Bolivarian Revolution

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The “Bolivarian Revolution” refers to a leftist social movement and political process in Venezuela led by late Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez, the founder of the Fifth Republic Movement (joined the United Socialist Party of Venezuela in 2007). The "Bolivarian Revolution" is named after Simón Bolívar, an early 19th-century Venezuelan and Latin American revolutionary leader, prominent in the Spanish American wars of independence in achieving the independence of most of northern South America from Spanish rule. According to Chávez and other supporters, the "Bolivarian Revolution" seeks to build a mass movement to implement Bolivarianism - popular democracy, economic independence, equitable distribution of revenues, and an end to political corruption - in Venezuela. They interpret Bolívar's ideas from a socialist perspective.

On his 57th birthday, while announcing that he was being treated for cancer, Chavez announced that he had changed the slogan of the Bolivarian Revolution from “Motherland, socialism, or death” to “Socialist motherland and victory, we will live, and we will come out victorious.”[1]

Background: Bolivarianism[edit]

Simón Bolívar has cast a long shadow over Venezuela's history.

Chavez as a military cadet was "a celebrant of the Bolivarian passion story".[2] Chávez relied upon the ideas of Bolívar, and on Bolívar as a popular symbol, later in his military career as he put together his MBR-200 movement which would become a vehicle for his 1992 coup-attempt.

Policies[edit]

Missions of the Bolivarian Revolution
— food — housing — medicine —
Barrio Adentro  · Plan Bolivar 2000
Hábitat  · Mercal
— education —
Ribas  · Sucre
Robinson I  · Robinson II
— indigenous rights — land — environment —
Guaicaipuro  · Identidad
Miranda  · Piar
Vuelta al Campo  · Vuelvan Caras
Zamora
— (Hugo Chávez) — (Venezuela) —

Chavismo policies include nationalization, social welfare programs (Bolivarian Missions), and opposition to neoliberalism (particularly the policies of the IMF and the World Bank). According to Hugo Chávez, Venezuelan socialism accepts private property,[3] but this socialism seeks to promote social property too.[4] Chavismo also support participatory democracy[5] and workplace democracy.[6] In January 2007, Chávez proposed to build the communal state, whose main idea is to build self-government institutions like communal councils, communes, and communal cities.[7]

Internationalism[edit]

The "Bolivarian Revolution" under Chávez also refocused Venezuelan foreign policy on Latin American economic and social integration by enacting bilateral trade and reciprocal aid agreements, including his so-called "oil diplomacy", which provided cheap oil to poor neighbouring nations. Chávez regularly portrayed his movement's objectives as being in intractable conflict with neocolonialism and neoliberalism.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Aponte-Moreno, Marco; Lance Lattig. "Chavez: Rhetoric Made in Havana". World Policy Journal (Spring 2012). Retrieved 31 May 2012. 
  2. ^ Enrique Krauze, "The Shah of Venezuela", The New Republic, 1 April 2009
  3. ^ Sivaramakrishnan, Arvind (6 March 2013). "Hugo Chávez: Death of a socialist". The Hindu. Retrieved 3 February 2014. 
  4. ^ Salmerón, Víctor (13 June 2012). "Plan Chávez prevé crear 30 mil empresas de propiedad social". El Universal (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 February 2014. 
  5. ^ "La democracia participativa es un concepto chavista". Correo del Orinoco (in Spanish). 16 November 2013. Retrieved 3 February 2014. 
  6. ^ Albrecht, Hermann (29 May 2009). "Chavez Calls on Workers to Push for Workplace Democracy in Venezuela". Venezuelanalysis.com. Retrieved 3 February 2014. 
  7. ^ Azzellini, Dario. "The Communal State: Communal Councils, Communes, and Workplace Democracy". North American Congress on Latin America. Retrieved 3 February 2014. 

External links[edit]