Bohemond IV of Antioch

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Bohemond IV ruled over Antioch and Tripoli (green), and was in conflict with Cilician Armenia (blue).

Bohemond IV of Antioch (or de Poitiers) (c. 1172 – March 1233), also known as the One-Eyed (in French le Cyclops), was ruler of the Principality of Antioch (a crusader state) between 1201 and 1205, again between 1208 and 1216, and again from 1219 until his death. He was also Count of Tripoli from 1187.

Biography[edit]

Bohemond IV was the son of Bohemond III of Antioch by his first wife Orguilleuse d'Harenc. The first part of his rule was marked by internal dynastic conflicts.

Starting around 1201, a dispute had arisen about the succession of Antioch. Bohemond III had a grandson, Raymond-Roupen of Antioch, from his eldest son Raymond of Antioch, who was considered by many to be the rightful heir to Antioch. Bohemond IV won the title, at the time, and ruled over both Tripoli and Antioch, though their legal and administrative systems remained distinct.[1] However, conflict continued for generations, and involved nobles from Antioch, Tripoli, and Cilician Armenia. Bohemond chose to live in Tripoli, and while he was absent, Antioch became heavily influenced by the Greek communities.

Raymond-Roupen was excluded from the succession, but even so Bohemond IV still lost the principality to his nephew, supported by Leo II of Armenia, between 1216 and 1219.

Bohemond proved to be an erratic ally, changing his vows of fidelity in whichever way he considered the best interest for his principality. An example was first the alliance then desertion of the troops of Frederick II Hohenstaufen, during the Sixth Crusade of 1228/1229. He was also a fierce enemy of the Knights Hospitaller and due to this he was excommunicated in 1230 by Pope Gregory IX.

Family[edit]

His first marriage occurred some time before 21 August 1198 to Plaisance Embriaco de Giblet (d. 1217). They had four sons and two daughters:

After the death of his first wife, he married again at Tripoli in January 1218 Melisende de Lusignan (c. 1200 – after 1249), Princess of Cyprus, daughter of Amalric II of Jerusalem and his second wife Isabella of Jerusalem. From this marriage, Bohemond had three daughters:

  • Isabelle of Poitiers, who died young.
  • Marie de Poitiers (Castello de Canosa, Apulia, after 10 December 1307), Pretender to the throne of Jerusalem (1269–1277)
  • Helvis de Poitiers, who died young.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Riley-Smith, p. 136

References[edit]

Preceded by
Bohemond III
Prince of Antioch
1201–1216
Succeeded by
Raymond-Roupen
Preceded by
Raymond-Roupen
Prince of Antioch
1219–1233
Succeeded by
Bohemond V
Preceded by
Raymond III
Count of Tripoli
1187–1233