Bogo, Cebu

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Bogo
Component City
City of Bogo
(From top, left to right) : San Vicente Ferrer Church, The Shrine of Our Lady of Miraculous Medal, Bogo City Hall, Capitancillo Islet, Bogo Public Plaza.
(From top, left to right) : San Vicente Ferrer Church, The Shrine of Our Lady of Miraculous Medal, Bogo City Hall, Capitancillo Islet, Bogo Public Plaza.
Official seal of Bogo
Seal
Map of Cebu showing the location of Bogo City
Map of Cebu showing the location of Bogo City
Bogo is located in Philippines
Bogo
Bogo
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 11°02′N 124°00′E / 11.033°N 124.000°E / 11.033; 124.000Coordinates: 11°02′N 124°00′E / 11.033°N 124.000°E / 11.033; 124.000
Country  Philippines
Region Central Visayas (Region VII)
Province Cebu
Congr. district 4th district of Cebu
Established 1850
Cityhood June 16, 2007
Barangays 29
Government[1]
 • Mayor Celestino "Junie" Espinosa Martinez Jr.
 • Vice Mayor Santiago Araneta Sevilla
Area[2]
 • Total 103.52 km2 (39.97 sq mi)
Population (2010)[3]
 • Total 69,911
 • Density 680/km2 (1,700/sq mi)
Time zone PHT (UTC+8)
ZIP Code 6010
Dialing code 32
Income class 4th Class City
Demonym Bogohanon
Website cityofbogocebu.gov.ph

Bogo, officially the City of Bogo[4][5](Cebuano: Dakbayan sa Bogo; Filipino: Lungsod ng Bogo), is a fourth class city in the province of Cebu, Philippines. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 69,911 people.[3][6] As of November 2013, lgu data, Bogo City has a population of 82,327 and 18,295 households.

Bogo is located in the northeastern coast of Cebu province, in mainland Cebu. It is 101 kilometers away from the provincial capital, Cebu City and it is accessible by land and sea transportation. Bogo City has an area of 103.52 square kilometers, which constitutes 2.7% of the total land area of Cebu province. The city is bounded on the north by municipality of Medellin on the west by the municipality of San Remigio on the south by the municipality of Tabogon and on the east by Camotes Sea.[7][8]

Barangays[edit]

Bogo is politically subdivided into 29 barangays,[2] listed here with barangay captains:.[9]

  • Anonang Norte - Hon. Josefina Balais
  • Anonang Sur - Hon. Jeanelyn Tabaco
  • Banban - Hon. Allan Araneta
  • Binabag - Hon. Glenn Alegre
  • Bungtod (Pob.)- Hon. Cecile Canete Derrota
  • Carbon (Pob.) - Hon. Rosendo Barte
  • Cayang - Hon. Celestino Martinez 111(ABC Pres.)
  • Cogon (Pob.)- Hon. Vivian Canama
  • Dakit - Hon. Efren Tolingin
  • Don Pedro Rodriguez - Hon. Propetacio Bañares
  • Gairan - Hon. Nestor Lumongsod
  • Guadalupe - Hon. Cerelo Cabahug
  • LaPaz - Hon. Marlou T. Ancajas
  • La Purisima Concepcion (Pob.)- Hon. Jose Felix Mandal Rodriguez
  • Libertad - Hon. Rodulfo Punay
  • Lourdes - Hon. Erwin Ortega
  • Malingin - Hon. Marilyn Calidguid
  • Marangog - Hon. Restituto Balunan
  • Nailon - Hon. Pio Yurango
  • Odlot - Hon. Juanillo Emily Jusay
  • Pandan (Pandan Heights)- Hon. Jacinto Antonio
  • Polambato - Hon. Narciso Melendrez
  • Sambag (Pob.) - Hon. Virgilio Terado Jr.
  • San Vicente (Pob.) - Hon. Oliver Escolar
  • Santo Niño - Hon. Cesar Jusay
  • Santo Rosario (Pob.) - Hon. Florencio F. Ynot
  • Siocon - Hon. Emma Jagdon
  • Sudlonon - Hon. Santiago Batuigas
  • Taytayan - Hon. Teresita Ursal

History[edit]

The year 1600 usher in the founding of a real settlement which was subsequently transformed into a barangay where small huts made of cogon and bamboos squatted at the site where the Bogo Central Extension now stands. While the barangays was then a part of another bustling community in the north, now known as the town of DaanBantayan, the natives enjoyed tacit freedom of self-rule although they continued to pay tributes and taxes to the chieftain of DaanBantayan. This barangay grew in prominence and for this reason, it was separated from the vassalage of DaanBantayan. Hence, in January 1850 the Bishop of Cebu, appointed Father Jaime Micalot, Spanish friar as the first parish priest of Bogo and decreed Saint Vincent Ferrer as the town's patron saint.[10] [11] [12]

The first mass was celebrated in the hastily built chapel of cogon roofing and mixed bamboo and lumber materials on April 5, 1850, to coincide with the death anniversary of the patron saint. Unfortunately, however, this chapel was gutted by fire of undetermined origin and a new stone church was constructed at the same place where the present Bogo Town Plaza is located. About this time, the Spanish authorities in Bogo introduced civil government. Pedro Aballe became the first Cabeza de Barangay or Capitan of the Town from 1864 to 1869.[13] The late Ex-Senator Pedro L. Rodriguez, popularly known as the Grand Old Man of Bogo named one of the oldest streets of the town after him.[10] [11] [12]

In those times, a Capitan or Cabeza de Barangay took charge of the recollection of tributes to support the encomienda system of Spain. Late the tribute was substituted with the "papelita" (cedula) which the individual paid in two installments annually. A taxpayer who could not afford to pay the cost of papelita in the amount of P1.50 was made to work on local projects at fifty centavos a week. Because of this, a good number of delinquent taxpayers escaped and hid in the mountain fastness of Bogo.[10][12]

Early historian aver that the town of Bogo derived its name from a lone bogo tree (scientifically named "Garuga Floribunda"[14][15] that flowers into full bloom in the short summer) which stood on the brink of the shore which is now a part of Bogo wharf. Under its spreading shade the natives of the place meet incoming traders who rode on frail sailboats loaded with goods to be sold or bartered with the natives of the town.[12] Thus, this spot became a rendezvous for traders and merchants as well as for nature lovers and leisure-seeker who found refuge and comfort under the cool shade of the tree made more poignant by the balmy air wafted by the ocean breeze. Some of these traders, however remained and married with the natives of the place.[10][12]

A few years before the turn of the 20th century, eventful episodes took place in the town marked by fire and blood. The nationalistic fervor of the Katipuneros in Luzon fanned the flames of the resistant movement in Cebu. In Bogo, the younger kins of the Katipuneros, the so-called "Pulahans" exacted heavy tolls on the forces of the Casadores (guadia civil) during fierce encounters near the outskirts of the town. Although the Pulahans were ill-armed, untrained and outnumbered at times, they nevertheless continued to hit back at the enemy with unrelenting vigor and determination.[10][11][16]

Success was almost within their grasps when in 1898, an American cavalry unit under Captain Rowan landed at Nailon point, a northeastern barrio, and proceeded to the Poblacion where he assembled his troops in front of the Catholic Church. On hand to meet him was Pedro L. Rodriguez then Presidente Municipal of the town. After brief amenities, Capt. Rowan and Presidente Rodriguez sealed an agreement for the protection of the civilian populace of the town.[10][11][16]

With the defeat of the Spanish forces in the islands from the hands of the invading American armies-political, economic, social and educational reforms were instituted. Thus, was born the American system of government which the Filipinos enjoyed for almost half a century.[10][11][16]

World War II[edit]

Again in 1941, the Philippines, being a territory of the United States, became a battleground in an undeclared war between the invading Japanese Imperial Forces and the combined Fil-American troops. After the surrender of the USAFFE from Bogo refused to swear allegiance to the Japanese. They went to the hills and organized guerilla warfare headed by disbanded officers of the constabulary and army units in the province.[10][11][16]

Under the command of Capt. Garcia the guerilla forces encamped at Mt. Binabag. Foremost among the guerilla were Jose Carrasco, Jose Momongan, Leo Española and several civilian volunteers who joined the guerilla movement.[10][11][16]

Cognizant of the anti-Japanese sentiment of this armed group who were determined to carry out harassment tactics against the occupation troops in northern Bogo, six Japanese seaplane bombed the town of Bogo on the early morning of December 12, 1942. Several civilians cost their lives and many injured. In order to quell the seething rebellion, the Japanese military authorities in Cebu established a garrison in the town in a building now owned by the Northern Cebu Colleges. Captured guerillas and sympathizers were subjected to untold brutalities at the Japanese garrison. As a means to win the loyalty and support of the people of the town, the local puppet administration was established in Bogo under Japanese supervision. Councilor Moises Lepatan was appointed town mayor during the occupation.[10][11][16]

Liberation came in 1944, and no sooner civilian government was restored. Ex-Municipal Secretary Perfecto Andrino was appointed first Mayor of Bogo after liberation by the victorious Liberal Party of President Manuel Roxas in 1945. In the first local election held after the World War II, Severo Verallo, considerable majority elected the candidate of the Liberal Party in the town mayor. Hand in hand, the people and the local leaders worked feverishly to regain the town's enviable prestige as the Queen Town of Northern Cebu out of the shambles and ruins of the last war.[10][11][16]

Cityhood[edit]

The plebiscite for the cityhood of Bogo was held on 16 June 2007. After few hours of canvassing, 97.82% of voters of Bogo voted for "yes" for cityhood. Former representative Clavel Asas-Martinez announced that the cityhood of Bogo has been ratified. It became the sixth component city of Cebu province.[17]

On 19 November 2008, the City of Bogo was demoted along with 2 other cities in Cebu and 13 other cities in the Philippines. The Supreme Court ruled out that the 16 cities did not pass the requirements for cityhood.[18][19]

On December 10, 2008, Bogo and the other 15 cities affected filed a motion for reconsideration with the Supreme Court. More than a year later, on December 22, 2009, acting on said appeal, the Court reversed its earlier ruling as it ruled that "at the end of the day, the passage of the amendatory law (regarding the criteria for cityhood as set by Congress) is no different from the enactment of a law, i.e., the cityhood laws specifically exempting a particular political subdivision from the criteria earlier mentioned. Congress, in enacting the exempting law/s, effectively decreased the already codified indicators. SC reverses self, upholds creation of 16 cities.[20] As such, the cityhood status of Bogo is effectively restored.

But on August 27, 2010, Bogo lost its city status again. It shared this fate with 15 other cities after the Supreme Court voted 7-6, with two justices not taking part, to reinstate a 2008 decision declaring as “unconstitutional" the Republic Acts (RAs) that converted 16 municipalities into cities.[21][22] A previous law required towns aspiring to become cities to earn at least P100 million annually, which none of the 16 did.

On February 15, 2011, the Supreme Court upheld for the third time the cityhood of Bogo and 15 other towns in the Philippines.[23][24]

And on April 12, 2011, Supreme Court en banc ruling held in Baguio City, promulgated and resolved that:”We should not ever lose sight of the fact that the 16 cities covered by the Cityhood Laws not only had conversion bills pending during the 11th Congress, but have also complied with the requirements of the LGC prescribed prior to its amendment by R.A. No. 9009. Congress undeniably gave these cities all the considerations that justice and fair play demanded. Hence, this Court should do no less by stamping its imprimatur to the clear and unmistakable legislative intent and by duly recognizing the certain collective wisdom of Congress. WHEREFORE, the Ad Cautelam Motion for Reconsideration (of the Decision dated 15 February 2011) is denied with finality”.[25] Affirming the finality of the constitutionality of the 16 Cityhood Laws.

On June 28, 2011, resolution, the Supreme Court has directed the Clerk of Court to forthwith issue the entry of judgement on the cityhood case of 16 municipalities. Sealing with "the finality of the resolution upholding the constitutionality of the 16 Cityhood Laws absolutetly warrants the respondents "Motion for Entry of Judgement", the SC ruled."[26] This entry of judgement ended the cityhood battle of Bogo City and 15 other cities in the Philippines.

New Government Center[edit]

The New Bogo City Hall was inaugurated on April 19, 2013 by President Benigno Aquino III, President of the Republic of the Philippines.[27] On November 8, 2013, a monster powerful super typhoon Haiyan,[28][29] also known as Yolanda, badly hit northern Cebu, where Bogo City is located and not spared with the tragic and widespread devastation. Typhoon Yolanda destroyed almost everything from infrastructure to agriculture, 90% left homeless and thirteen died in Bogo, among the over 6,000 fatalities in Central Philippines. The newly built Bogo City Hall was one of the structure damaged, its roof got ripped off, its glass windows broken and some parts of the building also suffered damage.[30]

Demographics[edit]

Population Census of Bogo City
Year Pop.   ±% p.a.  
1990 51,083 —    
1995 57,509 +2.40%
2000 63,869 +2.12%
2007 69,123 +1.14%
2010 69,911 +0.38%
Source: National Statistics Office[3]

Fiestas and festivals[edit]

Piyesta sa Bogo

Bogo City celebrates two town fiestas in every year in honor of its patron saint, Saint Vicent Ferrer.[10]

  • Every April 5 is the official feast day or the death anniversary of San Vicente Ferrer. Many pilgrims around the world will come to venerate the patron saint and almost all activities in this fiesta are religious activities only.
  • Every May 27 is considered the biggest town fiesta celebration where most number of visitors coming to witness the events i.e. the search for Ms. Bogo Festival Queen and the celebration of the official festival of Bogo City, the Pintos Festival.
Pintos Festival

It is an annual festival in the northern city of Bogo that showcases their delicious delicacy the pintos. Barangays all around Bogo City jive up together to form 5 cluster tribes. ‘Kuyayang’ is a courtship dance of the Bogohanons that is staged before the community during fiestas. This street mardi gras as a cultural tourism festival of Bogo manifests the cultural heritage of the town and serves as an avenue for cultural conservancy of the city.[31]

The Official Pintos Festival Jingle was composed by Mr. Dante J. Mayor with the assistance of Christian Yurango. The composition was finalized with the musical guidance of Mr. Slavsky Ybañez. The lyrics was originally written by Mr. Gremer Chan Reyes and was edited by Dante J. Mayor and Rev. Fr. Eligio M. Suico.

The latest version of the Bogo Pintos Festival Jingle was rearranged by Elvis Somosot and was recorded at his own studio at Musikinesis, beside Plaza Independencia, Cebu City. It was recorded last July 22, 2011 by the selected Bogo City Employees under the baton of Mr. Slavsky Ybañez.

Bogo City Charter Day

Held every 16 June.[32]

Education[edit]

Elementary schools[edit]

  • Anonang Norte Elementary School
  • Anonang Sur Elementary School
  • Araneta Learning Center (Bogo) - (Preschool & Elem.Private School)
  • Banban Elementary School
  • Binabag Elementary School
  • Bogo Central School I
  • Bogo Central School II
  • Bogo Central School III (Gairan)
  • Bogo Christian Learning & Development School - (Preschool & Elem.Private School)
  • Bung-aw Elementary School
  • Cayang Elementary School
  • Combado Elementary School
  • Dakit Elementary School
  • Don Pedro Rodriguez Elementary School
  • Guadalupe Elementary School
  • La Paz Elementary School
  • Libertad Elementary School
  • Malingin Elementary School
  • Marangog Elementary School
  • Nailon Elementary School
  • Odlot Elementary School
  • Polambato Elementary School
  • San Roque Child Development School (Preschool & Elem.Private School)
  • Siokon Elementary School
  • Taytayan Primary School

High schools[edit]

  • Banban National High School
  • Binabag High School
  • Bartolome Piañar Municipal National High School Odlot Ext. (Dakit)
  • Cayang National High School Ext.
  • City of Bogo Science and Arts Academy ( Elementary and High School)
  • Don Potenciano Catarata Municipal National High School Ext. (Guadalupe)
  • La Paz National High School Ext.
  • Libertad National High School Ext.
  • Jovencio N. Masong National High School (Nailon)
  • Odlot National High School Ext.
  • San Roque Child Development School (Private Elementary and High School)

Colleges[edit]

  • Cebu Roosevelt Memorial Colleges - (High School and College)
  • Felipe R. Verallo Memorial Foundation College, Inc.[33] - (Elementary, High School, and College)
  • Northern Cebu Colleges - (High School and College)
  • St. Louise de Marillac College (Holy Family Academy) - (High School and College)
  • Liahona Institute of Technology

Media[edit]

Radio stations
  • 1152 kHz Bag-ong Adlaw DYCM AM [2]-broadcast from Cebu City
  • 864 kHz Bantay Radio DYHH AM- relay station with broadcast originating from Cebu City
  • 91.7 MHz Radio Natin DYBG FM
  • 93.3 MHz Hug Radio FM
  • 94.1 MHz CRMC Radio DYVL FM
  • 94.9 MHz Countryside Radio DYCN-FM
  • 95.7 MHz Community Radio DYGO-FM 'Lokal95'
  • 96.5 MHz Radyo Sugbu DYVH-FM
  • 105.5 MHz Brigada News FM (soon to air)[3]
Cable and TV stations

Major TV networks based in the provincial capital, Cebu City have signals in the city

  • ABS-CBN Channel 3 Cebu
  • GMA Channel 7 Cebu
  • CCTN
Newspapers

National and local daily newspapers, tabloids and magazines are available in the city. The City of Bogo has its own official publication ["KANAAS" Gikan sa Amihanan] (A Whisper from the North) which comes out once every quarter.[34][35]

City landmarks[edit]

  • The Archdiocesan Shrine of St. Vincent Ferrer
  • The Shrine of Our Lady of Meraculous Medal
  • Bogo City Hall
  • Capitancillo Islet
  • Bogo City Plaza Park
  • Bogo City Public Library and Museum

Notable Bogohanons[edit]

  • Former Senator Don Pedro "Nyor Endong" Lazala Rodriguez(1869-1932), born in Bogo, Cebu, former mayor of Bogo from 1898 to 1903,[36] in 1907 he represent as senator, former Commonwealth Philippine Senator of the 10th senatorial district from 1925 to 1931,[37] popularly known as the Grand Old Man of Bogo.[38] Ang manggiluy-ong Bayani sa Bogo.[39]
  • Ex-Senator Celestino Lazala Rodriguez (1872-1955), born in Bogo, Cebu, was elected municipal president of Cebu in 1904, deputy to the first Philippine Assembly from 1907 to 1909, elected senator for two consecutive terms from 1916 to 1922 and from 1922 to 1928.[40]
  • Former Governor Buenaventura Rodriguez(1892-1940), born in Bogo, Cebu, member Cebu Provincial board from 1921 to 1925, representative of Cebu City first district from 1925 to 1929, Cebu Governor from 1936 to 1940.
  • Gabriel "Flash" Elorde(1935-1985), born in Bogo, Cebu, professional boxer, world super featherweight champion, one of the Great Boxers of the World.[41]
  • Chief Justice "Celing" Briones Fernan (1927-1999), hold the top position of the two branches of government of the Republic of the Philippines-as Chief Justiceof the Supreme Court of the Philippines and then as Senate President of the Republic of the Philippines. Justice Fernan, the second of the five children of Justice Wenceslao L.Fernan and Gng.Margarita Briones of Bogo.
  • Sharon Garcia Magdayao a.k.a. Vina Morales, a filipina singer, actress and model.
  • Celestino "Junie"Espinosa Martinez Jr., former congressman, chairman-Committee on Local Government, authored "RA 7160-The Local Government Code of the Philippines", former Undersecretary for Special Concerns of the Department of Agriculture, mayor of Bogo during the martial law regime-one of the vocal opposition, the first and present city mayor of Bogo City.

City hymn[edit]

The city hymn called "The Bogo Hymn" was written and composed by Bogo's known musician Teodoro "Dodong" Pedroza. The Bogo City council has passed an ordinance requiring all schools in Bogo to sing the Bogo Hymn in every Flag Raising Ceremonies and School Programs just like the Philippine National Anthem, "Lupang Hinirang". Radio Stations based in Bogo are also required to play the hymn every sign-on and sign-off.[42][43][44] A city legislation prohibiting the alteration of the lyrics, tempo and tune in the rendition of Bogo hymn entitled “Padayon Bogo”.[45]

THE BOGO HYMN

BOGO DAKBAYAN NGA MATAHUM,
SA 'YANG KATAWHAN GIPANGGA, GIAMPINGAN
SA ATONG LALAWIGAN,
MISULBONG ANG KAHAYAG DI HITUPNGAN
PADAYON BOGO, PADAYON
PADAYON AYAW PAGHUNONG
KAY ANG KALANGITAN NAGDAN-AG SA IMONG DALAN

ANG GASA SA KAHITAS-AN LAWOD SA KATUBHAN
KALUBIHAN, UG MAY KAMAISAN
ANG IMONG KADAGATAN PUNO SA KAISDAAN
ANG IMONG PALIBOT SA KATAWHAN GIKAIB-GAN

BOGO DAKBAYAN NGA MATAHUM,
SA 'YANG KATAWHAN GIPANGGA, GIAMPINGAN
SA ATONG LALAWIGAN,
MISULBONG ANG KAHAYAG DI HITUPNGAN
PADAYON BOGO, PADAYON
PADAYON AYAW PAGHUNONG
KAY ANG KALANGITAN NAGDAN-AG SA IMONG DALAN
KAY ANG KALANGITAN NAGDAG-AG SA IMONG....
DA...LAN...

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cities". Quezon City, Philippines: Department of the Interior and Local Government. Retrieved 17 October 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "Province: Cebu". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2010". 2010 Census of Population and Housing. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  4. ^ Republic Act No. 9390, Philippine Law info. Retrieved on 2 January 2014.
  5. ^ Republic Act No. 9390, Congress of the Philippines. Retrieved on 6 July 2014.
  6. ^ NSCB ActiveStats – PSGC Interactive. Retrieved on 2 January 2014.
  7. ^ “General Info. – The Land”, City of Bogo Official Website.
  8. ^ “Geography of Bogo”, BOGO On Line.
  9. ^ [1], 2013 Barangay Election Results.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l “General Info. – History”, City of Bogo Official Website.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i The History of Bogo, BOGO On Line.
  12. ^ a b c d e Political History1-First Execs, BOGO On Line.
  13. ^ Political History2-Spanish Regime, BOGO On Line.
  14. ^ “The Bogo Tree”(Garuga Floribunda), BOGO On Line.
  15. ^ The Bogo Tree, scientifically name “Garuga Floribunda”, posted by The Bogo Times.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Government & Politics - Political History, BOGO On Line.
  17. ^ Comelec affirms Bogo is now 6th city of Cebu., Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved on 2 January 2014.
  18. ^ Napallacan, Jhunex (2008-11-21). "Cities’ demotion worries DepEd execs". Cebu Daily News. Inquirer.net. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  19. ^ http://sc.judiciary.gov.ph/news/courtnews%20flash/2008/11/11180803.php granted a petition
  20. ^ SC reverses self, upholds creation of 16 cities.
  21. ^ http://www.manilastandardtoday.com/insideNation.htm?f=2010/august/28/nation1.isx&d=2010/august/28
  22. ^ SC Reinstates 2008 Decision Voiding 16 Cityhood Laws
  23. ^ http://www.pia.gov.ph/?m=1&t=1&id=17453
  24. ^ G.R.No.176951, Supreme Court of the Philippines Website. "February 15,2011, resolution, the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of 16 Cityhood Laws". Retrieved on 2 January 2014.
  25. ^ G.R.No.176951, Supreme Court of the Philippines Website. "April 12,2011 Supreme Court en banc ruling held in Baguio City, promulgated and resolved; affirming the finality of the 16 Cityhood Laws". Retrieved 2 January 2014.
  26. ^ G.R.No.176951, Supreme Court of the Philippines Website. "June 28,2011, resolution, the Supreme Court has directed the Clerk of Court to forthwith issue the Entry of Judgement". Retrieved on 23 March 2014.
  27. ^ Pinoy to campaign for local bets in cebu on friday to open bogo's p250m city hall, Media ng Bayan Website.Retrieved on 2 January 2014.
  28. ^ //www.philstar.com/headlines/2013/11/07/1254270/monster-typhoon-grows-stronger-10-areas-visayas-under-signal-number-4 MONSTER TYPHOON GROWS STRONGER; 10 areas in Visayas under signal no.4], Philippine Star. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
  29. ^ Yolanda hits northern Cebu – CNN iReport, CNN News. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
  30. ^ Devastation in Northern Cebu, Philippines, Sunstar Daily. Retrieved on 2 January 2014.
  31. ^ http://www.tourism.gov.ph/sitepages/FestivitiesList.aspx?festivityCode=1155&monthCode=05
  32. ^ Nationwide and local holidays list, Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved on 2 January 2014.
  33. ^ http://verallocollege.org/
  34. ^ “Kanaas” Gikan sa Amihanan, The City of Bogo CeC and National Computer Center. Retrieved on 2 January 2014.
  35. ^ “Kanaas” Gikan sa Amihanan, City of Bogo Official Website
  36. ^ Bogo – Gov’t. & Politics – Mayors, Bogo On Line.
  37. ^ Senate list, Senate of the Philippines Website. Retrieved on 2 January 2014.
  38. ^ Don Pedro Rodriguez-Grand Old Man of Bogo., Bogo On Line.
  39. ^ Don Pedro Rodriguez(1869-1932) Ang Manggiluy-ong Bayani sa Bogo by Eufrosino Ursal Luna/Bagong Suga/November 26,1965, Re-posted by The Bogo Times.
  40. ^ Senate list, Senate of the Philippines Website. Retrieved on 2 January 2014.
  41. ^ Remembering one of the greatest the flash elorde story, Manila Standard Today Website. Retrieved on 2 January 2014.
  42. ^ The Bogo City Hymn: A song that every true Bogohanon should know by the author Dante Mayor on 20 April 2010., Dante Mayor Post. Retrieved on 2 January 2014.
  43. ^ bogo hymn w lyrics – youtube
  44. ^ The Bogo Hymn, posted by The Bogo Times.
  45. ^ City of Bogo Official Website

External links[edit]