Bolesław II of Masovia

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Boleslaw II of Masovia
Bolesław II.jpg
Boleslaw II of Masovia
Spouse(s) Gaudemunda Sophia of Lithuania
Kunigunde of Bohemia
Noble family House of Piast
Father Siemowit I of Masovia
Mother Pereyaslava of Galicia
Born c. 1251
Died 20 April 1313(1313-04-20)

Boleslaw II of Masovia or Boleslaw II of Płock (c. 1251 – 20 April 1313) was a ruler of Masovia. He was the younger brother Konrad II of Masovia and son of Siemowit I of Masovia. His mother was Pereyaslava,[1] daughter of Daniel of Galicia.

Boleslaus became Duke of Masovia in 1262. In 1275, he shared Masovia with his brother and he became Duke of Płock. From 1294, Boleslaus reigned over all of Masovia. In 1288 he became Duke of Sandomierz. In 1310 he offered some of Masovia to his son (the Duchy of Warsaw and the Duchy of Czersk).

Duke of Płock[edit]

In 1262 Boleslaus' father, Siemowit was killed by the Lithuanians who also captured his brother. The regency of the duchy of Masovia was then ensured by Boleslaw the Pious and Boleslaus' mother Pereyaslava.

In 1275 when he reached the age of majority, Masovia was shared between him and his brother. He received the Duchy of Płock. Boleslaw did not like how much of the Duchy he was receiving and a prolonged conflict between the two brothers broke out. In 1279, there was an alliance with the Lithuanians and Boleslaus married Gaudemunda Sophia, the daughter of Grand Duke Traidenis of Lithuania. Boleslaus was also an ally of his cousin Władysław I the Elbow-high, who was then Duke of Kuyavia.

Fighting for Krakow and Sandomierz[edit]

On 30 September 1288, Leszek II the Black died without leaving an heir. Part of the nobility of Lesser Poland supported the accession of Boleslaus. He faced Henryk IV Probus, the Duke of Wrocław, who aimed to succeed in Krakow as well as Boleslaus did. In 1288, Boleslaus seized Sandomierz and Krakow. On 236 February 1289 he defeated Henry IV the Probus.

Despite the victory, the inhabitants of Cracow offered power to Henry IV rather than Boleslaus. Powerful Lesser Poland rallied to Henry IV, ending the hopes of Boleslaw ascending the throne in Cracow. This left the Duchy of Sandomierz to his brother Konrad II of Masovia. This dissatisfied the nobles of Lesser Poland, accustomed to see the Duke of Krakow reign over Sandomierz. Finally, Boleslaw left Lesser Poland to Władysław I the Elbow-high and retired to his duchy. The only positive aspect of this struggle for the throne of Krakow was the reconciliation with his brother Conrad.

Alliance with Bohemia[edit]

Boleslaus' wife Sophia died so he remarried in early 1291 to Kunigunde, the sister of Wenceslaus II of Bohemia. The same year, Wenceslaus seized Krakow. Boleslaus saw his position strengthen. The following year, his stepfather came to his aid in his war against Władysław I the Elbow-high.

Duke of Mazovia and war with Bohemia[edit]

The alliance between Masovia and Bohemia did not last very long. On October 11, 1294 Conrad II died, Boleslaus became ruler of all Masovia. Feeling stronger, he broke his alliance with Bohemia and turned to Władysław I.

In 1295 Przemysl II became King of Poland. The following year, after the assassination of Przemysl II, Boleslaus and Władysław went into a brief was against Henry III of Głogów for the succession in Poland.

In 1300, the deterioration of relations between Bohemia and Masovia pushed Wenceslas II to attack Masovia. Boleslaus resists and does not change his political line. He did not recognize Wenceslas as King of Poland so he returned Kunigunde to Prague in 1302, despite fathering three children by her.

Later life and family[edit]

In the early 1300s Boleslaus founded the stronghold of Warsaw. After 1305 the political activities of Boleslaus were reduced. In 1310 he transferred part of Mazovia to his eldest two sons. Siemowit received the Warsaw area and Trojden received Czersk. In 1311, Borzysław becomes his Chancellor.[2]

Boleslaus II of Mazovia died on April 20, 1313.

In 1279 he married firstly to Gaudemunda Sophia, the daughter of Grand Duke Traidenis of Lithuania, they had the following children:

  1. Siemowit II of Masovia, Duke of Masovia (1310–1345)
  2. Trojden I of Masovia, Duke of Masovia, Czersk and Warsaw (1310–1341)
  3. Anna[3] married Władysław of Legnica, divorced

In 1291 he married Kunigunde, daughter of Ottokar II of Bohemia, they had the following children:

  1. Wenceslaus of Płock (ca. 1293–1336), became Duke of Plock
  2. Euphrosyne (b. ca. 1292 – d. 26 December 1328/29), married Władysław of Oświęcim and had issue
  3. Bertha (before 1299 – after 1311), nun at Monastery of St. George

References[edit]

  1. ^ A. Guibourgé-Czetwertyński (Baumgarten I/XI)
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ Cawley, Charles, POLAND, Medieval Lands, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, retrieved August 2012 ,[better source needed]
Bolesław II of Masovia
Born: c. 1251 Died: 20 April 1313
Preceded by
Konrad II of Masovia
Duke of Masovia
1294–1313
Succeeded by
Siemowit II
and Trojden I