Bolko II of Ziębice

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Bolko II
Duke of Ziębice
Dukedom 1301 – 11 June 1341
Predecessor Bolko I the Strict
Successor Nicholas the Small
Wife Bonne de Savole (m. 1342)

Issue

Margareta
Nicholas the Small
Full name
Bolko von Jauer
Titles and styles
Duke of Świdnica (1301–1322)
Duke of Jawor and Lwówek (1301–1312)
Noble family Silesian Piasts
Father Bolko I the Strict
Mother Beatrice of Brandenburg
Born (1300-02-01)1 February 1300
Died 11 June 1341(1341-06-11) (aged 41)
Ziębice, Poland
Buried Henryków, Poland

Bolko II of Ziębice (Polish: Bolko II Ziębicki) (1 February 1300 – 11 June 1341) was a Duke of Jawor-Lwówek-Świdnica-Ziębice in Poland from 1301 to 1312 (with his brothers as co-rulers), of Świdnica-Ziębice from 1312 to 1322 (with his brother as co-ruler), and sole Duke of Ziębice from 1322 until his death.

He was the fourth son of Bolko I the Strict, Duke of Jawor-Lwówek-Świdnica-Ziębice, by his wife Beatrix, daughter of Otto V the Long, Margrave of Brandenburg-Salzwedel. He was named after his eldest brother Bolko, who died on 30 January 1300, just two days before his birth.

Life[edit]

At the time of his father's death in 1301, Bolko II was not quite two years old. Therefore, he and his siblings were placed under the care of their mother and the guardianship of their maternal uncle, Herman, Margrave of Brandenburg-Salzwedel, until 1305, when the eldest living brother Bernard assumed the government and the tutelage of his brothers. Out of fear that the duchy would be fragmented, Bolko II was initially destined for a career in the Church. Bolko II strongly resisted these plans, and in 1322 received the district of Ziębice as an independent duchy from Bernard.

In 1322, Bolko II, alongside Bernard, took part with Teutonic Knights in the expedition against Lithuania.

On the threshold of his reign, Bolko II fell into conflict with the Church. The continued financial difficulties of the Duke lead him to invade and steal goods from the monasteries of Henryków and Kamieniec Ząbkowicki. In 1329, the Duke attacked the suite of the Papal legate Pietro di Alverni. This action motivated the intervention of the Kings of Poland and Bohemia, with the support of almost all of the Silesian dukes. Defeated, Bolko II was excommunicated by the Bishop of Wrocław, Nanker. The excommunication was only removed after Bolko II paid large sums to both the Papal legate and the monasteries as compensation.

In 1335, the Duchy of Ziębice was attacked by Charles of Luxembourg, Margrave of Moravia and heir of the Bohemian Kingdom, because Bolko II refused to pay homage for his duchy. It was the shortest route between Prague and the most important Silesian city, Wroclaw, at that time under the control of the Bohemian Kingdom. Charles ignored Bolko II's determination, and sent a small force against him. The Duke quickly defeated the force, capturing 150 of the major Bohemian knights, but he failed to halt the destruction of the Bohemian lands made by Charles's army. Bolko II was able to take advantage from the captivity of the Bohemian knights; however, he only asked a very small ransom for them. Bolko II won the 1335 war.

However, in June 1336, Bolko II voluntary paid homage to the King of Bohemia. The withdrawal of the Silesian Dukes by King Casimir III the Great of Poland eliminated Bolko II's hope of building an effective power against the Bohemian Kingdom. Also, Bolko II received the district of Kłodzko during his lifetime. Bolko II's act of homage confirmed that, after the eventual extinction of the male line of the Dukes of Ziębice, the Duchy would fall under the direct rule of the King of Bohemia.

Tomb of Bolko II and his wife Bonne "Guta" in Henryków.

Bolko II struggled with his continuing financial problems, increased by his prodigality. In 1337, he was forced to pledge Ząbkowice to Charles of Luxembourg, and shortly after, for the amount of 2,300 fines[vague] he pledged Strzelin and Kąty Wrocławskie. At the end, Bolko II only retained the capital of the Duchy, Ziębice. Despite this, Bolko II cared about the economic development of his estate, which enjoyed a relatively high popularity among the Silesian cities.

Bolko II died on 11 June 1341 in Ziębice, and was buried in the monastery of Henryków.

Marriage and issue[edit]

By 21 November 1321, Bolko II married Bonne de Savoie (also named Guta or Judith), daughter (either legitimate[1] or illegitimate[2]) of Louis II of Savoy, Baron of Vaud. Bonne was the widow of Count Matthias of Trenczin, a Hungarian nobleman. They had two children:

  1. Nicholas the Small (b. ca. 1327 – d. 23 April 1358).
  2. Margareta (b. ca. 1330 – d. August aft. 1368), a nun in Strzelin.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cawley, Charles (14 June 2009). BURGUNDY KINGDOM NOBILITY "Medieval Lands Project: Burgundy Kingdom Nobility: BARONS de VAUD". Medieval Lands (1.6 ed.). Foundation for Medieval Genealogy. Retrieved 27 September 2010. 
  2. ^ Marek, Miroslav (22 October 2003). "Savoy 2". Genealogy.eu. A3. Louis I, Baron de Vaud. Retrieved 27 September 2010. [self-published source][better source needed]

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Bolko I the Strict
Duke of Świdnica
with Bernard
and Henry I (until 1312)

1301–1322
Succeeded by
Bernard
Duke of Jawor
with Bernard and Henry I

1301–1312
Succeeded by
Henry I
Duke of Lwówek
with Bernard and Henry I

1301–1312
Duke of Ziębice
with Bernard (until 1322)
and Henry I (until 1312)

1301–1341
Succeeded by
Nicholas the Small