Bogd Khan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For the mountain, see Bogd Khan Mountain.
Bogd Khan
Bogd Khan.jpg
Khagan of Mongolia
Reign 29 December 1911 – 20 May 1924
Enthronement 29 December 1911
Predecessor Ejei Khan
Successor Republic declared
Spouse Tsendiin Dondogdulam
Full name
Jabzandamba Khutagt Bogd Gegeen Ezen Khaan
Era name and dates
Olnoo Örgögdsön: (1911–1924)[1]
Born c. 1869
Kham, Tibet
Died 20 May 1924 (aged 54–55)
Niyslel Hüree, Mongolia
Religion Buddhism

The Bogd Khan (Mongolian: Богд хаан or Богд Живзундамба Агваанлувсанчойжинямданзанванчүг/Bogd Jivzundamba Agvaanluvsanchoijinyamdanzanvanchüg; 1869–1924) was enthroned as Khagan of Mongolia on 29 December 1911, when Outer Mongolia declared independence from the Qing Dynasty after the Xinhai Revolution. He was born in the Kham region of eastern Tibet, today's Sichuan province of the People's Republic of China. As the eighth Jebtsundamba Khutuktu (Mongolian: Жавзандамба хутагт), he was the third most important person in the Tibetan Buddhism hierarchy, below only the Dalai and Panchen Lamas, and therefore also known as the Bogdo Lama. He was the spiritual leader of Outer Mongolia's Tibetan Buddhism. His wife Tsendiin Dondogdulam, the Ekh Dagina ("Dakini mother"), was believed to be a manifestation of the bodhisattva White Tara.

Life[edit]

Young Bogd Khan
Imperial Seal of Bogd Khan

The future Bogd Khan was born in 1869 in the family of a Tibetan official.[2] The boy was officially recognized as the new incarnation of the Bogd Gegen in Potala in the presence of the 13th Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama.[3] The new Bogd Gegen arrived in Urga, the capital of Outer Mongolia, in 1874. After this he lived only in Mongolia.

According to one eyewitness,

"...he did not become a puppet in the hands of the lamas but, on the contrary, took them in hand. Since his young years he wanted to restore the great Mongolian kingdom of Genghis Khan or, at least, to liberate Mongolia from the Chinese and make it self-dependent. Local princes feared him, but the masses liked him... An independent and clever first hierarch and ruler was unacceptable neither for Tibet, nor for the Chinese".[4]

As a result, from his young years the 8th Bogd Gegeen was the subject of intrigues of Qing officials in Urga. Later he became the subject of propaganda campaigns organised by Mongolian Communists, which attacked him by alleging that he was a prolific poisoner, a paedophile, and a libertine, which was later repeated in belles-lettres and other non-scientific literature (e.g. James Palmer). However, analysis of documents stored in Mongolian and Russian archives does not confirm these statements.[5][6]

As a monk, the Bogd had limited access to physical means of imposing power, though some enemies were executed for blasphemy. The Polish traveller Ferdinand Ossendowski recorded that he knew "every thought, every movement of the Princes and Khans, the slightest conspiracy against him, and the offender is usually kindly invited to Urga, from where he does not return alive.[7] It should be noted, however, that Ossendovsky's claims for his acquaintance with the Bogd Gegen were not confirmed by comparative analysis of his book and manuscripts.[8]

The Bogd Gegen lost his power when Chinese troops occupied the country in 1919. When Baron Ungern's forces failed to seize Urga in late 1920, the Bogd was placed under house arrest; then he was freed and reinstated by Ungern shortly before he took Urga in 1921.[9] After the revolution in 1921 led by Damdin Sükhbaatar, the Bogd Khan was allowed to stay on the throne in a limited monarchy until his death in 1924, a year after that of his wife.

After his death, the Mongolian Revolutionary government, led by followers of the Russian Communists, declared that no more reincarnations were to be found and established the Mongolian People's Republic. However, rumors about a reincarnation of the Jebtsundamba Khutuktu appeared in northern Mongolia in that same year.[10] No traditional determination of the supposed incarnation was conducted. Another rumor appeared in 1925. In November 1926 the 3rd Great Khural of Mongolian People's Republic approved a special resolution that searches for reincarnations of the Bogd Gegen should not be allowed.[11] A final prohibition was approved by the 7th Congress of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party and the 5th People's Great Khural in 1928.[12]

Nevertheless, the next reincarnation of Bogd Gegen was found in Tibet as a boy born in 1932 in Lhasa. This was not announced until the collapse of the USSR and democratic revolution in Mongolia. The Ninth Jebtsundamba Khutuktu was formally enthroned in Dharamsala by Tenzin Gyatso, the fourteenth Dalai Lama in 1991, and in Ulan Bator in 1999.

The Winter Palace of the Bogd Khan has been preserved and is a tourist attraction in Ulan Bator.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Alan J.K Sanders, Historical Dictionary of Mongolia: Second Edition, (2003), Scarecrow Press, Inc. p.413. ISBN 0810866013
  2. ^ Soninbayar, Sh. and Punsaldulam, B. 2009. Mongolyn Tusgaar Togtnol Oyuun Sanaany Ikh Unirdagch VIII Bogd Jevzundamba Khutagt. Ulaanbaatar.
  3. ^ Knyazev, N.N. The Legendary Baron. - In: Legendarnyi Baron: Neizvestnye Stranitsy Grazhdanskoi Voiny. Moscow: KMK Sci. Press, 2004, ISBN 5-87317-175-0 p. 67
  4. ^ Tornovsky, M.G. Events in Mongolia-Khalkha in 1920-1921. - In: Legendarnyi Baron: Neizvestnye Stranitsy Grazhdanskoi Voiny. Moscow: KMK Sci. Press, 2004, ISBN 5-87317-175-0 p. 181
  5. ^ Batsaikhan, O. Bogdo Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, the last King of Mongolia. Ulaanbaatar: Admon Publ., 2008, ISBN 978-99929-0-464-0.
  6. ^ Kuzmin, S.L. and Oyuunchimeg, J. The Great Khan of Mongolia, the 8th Bogd Gegeen. - Aziya i Afrika Segodnya (Moscow, Russian Acad. Sci. Publ.), 2009, no. 1, pp. 59-64.
  7. ^ Ferdinand Ossedowski, Beasts, Men and Gods (New York, E.P. Dutton & Co., 1922), 293.
  8. ^ Kuzmin, S.L., Rejt, L.J. Notes by F.A. Ossendowski as a source on the history of Mongolia. – Oriens (Moscow, Russian Acad. Sci. Publ.), 2008, no. 5, pp. 97-110.
  9. ^ Kuzmin, S.L. The History of Baron Ungern. An Experience of Reconstruction. Moscow: KMK Sci. Press., ISBN 978-5-87317-692-2 p. 325-357
  10. ^ Bawden C.R. The Modern History of Mongolia, 1968, Praeger publishers, New York, pp. 261-263
  11. ^ Kuzmin, S.L. and Oyuunchimeg, J. The Great Khan of Mongolia, the 8th Bogd Gegeen. - Aziya i Afrika Segodnya (Moscow, Russian Acad. Sci. Publ.), 2009, no. 1, pp. 59-64.
  12. ^ Purevjav, S. and Dashjamts, D. BNMAU-d Sum, Khiid, Lam Naryn Asuudlyg Shiidverlesen Ni. Ulaanbaatar: Ulsyn Khevleliin Khereg Erkhlekh Khoroo Publ.

Sources[edit]

Bogd Khan
Born: c. 1869 Died: 20 May 1924
Regnal titles
Vacant
Title last held by
Ejei Khan
Khagan of Mongolia
29 December 1911 – 20 May 1924
Vacant
Religious titles
Preceded by
Ngawang Chökyi Wongchuk Trinley Gyatsho
8th Jebtsundamba Khutuktu
1870 – 20 May 1924
Vacant
Title next held by
Jampal Namdröl Chökyi Gyaltsen