that the 777X would be underpowered. Design changes included a slight increase of thrust to 102,000 lbf (450 kN) (and then again to 105,000 lbf (470 kN)[120]) and a new fan diameter of 132 in (335 cm), giving the new engine the largest fan GE has ever produced.[121][122][123]

In August 2012, the Seattle Times reported that Boeing had slowed 777X development, but still planned for it to begin service by about 2019.[124] Boeing's board of directors gave formal permission for its Commercial Airplanes division to start offering the 777X to customers in May 2013.[125] On September 19, 2013, Lufthansa's supervisory board gave approval to order 34 Boeing 777-9X aircraft to replace their 747-400s, in advance of the program's official launch.[126][127][128] In October 2013, Boeing announced that its U.S. facilities in Charleston, Huntsville, Long Beach, Philadelphia, and St. Louis as well as Russian facilities in Moscow would support the 777X design effort.[129]

Boeing officially launched the 777X at the 2013 Dubai Airshow in November 2013, announcing a total of 259 orders and commitments worth more than US$95 billion.[130][131] According to Boeing, this is the largest product launch by dollar value in the history of commercial aviation.[132] The 777X program includes two models: the 777-9X, which is stretched beyond the length of the 777-300ER, and the 777-8X, which is sized close to the 777-300ER but with ultra-long range capability.[133] In addition to the 34 aircraft commitment from Lufthansa in September 2013, Boeing received orders and commitments at the Dubai Airshow for 150 aircraft from Emirates, 25 aircraft from Etihad Airways and 50 aircraft from Qatar Airways.[130][133][134] In December 2013 Cathay Pacific ordered 21 777-9X airliners with deliveries in 2021-2024.[135]

Because deliveries of Boeing's 777X are not expected to begin until 2020, Boeing faces the challenge of maintaining an efficient production line for its existing 777 models. With 380 777s on order as of the end of 2013, and no orders booked at the most recent air show, in Singapore in February 2014, Boeing is trying to support a production rate of 100 aircraft per year on that line. To stimulate additional orders and bridge the gap until 777X models roll off the assembly line, Boeing vice president of sales John Wojick has proposed pairing 777X sales with sales of current generation models, and providing opportunities for passenger airlines to sell their used 777 aircraft to cargo airlines, with either Boeing or a third party contractor performing the conversions. The passenger airline could then purchase another 777 from Boeing.[136]

Design[edit]

Aircraft belly section. Close view of engines, extended landing gear and angled control flaps.
Engines, extended slats, flaps, and landing gear of an American Airlines 777-200ER

Boeing introduced a number of advanced technologies with the 777 design, including fully digital fly-by-wire controls,[137] fully software-configurable avionics, Honeywell LCD glass cockpit flight displays,[138] and the first use of a fiber optic avionics network on a commercial airliner.[139] Boeing made use of work done on the cancelled Boeing 7J7 regional jet,[140] which utilized similar versions of the chosen technologies.[140] In 2003, Boeing began offering the option of cockpit electronic flight bag computer displays.[141] In 2013, Boeing announced that the upgraded 777X models would incorporate airframe, systems, and interior technologies from the 787.[142]

Fly-by-wire[edit]

In designing the 777 as its first fly-by-wire commercial aircraft, Boeing decided to retain conventional control yokes rather than change to sidestick controllers as used in many fly-by-wire fighter aircraft and in many Airbus airliners.[137] Along with traditional yoke and rudder controls, the cockpit features a simplified layout that retains similarities to previous Boeing models.[143] The fly-by-wire system also incorporates flight envelope protection, a system that guides pilot inputs within a computer-calculated framework of operating parameters, acting to prevent stalls and overly stressful maneuvers.[137] This system can be overridden by the pilot in command if deemed necessary.[137] The fly-by-wire system is supplemented by mechanical backup.[144]

Airframe and systems[edit]

Aircraft landing gear. Six wheel gear on the ground, with attachment assembly and gear door leading up to the aircraft belly.
The six-wheel undercarriage of a Boeing 777-300

The wings on the 777 feature a supercritical airfoil design that is swept back at 31.6 degrees and optimized for cruising at Mach 0.83 (revised upward after flight tests to Mach 0.84).[145] The wings are designed with increased thickness and a longer span than previous airliners, resulting in greater payload and range, improved takeoff performance, and a higher cruising altitude.[48] The wings also serve as fuel storage, with longer-range models able to carry up to 47,890 US gallons (181,300 L) of fuel.[92] This capacity allows the 777-200LR to operate ultra-long-distance, trans-polar routes such as Toronto to Hong Kong.[146] In 2013, a new wing made of composite materials was introduced for the upgraded 777X, with a wider span and design features based on the 787's wings.[142]

Large folding wingtips, 21 feet (6.40 m) long, were offered when the 777 was first launched, to appeal to airlines who might use gates made to accommodate smaller aircraft, but no airline purchased this option.[147] Folding wingtips reemerged as a design feature at the announcement of the upgraded 777X in 2013. Smaller folding wingtips of 11 feet (3.35 m) in length will allow 777X models to use the same airport gates and taxiways as earlier 777s.[142] These smaller folding wingtips are less complex than those proposed for earlier 777s, and internally only affect the wiring needed for wingtip lights.[142]

The airframe incorporates the use of composite materials, which comprise nine percent of its original structural weight (all models outside the 777-8X and 777-9X).[148] Elements made from composite material include the cabin floor and rudder. The main fuselage cross-section is circular[149] and tapers rearward into a blade-shaped tail cone with a port-facing auxiliary power unit.[6] The aircraft also features the largest landing gear and the biggest tires ever used in a commercial jetliner.[150] The six-wheel bogies are designed to spread the load of the aircraft over a wide area without requiring an additional centerline gear. This helps reduce weight and simplifies the aircraft's braking and hydraulic systems. Each tire of a 777-300ER six-wheel main landing gear can carry a load of 59,490 lb (26,980 kg), which is heavier than other wide-bodies such as the 747-400.[151] The aircraft has triple redundant hydraulic systems with only one system required for landing.[152] A ram air turbine –a small retractable propeller which can provide emergency power– is also fitted in the wing root fairing.[153]

Interior[edit]

Airliner cabin. Rows of seats arranged between two aisles. Each seatback has a monitor; light shines from the sidewalls and overhead bins.
Economy class cabin of Etihad Airways 777-300ER in a 3-3-3 layout

The original 777 interior, also known as the Boeing Signature Interior, features curved panels, larger overhead bins, and indirect lighting.[61] Seating options range from six abreast in first class up to 10 across in economy.[154] The 777's windows were the largest of any current commercial airliner until the 787, and measure 15-inch (380 mm) by 10-inch (250 mm) in size (all models outside the 777-8X and 777-9X).[155] The cabin also features "Flexibility Zones", which entails deliberate placement of water, electrical, pneumatic, and other connection points throughout the interior space, allowing airlines to move seats, galleys, and lavatories quickly and more easily when adjusting cabin arrangements.[154] Several aircraft have also been fitted with VIP interiors for non-airline use.[156] Boeing engineers designed a new hydraulically damped toilet seat cover hinge that closes slowly.[157]

In 2003, Boeing introduced overhead crew rests as an option on the 777.[158] Located above the main cabin and connected via staircases, the forward flight crew rest contains two seats and two bunks, while the aft cabin crew rest features multiple bunks.[158] The Signature Interior has since been adapted for other Boeing wide-body and narrow-body aircraft, including 737NG, 747-400, 757-300, and newer 767 models, including all 767-400ER models.[159][160] The 747-8 and 767-400ER have also adopted the larger, more rounded windows of the original 777.

In 2011, Flight International reported that Boeing is considering replacing the Signature Interior on the 777 with a new interior similar to that on the 787, as part of a move towards a "common cabin experience" across all Boeing platforms.[161] With the launch of the 777X in 2013, Boeing confirmed that the aircraft would be receiving a new interior featuring 787 cabin elements and larger windows.[142]

Variants[edit]

Aircraft in flight, underside view. The jet's two wings have one engine each. The rounded nose leads to a straight body section, which tapers at the tail section with its two rear fins.
Planform view of an Air France Boeing 777-200ER in flight

Boeing uses two characteristics, fuselage length and range, to define their 777 models.[17] Fuselage length affects the number of passengers and amount of cargo that can be carried; the 777-200 and derivatives are the base size, and the aircraft was stretched into the 777-300 in 1998. In terms of range, the aircraft has been categorized into three segments based on design criteria; these were initially defined as the following:

  • A-market: up to 4,200 nautical miles (7,800 km)[162]
  • B-market: 6,600 nautical miles (12,200 km)[162]
  • C-market: 7,800 nautical miles (14,400 km)[163]

When referring to different variants, Boeing and airlines often collapse the model number (777) and the variant designator (-200 or -300) into a truncated form (e.g., "772" or "773"[164]). The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aircraft type designator system adds a preceding manufacturer letter (e.g., "B772" or "B773").[165] Subsequent to the capacity number, designations may or may not append the range identifier (e.g., 777-300ER as "773ER",[166] "773B",[167] "77W",[168] or "B77W"[165]). These notations may be found in aircraft manuals or airline timetables.

777-200[edit]

Aircraft in flight, surrounded by white clouds. Side view of twin-engine jet in the sky.
A Boeing 777-200 in Boeing's original livery. Note the tail logos of the aircraft's firm customers below the windows under "Boeing 777".

The 777-200 was the initial A-market model. The first -200 was delivered to United Airlines on May 15, 1995.[72] With a maximum range of 5,235 nautical miles (9,695 km),[169] the -200 was chiefly aimed at U.S. domestic airline operators.[17] Nine different -200 customers have taken delivery of 88 aircraft,[1] with 85 in airline service as of July 2012.[170] The competing aircraft from Airbus is the A330-300.[171]

777-200ER[edit]

Aircraft during landing approach. Front quarter view of twin-engine jet in flight with flaps and landing gear extended.
An El Al 777-200ER landing at London Heathrow Airport

The 777-200ER ("ER" for Extended Range), the B-market version of the -200, was originally known as the 777-200IGW for its increased gross weight.[71] The -200ER features additional fuel capacity and an increased maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) over the -200.[169] Aimed at international airlines operating transatlantic routes,[17] the -200ER's maximum range is 7,700 nautical miles (14,300 km).[169] In addition to breaking the eastbound great circle "distance without landing" record, the -200ER also holds the record for the longest ETOPS-related emergency flight diversion (177 minutes under one engine), on a United Airlines flight carrying 255 passengers on March 17, 2003, over the Pacific Ocean.[172][173]

The first -200ER was delivered to British Airways on February 6, 1997.[72] Singapore Airlines, one of the type's largest customers,[1] ordered over half of its -200ERs with reduced engine thrust specifications (de-rated) for use on medium-length routes.[174][175] The de-rated engines lower MTOW, which reduces the aircraft's purchase price and landing fees, and can be re-rated to full -200ER standard for long-haul operations.[174] As of August 2013, -200ER deliveries to 33 different customers totaled 422.[1] As of July 2013, 418 examples of the -200ER were in airline service.[170] The competing aircraft from Airbus was the A340-300.[176]

777-300[edit]

Aircraft during landing approach. Front quarter view of twin-engine jet in flight with flaps and landing gear extended.
An Emirates 777-300 in the 2006 FIFA World Cup livery on final approach to London Heathrow Airport, England.

The stretched 777-300 was designed as an A-market replacement for 747-100s and 747-200s.[177] Compared to the older 747s, the stretched 777 has comparable passenger capacity and range, but burns one-third less fuel and has 40 percent lower maintenance costs.[74] The -300 features a 33.3 ft (10.1 m) fuselage stretch over the baseline -200. This allows seating for up to 550 passengers in a single class high-density configuration,[74] an arrangement adopted for heavily trafficked Japanese routes.[178] Because of the aircraft's length, the -300 is equipped with a tailskid and ground maneuvering cameras to aid pilots during taxi.[179] The maximum range is 6,015 nautical miles (11,140 km),[180] allowing the -300 to operate trunk routes previously flown by older 747s.[74]

After being certified simultaneously by the FAA and JAA,[75] the first -300 was delivered to Cathay Pacific on May 21, 1998.[72][76] Eight different -300 customers have taken delivery of 60 aircraft,[1] and all were in airline service as of July 2012.[170] However, following the introduction of the longer-range -300ER in 2004, all operators have selected the ER version of the base -300 model.[1] The -300 has no direct Airbus rival, but the A340-600 has been offered in competition.[181][182]

777-200LR[edit]

Aircraft landing approach. Front quarter view of twin-engine jet in flight with flaps and landing gear extended.
The first 777-200LR built, in service with Pakistan International Airlines

The 777-200LR ("LR" for Longer Range), the C-market model, became the world's longest-range commercial airliner when it entered service in 2006.[183][184] Boeing named this aircraft the Worldliner, highlighting its ability to connect almost any two airports in the world,[8] although it is still subject to ETOPS restrictions.[185] It holds the world record for the longest nonstop flight by a commercial airliner,[8] and has a maximum design range of 9,380 nautical miles (17,370 km).[89] The -200LR was intended for ultra-long-haul routes such as Los Angeles to Singapore.[77]

Developed alongside the -300ER, the -200LR features an increased MTOW and three optional auxiliary fuel tanks in the rear cargo hold.[183] Other new features include raked wingtips, redesigned main landing gear, and additional structural strengthening.[183] As with the -300ER and 777F, the -200LR is equipped with wingtip extensions of 12.8 ft (3.90 m).[183] The -200LR is powered by GE90-110B1 or GE90-115B turbofans.[92] The first -200LR was delivered to Pakistan International Airlines on February 26, 2006.[88][186] As of February 2013, nine different -200LR customers have taken delivery of 55 aircraft, with 3 unfilled orders.[1] Airlines operated 52 of the -200LR variant as of July 2012.[170] The closest competing aircraft from Airbus was the A340-500HGW.[183]

777-300ER[edit]

Aircraft landing approach. Side view of twin-engine jet in flight with flaps and landing gear extended.
An Air Canada 777-300ER landing with flaps deployed

The 777-300ER ("ER" for Extended Range) is the C-market version of the -300. It features raked and extended wingtips, a new main landing gear, reinforced nose gear, and extra fuel tanks.[187][188] It also has a strengthened fuselage, wings, empennage, and engine attachments.[92] The -300ER is powered by the GE90-115B turbofan, which is the world's most powerful jet engine in service, with a maximum thrust of 115,300 lbf (513 kN).[187] Its maximum range is 7,930 nautical miles (14,690 km),[189] made possible by higher MTOW and increased fuel capacity.[181][182] The -300ER can fly approximately 34 percent farther than the -300 with a full load of passengers and cargo.[92] Following flight testing, aerodynamics refinements have reduced fuel burn by an additional 1.4 percent.[85][190]

The first -300ER was delivered to Air France on April 29, 2004.[72][191] The -300ER is the best-selling 777 variant, having surpassed the -200ER in orders in 2010 and deliveries in 2013.[1] Since its launch, the model has been a primary driver of the twinjet's sales past the rival A330/340 series.[100] Using two engines produces a typical operating cost advantage of around 8–9 percent for the -300ER over the A340-600,[192] along with a 20 percent fuel burn advantage over the 747-400.[86] Several airlines have acquired the -300ER as a 747-400 replacement amid rising fuel prices.[86] As of August 2013, -300ER deliveries to 24 different customers totaled 424, with 287 unfilled orders.[1] Operators had 346 aircraft in service as of July 2012.[170] The -300ER's direct Airbus competitors have included the A340-600HGW and the upcoming A350-1000.[100][182]

777 Freighter[edit]

Side view of aircraft over runway. Runway surfaces in foreground and forest in background.
The first 777 Freighter, destined for Air France, during a test flight

The 777 Freighter (777F) is an all-cargo version of the twinjet, and shares features with the -200LR; these include its airframe, engines,[193] and fuel capacity.[92] With a maximum payload of 226,000 lb (103,000 kg),[92] cargo capacity is similar to the 243,000 lb (110,000 kg) of the 747-200F.[86] The freighter has a range of 4,900 nmi (9,070 km) at maximum payload,[92] although greater range is possible if less cargo weight is carried.[194]

As the aircraft promises improved operating economics compared to existing freighters,[86] airlines have targeted the 777F as a replacement for older freighters including the 747-200F, MD-10, and MD-11F.[91][195] The first 777F was delivered to Air France on February 19, 2009.[95] As of February 2013, 74 freighters had been delivered to eleven different customers, with 53 unfilled orders.[1] Operators had 61 of the 777F in service as of July 2012.[170]

In the 2000s, Boeing began studying the conversion of 777-200ER and -200 passenger airliners into freighters, under the name 777 BCF (Boeing Converted Freighter).[196] The company has been in discussion with several airline customers, including FedEx Express, UPS Airlines, and GE Commercial Aviation Services, to provide launch orders for a 777 BCF program.[197]

777-8X[edit]

The 777-8X is similar in length as the 777-300ER with seating for about 350 passengers in a three-class configuration and has a range of 9,300 nmi (17,200 km) or more. It is to take the place of the -200LR and be a direct competitor to the Airbus A350-1000.[120][133][198]

777-9X[edit]

The 777-9X is a further stretched variant with seating for about 407 passengers in a three-class configuration and a range of more than 8,200 nmi (15,200 km). Boeing states that it will have "no competitor in its market segment".[120][128] The 777-9X is to begin production in 2017 and enter service in 2020.[133]

777 Tanker (KC-777)[edit]

The KC-777 was a proposed tanker version of the 777. In September 2006, Boeing announced that it would produce the KC-777, if the United States Air Force (USAF) required a larger tanker than the KC-767. The 777 tanker would have been able to transport more cargo or personnel.[199][200][201] In April 2007, Boeing instead offered its KC-767 Advanced Tanker for USAF's KC-X competition.[202]

Operators[edit]

Aircraft takeoff. Side view of twin-engine jet in flight with flaps and landing gear extended, with upswept wings.
Singapore Airlines 777-200ER landing at Rome Fiumicino Airport in 2013
Side view of twin-engine jet in flight with flaps and landing gear extended.

The customers that have received the most 777s are ILFC, Emirates, Singapore Airlines, United Airlines, and Air France.[1] Emirates is the largest airline operator as of September 2013,[170] and is the only customer to have operated all 777 variants produced, including the -200, -200ER, -200LR, -300, -300ER, and 777F.[1][203] The 1,000th 777 off the production line, a -300ER set to be Emirates' 102nd 777, was unveiled at a factory ceremony in March 2012.[104]

A total of 1,094 aircraft (all variants) were in airline service as of July 2013, with Emirates (127), United Airlines (74), Air France (64), Singapore Airlines (56), American Airlines (55) All Nippon Airways (54), British Airways (53), Cathay Pacific (49), Japan Airlines (46) and other operators with fewer aircraft of the type.[204]

Orders and deliveries[edit]

Orders and deliveries
Orders Deliveries
Type Total Unfilled Total 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995
777-200 88 0 88 1 3 2 1 3 9 3 10 11 32 13
777-200ER 422 0 422 0 4 3 3 4 3 19 23 13 22 29 41 55 42 63 50 48
777-200LR 59 2 57 1 1 1 6 9 16 11 10 2
777-300 60 0 60 1 4 2 9 6 3 4 17 14
777-300ER 721 250 471 19 79 60 52 40 52 47 53 39 20 10
777F 132 42 90 4 14 19 15 22 16
777X 66 66
Total 1548 360 1188 24 98 83 73 74 88 61 83 65 40 36 39 47 61 55 83 74 59 32 13

Data through March 31, 2014[1][205][206][207][208]

ICAO designation[165] Model series
B772 777-200
777-200ER
B77L 777-200LR
777F
B773 777-300
B77W 777-300ER

Incidents and accidents[edit]

Heat exchanger. Circular latticework with an uneven covering of small particles over part of its surface.
Laboratory replication of ice crystals clogging the fuel-oil heat exchanger on a Rolls-Royce Trent 800 engine, from the AAIB report on the BA38 and DL18 incidents[209]

As of March 2014, the 777 has been in 10 aviation accidents and incidents,[210] including four hull-loss accidents,[211] and three hijackings.[212] Before 2013, the only fatality involving the twinjet occurred in a refueling fire at Denver International Airport on September 5, 2001, during which a ground worker sustained fatal burns.[213] The aircraft, operated by British Airways, suffered fire damage to the lower wing panels and engine housing; it was later repaired and returned to service.[213][214]

The type's first hull-loss occurred on January 17, 2008, when British Airways Flight 38, a 777-200ER with Rolls-Royce Trent 895 engines flying from Beijing to London, crash-landed approximately 1,000 feet (300 m) short of Heathrow Airport's runway 27L and slid onto the runway's threshold. There were 47 injuries and no fatalities. The impact damaged the landing gear, wing roots and engines. The aircraft was written off.[215][216] Upon investigation, the accident was blamed on ice crystals from the fuel system clogging the fuel-oil heat exchanger (FOHE).[209] In 2009, air accident investigators called for a redesign of this component on the Trent 800 series engine.[217] Redesigned fuel oil heat exchangers were installed in British Airways' 777s by October 2009.[218]

Two other minor momentary losses of thrust with Trent 895 engines occurred in February and November 2008.[219][220] The UK Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB) investigators concluded that, just as on BA38, the loss of power was caused by ice in the fuel clogging the fuel-oil heat exchanger. As a result, the heat exchanger was redesigned.[209]

The type's second hull-loss occurred on July 29, 2011, when an EgyptAir 777-200ER registered as SU-GBP suffered a cockpit fire while parked at the gate at Cairo International Airport.[221] The plane was successfully evacuated with no injuries,[221] and airport fire teams extinguished the fire.[222] The aircraft sustained structural, heat and smoke damage. This aircraft was written off.[221][222] Investigators focused on a possible electrical fault with a supply hose in the cockpit crew oxygen system.[221]

The type's third hull loss and first involving fatalities occurred on July 6, 2013, when Asiana Airlines Flight 214, 777-200ER registered HL7742, crashed while landing at San Francisco International Airport after touching down short of the runway. Surviving passengers and crew evacuated before fire destroyed the aircraft. The crash led to the death of three of the 307 people on board. These were the first fatalities in a crash involving a 777.[223][224][225] An accident investigation by the NTSB is under way; its initial focus is on the aircraft's low landing speed.[226]

On March 8, 2014, Malaysia Airlines Flight 370, 777-200ER registered 9M-MRO, carrying 227 passengers and 12 crew, en route from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing was reported missing. Air Traffic Control's last reported coordinates for the aircraft were over the South China Sea at 6°55′15″N 103°34′43″E / 6.92083°N 103.57861°E / 6.92083; 103.57861.[227][228] The search for the aircraft began after it disappeared.[229] On March 24, 2014, Malaysia's prime minister announced after analysis of fresh satellite data it is now to be assumed "beyond reasonable doubt" that the plane was lost and there were no survivors.[230]

Specifications[edit]

Specifications by model
Model 777-200 777-200ER 777-200LR 777 Freighter 777-300 777-300ER 777-8X[133][198][231] 777-9X[133][198][231]
Cockpit crew Two
Seating capacity,
typical
314 (3-class)[232]
400 (2-class)
440 (maximum)
N/A
(cargo)
386 (3-class)[232]
451 (2-class)
550 (maximum)
353 (3-class) 407 (3-class)
Length 209 ft 1 in (63.7 m) 242 ft 4 in (73.9 m) 228 ft 2 in (69.5 m) 250 ft 11 in (76.5 m)
Wingspan 199 ft 11 in (60.9 m) 212 ft 7 in (64.8 m) 199 ft 11 in (60.9 m) 212 ft 7 in (64.8 m) Unfolded: 233 ft 3 in (71.1 m)
Folded: 212 ft 8 in (64.8 m)
Wing sweepback 31.64° TBA
Tail height 60 ft 9 in (18.5 m) 61 ft 1 in (18.6 m) 60 ft 8 in (18.5 m) 64 ft 6 in (19.7 m)[233]
Cabin width 19 ft 3 in (5.87 m) 20 ft (6.10 m)[234]
Fuselage width 20 ft 4 in (6.20 m)
Maximum cargo capacity 5,720 cu ft (162 m3)
32× LD3
23,051 cu ft (653 m3)
37× pallets
7,640 cu ft (216 m3)
44× LD3
40× LD3 48× LD3
Operating empty weight 297,300 lb
(134,800 kg)
304,500 lb
(138,100 kg)
320,000 lb
(145,150 kg)
318,300 lb
(144,400 kg)
353,800 lb
(160,500 kg)
370,000 lb
(167,800 kg)
TBA
Maximum landing weight 445,000 lb
(201,840 kg)
470,000 lb
(213,180 kg)
492,000 lb
(223,168 kg)
575,000 lb
(260,816 kg)
524,000 lb
(237,680 kg)
554,000 lb
(251,290 kg)
TBA
Maximum takeoff weight 545,000 lb
(247,200 kg)
656,000 lb
(297,550 kg)
766,000 lb
(347,500 kg)
766,800 lb
(347,800 kg)
660,000 lb
(299,370 kg)
775,000 lb
(351,500 kg)[120]
Typical cruise speed Mach 0.84 (560 mph, 905 km/h, 490 knots) at a cruise altitude of 35,000 ft (11,000 m) TBA
Maximum speed Mach 0.89 (590 mph, 950 km/h, 512 knots) at a cruise altitude of 35,000 ft (11,000 m) TBA
Maximum range
(at maximum payload)
5,240 nmi
(9,700 km, 6,027 mi)
7,725 nmi
(14,310 km, 8,892 mi)
9,380 nmi
(17,370 km, 10,793 mi)
4,900 nmi
(9,070 km, 5,636 mi)
6,005 nmi
(11,120 km, 6,910 mi)
7,930 nmi
(14,690 km, 9,128 mi)
> 9,300 nmi
(17,224 km, 10,702 mi)
> 8,200 nmi
(15,186 km, 9,436 mi)
Takeoff distance at MTOW
(sea level, ISA)
8,000 ft
2,440 m
11,100 ft
3,380 m
9,200 ft
2,800 m
9,300 ft
2,830 m
10,600 ft
3,230 m
10,000 ft
3,050 m
TBA
Maximum fuel capacity 31,000 US gal
(117,348 L)
45,220 US gal
(171,176 L)
47,890 US gal
(181,283 L)
45,220 US gal
(171,176 L)
47,890 US gal
(181,283 L)
TBA
Service ceiling 43,100 ft (13,140 m)
Engine (×2) PW 4077
RR 877
GE90-77B
PW 4090
RR 895
GE90-94B
GE90-110B1
GE90-115B1
PW 4098
RR 892
GE90-92B/-94B
GE90-115B1 GE9X
Thrust (×2) PW: 77,000 lbf (342 kN)
RR: 76,000 lbf (338 kN)
GE: 77,000 lbf (342 kN)
PW: 90,000 lbf (400 kN)
RR: 93,400 lbf (415 kN)
GE: 93,700 lbf (417 kN)
GE −110B: 110,100 lbf (490 kN)
GE −115B: 115,300 lbf (512 kN)
PW: 98,000 lbf (436 kN)
RR: 93,400 lbf (415 kN)
GE: 92,000/93,700 lbf (409 kN/418 kN)
GE: 115,540 lbf (514 kN) GE: 105,000 lbf (470 kN)[120]
Comparison chart showing front, side, and dorsal views of the 777.
Diagram of 777-200ER/300ER

Notes: Data for the 777X are preliminary.
Sources: Boeing 777 specifications,[92][235] Boeing 777 Airport planning report,[236] and other sources.[237][238][239]

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

Notes[edit]

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  2. ^ a b c d "Commercial Airplanes Jet Prices". Boeing. The Boeing Company. Retrieved November 18, 2013. 
  3. ^ a b "Introducing the 777X". Boeing. The Boeing Company. Retrieved November 18, 2013. 
  4. ^ Robertson, David (March 13, 2009). "Workhorse Jet Has Been Huge Success with Airlines that Want to Cut Costs". The Times (London, England, United Kingdom: Times Newspapers). Archived from the original on June 12, 2011. Retrieved March 20, 2009. (subscription required (help)). 
  5. ^ Grantham, Russell (February 29, 2008). "Delta's new Boeing 777 Can Fly Farther, Carry More". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. "Delta will put the new "triple seven" — as airline folks call the jet — into service March 8." 
  6. ^ a b Norris & Wagner 1996, p. 89
  7. ^ a b Glenday 2007, p. 200
  8. ^ a b c d Phillips, Don (November 10, 2005). "Flight of Boeing's 777 Breaks Distance Record". The New York Times. International Herald Tribune. Retrieved October 14, 2013. 
  9. ^ "Emirates Fleet". Retrieved June 30, 2013. 
  10. ^ Wells & Rodrigues 2004, p. 146
  11. ^ "The 1980s Generation". Time. August 14, 1978. Retrieved July 19, 2008. 
  12. ^ a b Weiner, Eric (December 19, 1990). "New Boeing Airliner Shaped by the Airlines". The New York Times. Retrieved May 8, 2011. 
  13. ^ Eden 2008, pp. 98, 102–103
  14. ^ a b Eden 2008, pp. 99–104
  15. ^ a b c d e f Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 128
  16. ^ Yenne 2002, p. 33
  17. ^ a b c d Eden 2008, p. 112
  18. ^ a b c d Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 126
  19. ^ a b c d Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 127
  20. ^ a b Eden 2008, p. 106
  21. ^ Norris & Wagner 2001, p. 11
  22. ^ Norris & Wagner 1996, pp. 9–14
  23. ^ Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 129
  24. ^ a b Birtles 1998, pp. 13–16
  25. ^ Lane, Polly (December 1, 1991). "Aerospace Company May Be Rethinking Commitment To The Puget Sound Area". Seattle Times. Retrieved October 15, 2009. 
  26. ^ a b c d Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 132
  27. ^ "Business Notes: Aircraft". Time. October 29, 1990. Retrieved July 19, 2008. 
  28. ^ a b c Norris & Wagner 1996, p. 14
  29. ^ Norris & Wagner 1996, p. 13
  30. ^ Norris & Wagner 1996, p. 15
  31. ^ Norris & Wagner 1996, p. 20
  32. ^ "BA Gets New 777 Model". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. February 10, 1997. Retrieved May 8, 2011. 
  33. ^ An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering. Cl-Engineering. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-111-57680-6. "As an example, the Boeing 777 was the first commercial airliner developed through a paperless computer-aided design process." 
  34. ^ a b Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 133
  35. ^ Norris & Wagner 1999, pp. 133–134
  36. ^ Abarbanel & McNeely 1996, p. 124 Note: IVT is still active at Boeing in 2010 with over 29,000 users.
  37. ^ Norris & Wagner 1996, p. 21
  38. ^ a b Eden 2008, p. 108
  39. ^ Hise, Phaedra (July 9, 2007). "The power behind Boeing's 787 Dreamliner". CNN. Retrieved October 15, 2009. 
  40. ^ a b Richardson, Michael (February 23, 1994). "Demand for Airliners Is Expected to Soar: Asia's High-Flying Market". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved March 20, 2009. 
  41. ^ Sabbagh 1995, pp. 112–114
  42. ^ a b Norris & Wagner 1999, pp. 136–137
  43. ^ a b c d "A question of choice". Flight International. January 3, 2000. Retrieved March 29, 2009. 
  44. ^ Sabbagh 1995, pp. 168–169
  45. ^ Norris, Guy (March 31, 1993). "Boeing prepares for stretched 777 launch". Flight International. Retrieved May 8, 2011. 
  46. ^ Norris & Wagner 1996, p. 7
  47. ^ Sabbagh 1995, pp. 256–259
  48. ^ a b c d e Eden 2008, p. 107
  49. ^ Birtles 1998, p. 25
  50. ^ Andersen, Lars (August 16, 1993). "Boeing's 777 Will Be Tops When It Comes To ETOPS". Seattle Times. Retrieved March 20, 2009. 
  51. ^ a b c Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 144
  52. ^ Birtles 1998, p. 40
  53. ^ Birtles 1998, p. 20
  54. ^ Birtles 1999, p. 34
  55. ^ Birtles 1998, p. 69
  56. ^ "First Boeing 777 delivery goes to United Airlines". Business Wire. May 15, 1995. Retrieved December 1, 2008. 
  57. ^ Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 139
  58. ^ 180-minute ETOPS approval was granted to the General Electric GE90 powered 777 on October 3, 1996, and to the Rolls-Royce Trent 800-powered 777 on October 10, 1996.
  59. ^ Birtles 1998, p. 80
  60. ^ a b Eden 2004, p. 115.
  61. ^ a b c Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 143
  62. ^ Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 147
  63. ^ Norris & Wagner 1999, pp. 146–147
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  65. ^ a b Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 148
  66. ^ 777 Reliability Data Boeing
  67. ^ Trouble-plagued Dreamliner only 98% reliable, Boeing admits Boeing
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  70. ^ a b c d Eden 2008, p. 113
  71. ^ a b Eden 2008, pp. 112–113
  72. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "The Boeing 777 Program Background". Boeing. Retrieved June 6, 2009. 
  73. ^ a b Haenggi, Michael. "777 Triple Seven Revolution". Boeing Widebodies. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI, 2003. ISBN 0-7603-0842-X.
  74. ^ a b c d Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 151
  75. ^ a b Norris & Wagner 2001, p. 125
  76. ^ a b Norris & Wagner 1999, pp. 151–157
  77. ^ a b c Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 165
  78. ^ a b c d Norris & Wagner 1999, pp. 165–167
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  84. ^ Dinell, David (March 16, 2004). "Boeing's 777-300ER receives certification". Wichita Business Journal. Retrieved March 20, 2009. 
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  88. ^ a b Chaudhry, Muhammad Bashir (November 18, 2008). "Modernization of PIA fleet". Pakistan Dawn. Retrieved February 12, 2008. 
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References[edit]

  • Abarbanel, Robert; McNeely, William (1996). FlyThru the Boeing 777. New York: ACM SIGGRAPH. ISBN 0-89791-784-7. 
  • Birtles, Philip (1998). Boeing 777, Jetliner for a New Century. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International. ISBN 0-7603-0581-1. 
  • Birtles, Philip (1999). Modern Civil Aircraft: 6, Boeing 757/767/777 (Third ed.). London: Ian Allen Publishing. ISBN 0-7110-2665-3. 
  • Eden, Paul, ed. (2008). Civil Aircraft Today: The World's Most Successful Commercial Aircraft. London: Amber Books Ltd. ISBN 1-84509-324-0. 
  • Frawley, Gerard (2003). The International Directory of Civil Aircraft 2003/2004. London: Aerospace Publications. ISBN 1-875671-58-7. 
  • Glenday, Craig (2007). Guinness World Records. London/New York: HiT Entertainment. ISBN 978-0-9735514-4-0. 
  • Newhouse, John (2008). Boeing versus Airbus: The Inside Story of the Greatest International Competition in Business. London: Vintage. ISBN 1-4000-7872-5. 
  • Norris, Guy; Wagner, Mark (1996). Boeing 777. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International. ISBN 0-7603-0091-7. 
  • Norris, Guy; Wagner, Mark (2001). Boeing 777: The Technological Marvel. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Zenith Imprint. ISBN 0-7603-0890-X. 
  • Norris, Guy; Wagner, Mark (2009). Boeing 787 Dreamliner. Osceola, Wisconsin: Zenith Press. ISBN 978-0-7603-2815-6. 
  • Norris, Guy; Wagner, Mark (1999). Modern Boeing Jetliners. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Zenith Imprint. ISBN 0-7603-0717-2. 
  • Sabbagh, Karl (1995). 21st Century Jet: The Making of the Boeing 777. New York: Scribner. ISBN 0-333-59803-2. 
  • Wells, Alexander T.; Rodrigues, Clarence C. (2004). Commercial Aviation Safety. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0-07-141742-7. 
  • Yenne, Bill (2002). Inside Boeing: Building the 777. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Zenith Press. ISBN 0-7603-1251-6. 

External links[edit]