Boeing P-8 Poseidon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
P-8 Poseidon
P-8A Poseidon VX-20 Squadron.jpg
A P-8 flies over Chesapeake Bay in 2012
Role Anti-submarine warfare and anti-surface warfare
National origin United States of America
Manufacturer Boeing Defense, Space & Security
First flight 25 April 2009[1]
Introduction November 2013[2]
Status In service
Primary users United States Navy
Indian Navy
Produced 2009–present
Number built 15 as of July 2013[3]
Program cost US$33.638 billion (by FY2013)[4]
Unit cost
US$256.5m(FY2015)[5]
US$275.7M (with R&D, FY13)[4]
Developed from Boeing 737 Next Generation

The Boeing P-8 Poseidon (formerly the Multimission Maritime Aircraft or MMA) is a military aircraft developed for the United States Navy (USN). The aircraft has been developed by Boeing Defense, Space & Security, modified from the 737-800ERX.

The P-8 conducts anti-submarine warfare (ASW), anti-surface warfare (ASUW), and shipping interdiction, along with an electronic signals intelligence (ELINT) role. This involves carrying torpedoes, depth charges, SLAM-ER missiles, Harpoon anti-ship missiles, and other weapons. It is able to drop and monitor sonobuoys. It is designed to operate in conjunction with the Northrop Grumman MQ-4C Triton Broad Area Maritime Surveillance unmanned aerial vehicle. The aircraft has also been ordered by the Indian Navy as the P-8I Neptune, with the Royal Australian Air Force expected to place an order.

Development[edit]

Origins[edit]

The Lockheed P-3 Orion, a turboprop ASW aircraft, has been in service with the United States Navy since 1962.[6] In the 1980s, the navy began studies for a P-3 replacement, the range and endurance of which was being reduced due to increasing weight and airframe fatigue life limitations. The navy specification required a new aircraft to have reduced operating and support costs. In 1989, the navy awarded Lockheed a fixed-price contract to develop the P-7, but the project was canceled the following year.[7]

A second competition for a replacement aircraft began in 2000. Lockheed Martin submitted the Orion 21, an updated new-build version of the P-3.[8] Boeing's proposal was based on its 737-800 airliner.[9] BAE Systems offered a new-build version of the Nimrod MRA4, a British jet-powered maritime patrol aircraft. However, BAE withdrew from the competition in October 2002, recognizing that without a US-based production partner the bid was politically unrealistic.[10] On 14 May 2004, Boeing was selected winner of the competition.[11]

In June 2004, the navy awarded a development contract to Boeing.[12] The project was planned to be for at least 108 airframes for the USN.[13] More orders are possible from the other nations operating over 200 P-3s. Project value is expected to be worth at least $15 billion. Raytheon, Northrop Grumman, Spirit AeroSystems, GE Aviation Systems, Marshall Aerospace, CFMI, BAE Systems, and Marotta are major subcontractors.[14] In July 2004, the USN placed an order for five MMA aircraft, and the first flight-test aircraft was to be completed in 2009.[13] On 30 March 2005, the P-8A designation was bestowed upon the aircraft.[15]

Design phase and testing[edit]

Rollout of the P-8 on 30 July 2009
A P-8A Poseidon flying alongside a Lockheed P-3 Orion, close to Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland, 2010

The P-8 is to replace the P-3s.[16] At first, it will be equipped with legacy P-3 systems, later upgrades will incorporate more advanced technology. The Government Accountability Office credited the incremental approach with keeping the project on schedule and on budget. In 2008, the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) deleted the requirement for the P-8A to be equipped with magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) equipment as part of an effort that reduced weight by 3,500 lb (1,600 kg) to improve endurance and range. A hydrocarbon sensor detects fuel vapors from diesel-powered submarines and ships.[17]

The P-8's first flight was on 25 April 2009.[1] The second and third P-8s had flown and were in flight testing in early August 2010.[18] On 11 August 2010, the US approved the P-8 for low-rate production.[19][20] A P-8 released sonobuoys for the first time on 15 October 2010, dropping six sonobuoys in three separate low-altitude passes.[21] In 2011, it was found that the P-8's ice detection system was defective due to the use of counterfeit components; allegedly these computer parts were poorly refurbished and sold to subcontractor BAE Systems as new by a Chinese supplier.[22]

The first production P-8A was handed over to the navy on 4 March 2012. It flew to Naval Air Station Jacksonville, Florida, for training with the Fleet Replacement Squadron (FRS), Patrol Squadron 30 (VP-30).[2] On 24 September 2012, Boeing announced a $1.9 billion order for 11 aircraft.[23] On 10 June 2013, a DoD Inspector General (IG) report noted that the navy should delay full-rate production over a lack of key information to assess if the P-8 meets operational requirements. Additional testing was also needed to guarantee a 25-year lifespan.[24] Boeing executives dismissed the report, saying that the test program is on track.[25] In 2013, full-rate production was delayed until the P-8 could demonstrate it can survive its 25-year lifespan without structural fatigue, overcome mission-limited deficiencies, track surface ships, and perform primary missions.[26]

On 24 June 2013, a P-8 successfully scored a direct hit with a live AGM-84D Block IC Harpoon anti-ship missile during weapons integration testing.[27] On 1 July 2013, an initial operational test and evaluation (IOT&E) report found that the P-8A was "operationally effective, operationally suitable, and ready for fleet introduction." Six test and nine low-rate initial production aircraft had been delivered at that point.[3] On 31 July 2013, Boeing received a $2.04 billion contract to build 13 P-8As in the fourth low-rate initial production lot, for a fleet of 37 aircraft by the end of 2016, and long-lead parts for 16 P-8As of the first full-rate production lot.[28]

As of September 2013 it is intended to replace all navy P-3s with 117 P-8As by 2019, but budget cuts may delay this by two years.[29] On 3 January 2014, the Naval Air Systems Command proceeded with full-rate production of the P-8A. Increment 1 systems include persistent anti-submarine warfare capabilities and an integrated sensor suite; in 2016, Increment 2 upgrades will add multi-static active coherent acoustics, an automated identification system, and high-altitude anti-submarine weapons.[30] Increment 3 in 2020 shall enable "net-enabled anti-surface warfare".[31]

Halving of USN orders from 16 aircraft per year down to 8 in 2015 due to expiration of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013 are expected to be partially offset by commercial 737 sales and export sales of the P-8.[32]

Derivatives[edit]

In 2010, Boeing proposed to replace the United States Air Force's Northrop Grumman E-8 Joint STARS fleet with a modified P-8 at the same cost Northrop Grumman proposed for re-engining and upgrading the E-8s.[33][34] The proposed P-8 Airborne Ground Surveillance (AGS) would integrate an active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, and have ground moving target indicator (GMTI) and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) capabilities.[35]

The main distinguishing feature of the P-8 AGS was a pod-mounted radar on the lower centerline of the fuselage; the pod is lowered so the engine nacelles do not interrupt the radar's line of sight. Two aft ventral fins increase aircraft stability. The P-8 AGS reused the P-8A's Raytheon AN/APY-10 multi-mission surface search radar.[35][36] In 2010, the Air Force launched an Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) of the JSTARS platform.[37] At a Senate Armed Services Committee meeting on 20 March 2012, the Air Force representative announced it did not have the resources to buy a new business jet based Intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) platform.[38] Boeing chose in 2014 to offer a JSTARS replacement based on the Boeing 737-700 airframe, rather than the 737-800 configuration the P-8 is based on.[39]

Boeing has proposed repackaging P-8 systems in the smaller and less expensive Bombardier Challenger 600 series business jet, named the Boeing Maritime Surveillance Aircraft (MSA).[40]

Design[edit]

External images
P-8 Poseidon cutway showing weapons bay
Cutaway of P-8 from Flightglobal.com
Crewmembers at their work stations inside the cabin of a US Navy P-8

The P-8 is a militarized version of the Boeing 737-800 with 737-900-based wings.[41] The fuselage is similar to but longer than the 737-700-based C-40 Clipper transport aircraft in service with the USN. The P-8 has a strengthened fuselage and Boeing 767-400ER-style raked wingtips, instead of the blended winglets available on 737NG variants.[42] The five operator stations (two naval flight officers plus three enlisted Aviation Warfare Operators/naval aircrewman) are mounted in a sideways row, along the port side of the cabin. None of these crew stations have windows. One observer window is located on each side of the forward cabin.

The P-8 features the Raytheon APY-10 multi-mission surface search radar.[43] The P-8I will feature an international version of the APY-10.[44] A short bomb bay for torpedoes and other stores opens behind the wing. The aircraft also includes six additional body fuel tanks for extended range from Marshall Aerospace; three of the tanks are located in the forward cargo compartment and three in the rear. In-flight refueling is via a receptacle on top of the forward fuselage, just aft of the cockpit. This receptacle will receive a flying boom that is typically used to refuel United States Air Force aircraft, as opposed to the hose-and-drogue system used by other USN aircraft. In order to power the additional electronics, the P-8 has a 180kVA electric generator on each engine instead of the 90kVA generator found on civilian 737s. This required a redesign of the nacelles and their mountings to the wings.[45]

In U.S. service, the Poseidon will be complemented by around 40 Northrop Grumman MQ-4C Triton unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for the Broad Area Maritime Surveillance system to provide continuous surveillance. Because of the cancellation of Lockheed Martin's Aerial Common Sensor project, Boeing will propose a signals intelligence variant of the P-8 to service the requirement for the USN.[46]

Operational history[edit]

United States[edit]

P-8A of VP-16 from NAS Jacksonville, FL, refueling at NAF Atsugi, Japan, 2013
A VP-16 P-8A at Canberra International Airport, Australia, 2014

In February 2012, the P-8 made its mission debut during "Bold Alligator" 2012, an annual littoral warfare exercise.[47] In April 2012, the aircraft took part in Exercise Joint Warrior, flying out of RAF Lossiemouth.[48] During RIMPAC 2012 in the Hawaiian area, two P-8As participated in 24 scenarios as part of Air Test and Evaluation Squadron One (VX-1) while forward deployed to Marine Corps Base Hawaii (former MCAS Kaneohe Bay).[49] USN P-8s may routinely rotate through bases of allies such as the Philippines and Thailand;[50] In September 2014, Malaysia offered the use of bases in Borneo for P-8s, but no flights have yet been approved.[51][52]

On 29 November 2013, the P-8's inaugural deployment began when six aircraft and 12 air crews of squadron VP-16 departed its home station of NAS Jacksonville, Florida, for Kadena Air Base in Okinawa, Japan and forward deployment with the U.S. Pacific Fleet.[53][54] The deployment was pre-planned as an enhancement of ISR and anti-submarine capabilities for the Pacific re-balance, but occurred shortly after the Chinese announcement of the East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone, which heightened tensions in the region.[55]

During exercises in 2012-2013 and an overseas deployment to Japan, the aircraft reportedly exhibited radar, sensor integration, and data transfer problems, leading to additional testing. In January 2014, the Pentagon's Director of Operational Test and Evaluation office called the P-8A 'ineffective' for large area ISR and anti-submarine warfare missions, and said that the initial aircraft were not ready for deployment.[56][57] The same report found that the P-8 was effective at the small-area search mission, and with much better range, speed, and reliability than older aircraft.[58] Pentagon acquisition undersecretary Frank Kendall disputed the report, saying that although its findings are factual, it did not acknowledge future capability upgrades for anti-submarine and wider-area surveillance.[59]

A second squadron, VP-5, completed its transition to the P-8 in August 2013 with its next overseas deployment slated for mid-2014.[53] A third squadron, VP-45,[60] began its transition to the Poseidon in July 2013.[53] During mid-2014, a pair of P-8s were dispatched to Perth, Australia for two months as part of an international search for the missing Malaysia Airlines Flight 370.[61][62]

On 19 August 2014, a People's Republic of China J-11 came within 30 feet of a P-8 around 135 miles east of Hainan Island.[63] The J-11 flew past the P-8's nose and performed a barrel roll at close proximity.[64] A Pentagon spokesperson said the J-11's unit had made close intercepts earlier that year.[65] The U.S. sent a diplomatic note to China about the pattern of behavior by the commander of the Chinese fighter group.[66] China stated that the claims were "totally groundless", and that the event's root was U.S. surveillance of China;[67] the U.S. stated it will continue to operate in international airspace and waters.[68] Following this incident China and the United States began discussions on conduct.[69][70]

India[edit]

A Boeing P-8I of the Indian Navy
Indian Navy operators

In January 2008, Boeing proposed the P-8I, a customized export variant of the P-8A, for the Indian Navy.[71] The P-8I variant features two major components that aren't fitted on the P-8A, a Telephonics APS-143 OceanEye aft radar and a magnetic anomaly detector (MAD).[72] On 4 January 2009, India's Ministry of Defence signed an agreement with Boeing for the supply of eight P-8Is at a total cost of US$2.1 billion. These aircraft would replace Indian Navy's aging Tupolev Tu-142M maritime surveillance turboprops.[73][74] Each aircraft has an average cost of about US$220 million.[75] The deal makes India the first international customer of the P-8, and also marks Boeing's first military sale to India.[76] In October 2010, India's Defence Acquisition Council of the Ministry of Defence approved the purchase of four additional P-8Is.[77][78] In March 2011, it was reported that India was to order four additional P-8s from Boeing later in the year.[79] India plans to order another 12 P-8Is at a later time.[80][81]

The Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) Data Link II communications allows the P-8I to exchanging tactical data between Indian Navy aircraft, ships and shore establishments.[82][83] The P-8I features an integrated BEL-developed IFF system.[84] India has purchased AGM-84L Harpoon Block II Missiles and Mk 54 All-Up-Round Lightweight Torpedoes for the P-8I.[85] In July 2012, Boeing began flight testing of the P-8I.[86] On 19 December 2012, the first P-8I was handed over to an Indian naval team at Boeing's Seattle facility.[87][88] The Indian Navy inducted its first P-8I on 15 May 2013.[89] The second and third P-8Is were received on 16 and 22 November 2013 respectively.[90][91] The aircraft are based at INS Rajali, in Tamil Nadu.[92] In 2014, several Indian Navy P-8Is conducted search operations for the missing Malaysia Airlines Flight 370.[72][93] The fourth and fifth aircraft was delivered in May and September 2014 respectively.[94] The program is on schedule to deliver another aircraft later in 2014 and two more in 2015, totaling 8 P-8Is.[95]

Foreign involvement and potential exports[edit]

The U.S. Department of Defense wants to follow a program template for the P-8 similar to that of the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program, with international cooperation from prospective MMA users.[96] Boeing publicly identified New Zealand as a potential customer.[97]

Australia[edit]

The Australian Minister for Defence announced on 20 July 2007 that the P-8A MMA had been selected as the preferred aircraft to replace the Royal Australian Air Force fleet of Lockheed AP-3C Orions in conjunction with a yet-to-be-selected unmanned aerial vehicle. The last RAAF AP-3C is scheduled to be retired in 2018, after nearly 30 years of service.[98][99] In March 2009, Australia's Chief of Air Force stated that subject to anticipated government approval, the RAAF would begin to add the P-8 to its fleet in 2016.[100]

In October 2012, Australia formalized its participation in the program with a commitment of A$73.9m (US$81.1m) in an agreement with the USN.[101] Australia plans to order eight P-8 aircraft to replace the RAAF's AP-3C aircraft by 2017–18, and reach operational capability by 2019.[102][103] Air Marshal Geoff Brown, head of the Royal Australian Air Force, has said Australia is considering purchasing more P-8s, and purchasing fewer MQ-4C Triton unmanned aircraft than originally planned.[104] On 21 February 2014, Prime Minister Tony Abbott announced Australia's intention to purchase eight P-8s plus options for four more, with development work to be carried out in South Australia. Deliveries are planned to occur from 2017 to 2021.[105][106]

In July 2014, negotiations commenced between Boeing and the Department of Defense for integration of the AGM-84 Harpoon Block 1G anti-ship missile onto the P-8A on behalf of Australia. Integration of the missile onto the airframe is largely a matter of interfacing with the aircraft's combat system software. The Block 1G is an upgraded version of the AGM-84D Block 1C variant, giving the missile an enhanced seeker and the capability to re-attack a target.[107] In August 2014, it was reported that the US Navy had concluded an advanced acquisition contract on the first four of up to 12 P-8As to be purchased by Australia, with delivery expected from 2017.[108]

Italy[edit]

Italy indicated interest in purchasing MMA aircraft, with fleet support provided by Alitalia in 2004.[109] However, in December 2008, Italy announced the purchase of four ATR 72 turboprop aircraft to replace its aging Atlantic Maritime Patrol Aircraft,[110] possibly as a temporary solution because Italy remained interested in the P-8.[111][112]

Norway[edit]

The Norwegian newspaper Dagbladet reported in March 2014 that the Norwegian Navy is looking at the possibility to lease the aircraft directly from Boeing. The Navy currently has six P-3 Orions, but is having increasing difficulty keeping them operational.[113]

United Kingdom[edit]

In August 2012, AirForces Monthly reported that "Boeing sees the UK as a prime market for its P-8A Poseidon"[114] following the cancellation of Nimrod MRA4.[115] Rumors emerged in the summer of 2014 that the UK might lease a small number of Poseidons but the official position is that a decision will be taken in the next Strategic Defence and Security Review after the 2015 UK general election.[116]

Variants[edit]

  • P-8A Poseidon – Production variant for the United States Navy
  • P-8I Neptune – Export variant for the Indian Navy.[117]
  • P-8 AGS – An Airborne Ground Surveillance variant proposed to the United States Air Force in 2010 as an alternate to upgrades to the Northrop Grumman E-8 Joint STARS fleet.[34] Its design adds a pod-mounted, active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar on the bottom of the fuselage.[35]

Operators[edit]

 India

  • The Indian Navy has eight P-8I aircraft on order;[76] deliveries began in December 2012,[87][118] with five delivered by September 2014.[94]

 United States

Specifications (P-8A)[edit]

A P-8A of VP-16 dropping a torpedo

Data from U.S. Navy,[121][122] Boeing,[123][124] and others[125]

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

Avionics

  • Raytheon APY-10 multi-mission surface search radar[43]
  • (Advanced Airborne Sensor surface search radar and SIGINT package to be follow on system[127])

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Boeing P-8A Poseidon successfully completes 1st flight." Boeing, 27 April 2009.
  2. ^ a b Majumdar, Dave. "Picture: Boeing delivers first production P-8A." Flight International, 8 March 2012.
  3. ^ a b P-8A judged ready for fleet introduction - Flightglobal.com, 9 July 2013
  4. ^ a b c "GAO-13-294SP DEFENSE ACQUISITIONS Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs". US Government Accountability Office. March 2013. pp. 103–4. Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  5. ^ "United States Department Of Defense Fiscal Year 2015 Budget Request Program Acquisition Cost By Weapon System" (pdf). Office Of The Under Secretary Of Defense (Comptroller)/ Chief Financial Officer. March 2014. p. 24. 
  6. ^ "P-3C Orion long range ASW aircraft." Navy.mil, 18 February 2009. Retrieved: 15 March 2011.
  7. ^ Bailey, John (1–7 August 1990). "Lockheed loses to Survive". Flight International 138 (4227) (Sutton, Surrey, England: Reed Business Publishing Group). pp. 20–21. ISSN 0015-3710. Retrieved 27 March 2014.  "page 21". 
  8. ^ "Boeing 737 MMA." Flug Revue, 17 June 2004.
  9. ^ Cortes, Lorenzo and Amy Butler. "Boeing wins navy's $3.88 Billion MMA bid over Lockheed Martin." Defense Daily, 15 June 2004.
  10. ^ Lewis, Paul. "BAE pulls out of MMA competition; Lack of US partner prompts Nimrod MRA4 withdrawal." Flight International, 8 October 2002, p. 5. Retrieved: 6 December 2006.
  11. ^ LeMond-Holman, Ellen et al. "Boeing team wins $3.89 Billion multi-mission Maritime Aircraft Program." Boeing, 14 May 2004. Retrieved: 15 March 2011.
  12. ^ "Boeing to develop navy's multi-mission maritime aircraft." U.S. Navy, 15 June 2004. Retrieved: 7 June 2011.
  13. ^ a b "P-8A multi-mission maritime aircraft (MMA)." U.S. Navy, 17 February 2009. Retrieved: 15 March 2011.
  14. ^ Lemond, Ellen, Chick Ramey and Debiie Gann. "Boeing-led Poseidon team begins production of first P-8A fuselage." Boeing, 12 December 2007. Retrieved: 15 March 2011.
  15. ^ Hatcher, Renee. "MMA is designated P-8A." U.S. Navy Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR), 1 April 2005. Retrieved: 7 June 2011.
  16. ^ Freedberg, Sydney J. Jr. "Navy's P-8 Sub Hunter Bets On High Altitude, High Tech; Barf Bags Optional." AOL Defense, 2 October 2012.
  17. ^ GAO-09-326SP "Assessments of major weapon programs." GAO. Retrieved: 29 August 2012.
  18. ^ Ramey, Chick and Doug Abbotts. "Boeing P-8A Poseidon aircraft T3 enters flight test." Boeing, 2 August 2010.
  19. ^ Trimble, Stephen. "Boeing P-8A approved to launch production." Flight International, 13 August 2010. Retrieved: 28 September 2011.
  20. ^ "P-8A Poseidon milestone reached." AirForces Monthly, 13 August 2010.
  21. ^ Goettee, Liz. "U.S. Navy Boeing P-8A Poseidon launches first sonobuoys." Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 22 October 2010. Retrieved: 7 June 2011.
  22. ^ Reed, John. "Counterfeit Parts found on the P-8." defensetech.org, 8 November 2011. Retrieved: 29 August 2012.
  23. ^ ""Boeing Receives $1.9 Billion Contract for 11 P-8A Poseidon Aircraft." Boeing, 24 September 2012.
  24. ^ Audit: Submarine Hunter Needs ‘Critical’ Testing - Defensetech.org, 12 July 2013
  25. ^ Boeing Dismisses Pentagon’s P-8 Poseidon Audit - Defensetech.org, 17 June 2013
  26. ^ McGarry, Brendan. "Navy P-8 Deal Tops $17 Billion in July Awards." Dodbuzz.com, 6 August 2013.
  27. ^ P-8 Poseidon fires first Harpoon anti-ship missile - Flightglobal.com, 9 July 2013
  28. ^ Boeing receives $2bn contract to build 13 P-8As - Flightglobal.com, 1 August 2013
  29. ^ Greenert, Admiral Jonathan (18 September 2013). "Statement Before The House Armed Services Committee On Planning For Sequestration In FY 2014 And Perspectives Of The Military Services On The Strategic Choices And Management Review" (pdf). US House of Representatives. Retrieved 21 September 2013. 
  30. ^ Troubled P-8A Poseidon enters full production Navytimes.com, 27 January 2014.
  31. ^ Norris, Guy (24 April 2014). "Increasing P-8A Capability". Penton. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  32. ^ Hemmerdinger, Jon (9 April 2014). "Reduced P-8 buy to affect price, not fleet plan". www.flightglobal.com. Reed Business Information. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  33. ^ Rector, Gene. "Uncertainty, perseverance characterized local joint STARS mission." The Warner Robins Patriot, 4 March 2011.
  34. ^ a b Trimble, Stephen. "Boeing pitches P-8 variant to replace JSTARS." Flight International, 18 February 2010.
  35. ^ a b c "Overview: P-8 airborne ground surveillance." Boeing. Retrieved: 3 February 2012.
  36. ^ Cohen, Aubrey. "Boeing looks to sell more 737-based military jets." Seattle PI, 9 June 2011.
  37. ^ "Joint STARS mission area analysis of alternatives (AoA) RFI." hanscom.af.mil. Retrieved: 29 August 2012.
  38. ^ Air Force Won’t Replace JSTARS Fleet - Defensetech.org, 23 March 2012
  39. ^ Boeing Eyes 737-700 Solution for New JSTARS - Defensenews.com, 12 September 2014
  40. ^ "Maritime Surveillance Aircraft: Boeing selects a Bombardier 'Bizjet', the Challenger 605, as the preferred airframe for its proposed MSA". Canadian American Strategic Review. July 2013. 
  41. ^ "B-8A Poseidon: Overview." Boeing. Retrieved: 15 March 2011.
  42. ^ Warwick, Graham. "New MMA wingtips combat icing." Flight International, 7 June 2005. Retrieved: 12 September 2012.
  43. ^ a b "AN/APY-10 maritime, littoral and overland surveillance radar." Raytheon, 2011.
  44. ^ "Raytheon to develop international version of APY-10 radar for P-8I." Theasiandefence.blogspot.com, 18 July 2010. Retrieved: 13 March 2011.
  45. ^ "CUTAWAY: P-8A Poseidon - A Boeing with boost of bravado."
  46. ^ Wastnage, Justin. "Boeing unveils new 737 signals intelligence concept." Flight International, 26 January 2006. Retrieved: 12 September 2012.
  47. ^ Cavas, Christopher P. "P-8A makes debut in 'Bold Alligator' exercise." Navy Times, 7 February 2012. Retrieved: 10 April 2012.
  48. ^ Crowther, Stuart. "Senior RAF officer reveals MoD may be considering Nimrod replacement." STV Local, 18 April 2012.
  49. ^ "VX-1 flies P-8 Poseidon during RIMPAC 2012 (NNS120729-04)." RIMPAC Public Affairs, 29 July 2012. Retrieved: 30 July 2012.
  50. ^ Shalal-Esa, Andrea and Eveline Danubrata. "U.S. Navy may station ships in Singapore, Philippines." Reuters, 16 December 2011.
  51. ^ BURGESS, RICHARD R. (8 September 2014). "CNO: Malaysia Offers U.S. P-8 Detachment Site". seapowermagazine.org (SEAPOWER Magazine). Retrieved 9 September 2014. 
  52. ^ "U.S. says Malaysia offers to host spy planes that irk China". Reuters, 13 September 2014.
  53. ^ a b c "Poseidon's inaugural deployment starts Friday". Navy Times. 2013-11-27. Retrieved 27 November 2013. 
  54. ^ Brewan, Bob. "Navy Deploys High Tech Surveillance Jets in East Asia" DefenseOne.com, 3 December 2013.
  55. ^ "Navy P-8A Surveillance Planes Deploy to Tense Pacific". DoDBuzz.com, 3 December 2013
  56. ^ Boeing Surveillance Plane Found Not Effective for Mission - Bloomberg.com, 23 January 2014
  57. ^ Capaccio, Tony (23 January 2014). "Boeing Surveillance Plane Not Yet Effective, U.S. Tester Finds". Bloomberg News (Bloomberg L.P.). Retrieved 23 August 2014. 
  58. ^ Cenciotti, David (25 January 2014). "The Navy’s $35-Billion Surveillance Plane Has Lots of Flaws". medium.com. War is Boring. Retrieved 25 January 2014. 
  59. ^ Top Weapons Buyer Disputes P-8 Testing Woes - DoDBuzz.com, 28 January 2014
  60. ^ http://www.vp45.navy.mil/
  61. ^ Schogol, Jeff (13 March 2014). "Navy adjusts effort in search for missing Malaysian airliner". Gannett Government Media. Retrieved 13 March 2014. 
  62. ^ Poseidon completes debut deployment - Militarytimes.com, 2 August 2014
  63. ^ Cohen, Tom (22 August 2014). "'Aggressive' Chinese fighter jet flies dangerously close to U.S. Navy plane". CNN (Turner Broadcasting System, Inc.). Retrieved 22 August 2014. 
  64. ^ Whitlock, Craig (22 August 2014). "Pentagon: China tried to block U.S. military jet in dangerous mid-air intercept". Washington Post. Retrieved 23 August 2014. 
    Fisher Jr, Richard D (26 August 2014). "Chinese J-11BH 'aggressive' with USN P-8A, says DoD". IHS Janes 360 (IHS). Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  65. ^ Burns, Robert; Baldor, Lolita C. (22 August 2014). "Pentagon Cites 'Dangerous' Chinese Jet Intercept". ABC News (ABC News Internet Ventures). Associated Press. Retrieved 22 August 2014. 
  66. ^ Lubold, Gordon (22 August 2014). "Call Sign 'Rogue': Pentagon Says One Chinese Commander Responsible for Spate of Air Confrontations". foreignpolicy.com (Foreign Policy). Retrieved 23 August 2014. 
    Tilghman, Andrew (2 September 2014). "Chinese jet's run-in with P-8 seen as pattern". Army Times (Gannett). Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  67. ^ "China urges U.S. to stop close-in surveillance". Xinhua (Xinhua News Agency). 23 August 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014. 
    Hutzler, Charles (23 August 2014). "Beijing Denies Fighter Flew Dangerously Close to U.S. Patrol Plane". Wall Street Journal (Dow Jones & Company, Inc.). Retrieved 23 August 2014. 
  68. ^ Gertz, Bill (26 August 2014). "Pentagon: No Plan to Reduce Spy Flights". Washington Free Beacon. Retrieved 26 August 2014. 
  69. ^ "Chinese interceptions of US military planes could intensify". CNBC (NBCUniversal). Reuters. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014. 
  70. ^ "US and China discuss avoiding military incidents". www.washingtonpost.com (Associated Press). 9 September 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014. 
  71. ^ Pandit, Rajat. "India eyes $2b defence deal with US." The Times of India, 29 January 2008. Retrieved: 29 August 2012.
  72. ^ a b "Indian Navy pleased with P-8I performance on first op deployment". SP's Aviation. 31 March 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  73. ^ Pandit, Rajat. "India inks largest-ever defence deal with US." The Times of India, 5 January 2009. Retrieved: 5 January 2009.
  74. ^ "India, US to ink arms deal worth Rs 10,700 crore." Rediff News, 17 March 2012. Retrieved: 29 August 2012.
  75. ^ "P-8 replacing Tu-142." strategypage.com, 29 December 2008. Retrieved: 15 March 2011.
  76. ^ a b Ratnam, Gopal and Edmond Lococo. "Boeing to sell eight reconnaissance planes to India." Bloomberg, 6 January 2009.
  77. ^ "Rs 20,000-cr booster for Navy's sea lift, snooping capabilities." The Times of India, 6 October 2010. Retrieved: 15 March 2011.
  78. ^ Raman, P.K. "Navy stamps blue Water presence across IOR, bolsters capacity with induction of MiG-29k, INS Shivalik." India: Press Information Bureau English Releases, 2010. Retrieved: 12 September 2012.
  79. ^ Gulati, Nikhil. "India orders more Boeing maritime planes." The Wall Street Journal, 31 March 2011.
  80. ^ Luthra, Gulshan. "Indian Navy to induct 24 Boeing P8-I maritime reconnaissance aircraft." India Strategic, December 2011.
  81. ^ "P-8i: India’s Navy picks its future high-end maritime patrol aircraft." Defense Industry Daily, 14 February 2012. Retrieved: 28 November 2012.
  82. ^ "Boeing gets equipment from BEL for Indian Navy aircraft." Deccan Herald, 12 May 2012. Retrieved: 12 September 2012.
  83. ^ "Boeing to use BEL designed Datalink-II." The Siasat Diary, 12 May 2010. Retrieved: 12 September 2012.
  84. ^ "BEL supplies P-8I aircraft equipment to Boeing." The Hindu, 23 December 2010. Retrieved: 12 September 2012.
  85. ^ "Indian Navy gets its most sophisticated system yet in P8-I Maritime Aircraft". India Strategic, January 2013.
  86. ^ "Боинг" начал программу летных испытаний первого самолета БПА Р-8I "Нептун" ВМС Индии: Boeing launched the first aircraft flight test program BKA p-8I "Neptune" Indian Navy (in Russian)." flotprom, 13 July 2012. Retrieved: 9 January 2013.
  87. ^ a b "Navy gets first long-range maritime reconnaissance aircraft." The Times of India. Retrieved: 9 January 2013.
  88. ^ "Indian Navy Anti-submarine aircraft." India Today. Retrieved: 9 January 2013.
  89. ^ "Navy Inducts Boeing Poseidon-8I to Tighten Coastal Security". TimesofIndia.com, 15 May 2013.
  90. ^ "Boeing Delivers 3rd P-8I to India". Boeing. 22 November 2013. Retrieved 24 November 2013. 
  91. ^ "Indian Navy receives second P8I maritime patrol aircraft". The Economic Times, 16 November 2013.
  92. ^ "Indian Navy receives second P8I maritime patrol aircraft". The Hindu. 16 November 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  93. ^ "Navy scouring area size of UK". The Hindustan Times. 15 March 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  94. ^ a b "Boeing Delivers Fourth P-8I Aircraft To Indian Air Force". Defense World. 23 May 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014. 
  95. ^ India's fifth P-8 arrives for duty - Flightglobal.com, 10 September 2014
  96. ^ Baglole, Joel. "P-8 Poseidon: Future aircraft of the U.S. Navy." About.com, 7 June 2011.
  97. ^ "Farnborough News: P-8 Program already looking into crystal ball." Defense News. Retrieved: 15 March 2011.
  98. ^ "First pass approval for Orion replacement." The Hon. Dr Brendan Nelson, Minister for Defence, 20 July 2007. Retrieved: 16 September 2007.
  99. ^ "Asia Pacific: Avalon 2009: Australia looks set to join P-8 programme." Jane's. Retrieved: 29 August 2012.
  100. ^ "Address to the Air Power Conference." Minister of Defence (Australia), 10 May 2012. Retrieved: 12 September 2012.
  101. ^ Waldron, Greg. "Australia signs A$73.9m deal to participate in P-8A development." Flight International, 5 October 2012. Retrieved: 6 October 2012.
  102. ^ "AIR 7000: Phases 1B and 2B." Defense Department (Australian Government), 2 October 2012. Retrieved: 9 January 2013.
  103. ^ "P-8A Poseidon." Royal Australian Air Force. Retrieved: 3 July 2013.
  104. ^ "Australia plans to procure more P-8 Poseidon MPA than planned, reducing MQ-4C Triton UAS order" - Airrecognition.com, 18 July 2013.
  105. ^ "Aust to buy new Poseidon aircraft". 21 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  106. ^ "Abbott government to spend $4b on new patrol aircraft". Canberra Times. 21 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  107. ^ Australia pushes for Harpoon integration on P-8As - Flightglobal.com, 29 July 2014
  108. ^ USN contracts for first four Australian P-8As - Flightglobal.com, 27 August 2014
  109. ^ "U.S. MMA decision reverberates in Italy". Aviation Week & Space Technology, 21 June 2004.
  110. ^ "Eyes Forward: Italy choses ATR 72s for sea surveillance, but still awaits UAV type selection". Aviation Week and Space Technology, 15 December 2008. Retrieved: 15 March 2011.
  111. ^ Cenciotti, David. "Four ATR72MP to replace the ageing Italian fleet of Br.1150 Atlantic." The Aviationist, 22 December 2008.
  112. ^ Alegi, G. Dedalonews "Quattro ATR 72 da pattugliamento marittimo" (in Italian). l’Aeronautica Militare, 12 December 2008. Retrieved: 15 March 2011.
  113. ^ http://www.dagbladet.no/2014/03/14/nyheter/innenriks/overvakning/forsvaret/nord-norge/32309079/
  114. ^ "UK eyes maritime surveillance aircraft." AirForces Monthly, August 2012, p. 5.
  115. ^ Osborne, Anthony (12 September 2013). "U.K. Maritime Patrol Capability Re-Enters The Fray". Aviation Week. 
  116. ^ Chuter, Andrew (29 September 2014). "Interview: Bernard Gray, UK Chief of Defence Materiel". Defense News. 
  117. ^ Hoyle, Craig. "Picture: India's first 737-based P-8I nears flight debut." Flight, 21 September 2011. Retrieved: 12 September 2012.
  118. ^ Ramey, Chick and Amrita Dhindsa. "Boeing Delivers 1st P-8I Maritime Patrol Aircraft." Boeing. Retrieved: 9 January 2013.
  119. ^ Moran, Captain Michael T. "P-8A Poseidon." NAVAIR – U.S. Navy Naval Air Systems Command – Navy and Marine Corps Aviation Research, Development, Acquisition, Test and Evaluation. Retrieved: 29 August 2012.
  120. ^ [1] "Boeing delivers 13th production P-8"
  121. ^ "P-8A Multi-mission maritime aircraft." United States Navy, 25 January 2007. Retrieved: 15 March 2011.
  122. ^ http://www.navair.navy.mil/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.NAVAIRNewsStory&id=5411
  123. ^ "P-8A Poseidon". Boeing. Retrieved: 6 July 2007.
  124. ^ Ramey, Chick. "P-8A Poseidon: Backgrounder." Boeing, May 2012. Retrieved: 12 September 2012.
  125. ^ http://www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/cutaway-p-8a-poseidon-a-boeing-with-boost-of-bravado-340955/
  126. ^ "US Navy to start P-8 operational tests in the summer". Flightglobal.com
  127. ^ Conway, Thais C. "Raytheon secures prime development contract for advanced airborne sensor." Raytheon, 31 July 2009. Retrieved: 12 September 2012.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Endres, Günter. The Illustrated Directory of Modern Commercial Aircraft. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company, 2001. ISBN 0-7603-1125-0.
  • Norris, Guy and Mark Wagner. Modern Boeing Jetliners. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Zenith Imprint, 1999. ISBN 0-7603-0717-2.
  • Shaw, Robbie. Boeing 737-300 to 800. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company, 1999. ISBN 0-7603-0699-0.

External links[edit]