Bogor Botanical Gardens
The Bogor Botanical Gardens (Indonesian: Kebun Raya Bogor) is a botanical garden located in Bogor, Indonesia, 60 km south of Jakarta. The gardens are in the city center and adjoin the Istana Bogor (Presidential Palace). The gardens cover more than 80 hectares.
The area that was now Bogor Botanical Gardens was part of the samida (man made forest) that was established at least around the era when Sri Baduga Maharaja (Prabu Siliwangi, 1474-1513) rules the Sunda Kingdom, as written in the Batutulis inscription. This forest was created to protect seeds of rare woods. Another similar samida was established near the current border between Bogor and Cianjur, called Ciung Wanara Forest. This forest was neglected after the Sunda Kingdom was defeated by the Banten Sultanate.
In 1744, the Dutch East India Company established a garden and mansion at the site of the present Botanical Gardens in Buitenzorg (now known as Bogor).
In 1811, Stamford Raffles was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Java. Raffles had the garden in Buitenzorg re-landscaped. His wife, Olivia Raffles, died in Bogor in 1814. A memorial her now stands in the grounds of the Bogor Botanical Gardens.
In 1817, the status of the gardens in Bogor was formally lifted to the rank of Botanical Gardens. The gardens officially opened in 1817 as 'Lands Plantentuin ('National Botanical Garden'), the idea of which was introduced by German-born Dutch biologist and botanist Professor Caspar Georg Carl Reinwardt. They were used to research and develop plants and seeds from other parts of Indonesia for cultivation during the 19th century. This is a tradition that continues today and contributes to the garden's reputation as a center of botanical research.
In 1848, the West African oil palm, was introduced into the gardens. This is believed to be the mother tree in Southeast Asia from which numerous descendants were produced to support the growth of the palm oil industry in the region.
In 1862, The Cibodas Botanical Gardens were established as an extension of the Bogor gardens.
In 1889, The Teysmann Garden, a formal garden in the symmetrical European styles, was established in honor of Johannes Elias Teijsmann, curator of the Bogor Botanical Gardens from 1830 to 1869.
In 1928, the Astrid Avenue, which contains spectacular display of canna lilies of various colors, was established on the eastern side of the gardens in memory of a visit by Princess Astrid of Belgium.
In 1994, The APEC Heads of Government meeting was held in the Bogor Palace next to the gardens.
In 2009, a new Orchard Garden was opened on the eastern side of the gardens to celebrate the 192nd anniversary of the gardens
The gardens were used during the APEC summit meeting in Indonesia attended by sixty world leaders which formalised the Bogor Declaration.
Today the garden contains more than 15,000 species of trees and plants. There are 400 types of exceptional palms along lawns and avenues.The Gardens are a refuge for more than 50 different varieties of birds and for groups of bats roosting high in the trees. The orchid houses contain some 3,000 varieties. In 1862, the Cibodas Botanical Gardens were founded as an extension of the Bogor garden at Cibodas, approximately 45 kilometers to the southeast of Bogor.
Bogor Botanical Gardens has five Amorphophallus titanum plants in its collections, all from Pagar Alam, South Sumatra. This represents the greatest number of specimens among botanical gardens. The latest flowering events took place in January 2011 and on July 3, 2011.
Directors of the garden
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (June 2012)|
- 1817–1822 : Caspar Georg Carl Reinwardt (1773–1854)
- 1823–1826 : Carl Ludwig Blume (1789–1862)
- 1830–1869 : Johannes Elias Teijsmann (1808–1882)
- 1869–1880 : Rudolph Herman Christiaan Carel Scheffer (1844–1880)
- 1880–1910 : Melchior Treub (1851–1910)
- 1910–1918 : J.C. Koningsberger
- 1918–1932 : Willem Marius Docters van Leeuwen (1880–1960)
- 1932–1939 : K.W. Dammerman
- 1939–1940 : L.G.M. Baas Becking
- 1940–1941 : T.H. Honert
- 1941–1943 : D.F. van Slooten
- 1943–1945 : Takenoshin Nakai (1882–1952)
- 1946–1948 : L.G.M. Baas Becking
- 1948–1949 : Dirk Fok van Slooten (1891–1953)
- 1949–1959 : Kusnoto Setyodiwirjo
- 1959–1969 : Soedjana Kassan
- 1969–1981 : Didin Sastrapradja
- 1981–1983 : Made Sri Prana
- 1983–1987 : Usep Sutisna
- 1987–1990 : Sampurno Kadarsan
- 1990-1997 : Suhirman
- 1997-2002 : Dedi Darnaedi
- 2002-2008 : Irawati
- 2008- up to present: Mustaid Siregar
- Jakarta Globe http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/lifeandtimes/bogor-botanical-gardens-mark-verdant-life-and-death/536576
- 'Botanic Gardens Turn 192 with "Orchardarium"', The Jakarta Globe, 15 May 2009.
- Member Economies. apec.org
- Bunga Bangkai Raksasa yang Langka Muncul di Kebun Raya Bogor. Pikiran Rakyat Online, July 3, 2011.
- Levelink, J., et al. (1997). Four Guided Walks: Bogor Botanic Garden.
- Hiroaki Hatta, Keiko Hashiba, and Mujahidin (2006). Tree watching tour of Bogor Botanic Garden (in Japanese and English). Available for sale in the Orchid House on the eastern side of the Bogor Botanic Gardens.
- Francis Ng and Gregori Hambali (1999). Bogor: The Botanic Garden. Printed by SMT Grafika Desa Putera, Jakarta.