Bolliger & Mabillard

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Bolliger & Mabillard Consulting Engineers Inc.
Type Private
Industry Roller coaster design
Founded 1988
Founders
  • Walter Bolliger
  • Claude Mabillard
Headquarters Monthey, Switzerland
Area served Worldwide
Key people
  • Walter Bolliger
  • Claude Mabillard
Products
Employees 37 (2012)
Website www.bolliger-mabillard.com

Bolliger & Mabillard Consulting Engineers Inc. (more commonly known as B&M) is a roller coaster design consultancy based in Monthey, Switzerland. The company was founded in 1988 by Walter Bolliger and Claude Mabillard, with Bolliger as president and Mabillard as vice-president.[2] Since 1988, B&M has built 85 roller coasters around the world and have pioneered several new ride technologies, most notably the inverted roller coaster.[3][4] Since 1990, all coasters designed by B&M that have been built within North America have been manufactured by Clermont Steel Fabricators which is located in Batavia, Ohio, United States.[5][6][7] B&M started with four employees and has since grown; as of 2012 it employs 37 people, mostly engineers and draftsmen.[8]

History[edit]

Walter Bolliger and Claude Mabillard starting working for Giovanola, a manufacturing company who supplied rides to Intamin, in the 1970s. During their time at Giovanola, they helped design the company's first stand-up roller coaster, Shockwave at Six Flags Magic Mountain. They also worked on other projects, such as Z-Force at Six Flags Great America.[9] Bolliger & Mabillard left Giovanola, but the company continued to use their track design, so the company's roller coasters, Goliath at Six Flags Magic Mountain and Titan at Six Flags Over Texas, use a track style very similar to B&M's.[10][11]

An inverted model with the angled drop, common on inverted coasters, Batman: The Ride at Six Flags Great Adventure

In 1987, Giovanola underwent a change of management; Bolliger & Mabillard decided to leave, and founded their own company.[9] At the time, B&M employed four people; two draftsmen, Bolliger and Mabillard. When B&M was created, the pair had agreed not to make any more amusement attractions.[12][13] However, Six Flags contacted the new company and asked it to build a roller coaster. B&M accepted the offer and hired two more draftsmen. But B&M had a problem regarding how and where to manufacture the track pieces for the roller coaster. With the impression of the work done by Clermont Steel Fabricators on Vortex at Kings Island and Shockwave Six Flags Great America, Walter Bolliger went to the steel plant and asked if they would be interested in manufacturing the track. Clermont Steel Fabricators accepted and currently manufactures all Bolliger and Mabillard roller coaster track pieces for all of North America.[7] Now with a company to manufacture the track, B&M built its first roller coaster, a stand-up roller coaster, Iron Wolf, which opened in 1990 at Six Flags Great America.[12][13] Two years later, Bolliger & Mabillard built another project for Six Flags Great America, Batman: The Ride, the world's first Inverted Coaster, which brought them to prominence in the industry.[14][15]

Bolliger & Mabillard also invented the Floorless Coaster,[16] and the Dive Coaster. The company also built its first launched roller coaster, the The Incredible Hulk, which is at Universal's Islands of Adventure. Although The Incredible Hulk uses a launch system, B&M classifies it as a "Sitting Coaster".[17] In 2010, B&M unveiled its new Wing Coaster and premiered the prototype model, named Raptor, at Gardaland in 2011.[18] It has two seats on each side on the car that hang riders over the sides of the track. There are currently only five in operation.[18] In 2012, Bolliger & Mabillard built Leviathan at Canada's Wonderland, which at 306 feet (93 m) high is the company's tallest coaster to date.[19] For 2015, B&M will construct Thunderbird at Holiday World & Splashin' Safari, it will be B&M true launching coaster and first launching wing coaster in the United States. Thunderbird will also feature the tallest vertical loop on a Wing Coaster.[20]

By 2010, B&M employed twelve engineers, twelve draftsman, and two draftswomen.[12][13] The company has made other contributions to the roller coaster industry. The company built the trains for the Psyclone, a now-demolished wooden roller coaster at Six Flags Magic Mountain. The trains are currently used on the park's Colossus wooden roller coaster, but these are only used during October each year. The trains face backwards and are generally raced against trains on the second track, which runs forwards.[21] In 2013, B&M supplied new trains for Steel Dragon 2000, built by D. H. Morgan Manufacturing in 2000.[22][23] As of 2012, Bolliger & Mabillard has 85 operating roller coasters worldwide,[3] twenty-two of which are listed among the Amusement Today Golden Ticket Awards Top 50 Steel Coasters List for 2012, and five are in the top 10. The company has built more roller coasters than any other manufacturer on the list.[24]

Features[edit]

Raptor's cobra roll, a first for inverted roller coasters

Bolliger & Mabillard currently manufactures nine different roller coaster styles: Stand-Up Coaster, Inverted Coaster, Floorless Coaster, Flying Coaster, Hyper Coaster, Dive Coaster, Sitting Coaster, Wing Coaster and Family Coaster.[25][1] Bolliger & Mabillard has been involved in developing new technologies and concepts in roller coasters almost since its inception. It has often worked with engineer Werner Stengel, and with designers and management of client theme parks.[26][27]

Lift hills[edit]

Diagram comparing a standard lift hill and the B&M pre-drop lift hill.

Many Bolliger & Mabillard coasters feature an element known as a "pre-drop", a short drop after the top of the lift hill and before the start of the first drop, designed to reduce tension on the lift chain. The flat section between the pre-drop and the first drop serves as a shelf to support the weight of the train, reducing related stresses on the chain. On most coasters without a pre-drop, the weight of the train tends to pull on the lift chain as it begins its descent because the latter half of the train is still being lifted by the chain. Pre-drops have not been used on the company's Dive or Flying coasters, or on hyper coasters built after 1999.[28][29] More recently, the pre-drop is only used on coasters with curved drops, whereas coasters with straight drops – such as Hydra the Revenge at Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdom, Banshee at Kings Island, and Goliath at Six Flags Over Georgia – do not have pre-drops. OzIris at Parc Astérix was the first B&M inverted roller coaster that does not feature a pre-drop.[30]

Trains[edit]

Most of Bolliger & Mabillard's roller coaster trains use four-abreast seating. Each car has one row of four seats, while the train length can vary between coasters. All of the company's coaster models, except the Dive Coaster and Wing Coaster use this configuration. The Dive Coaster uses six, eight or ten-abreast seating, with two or three rows of seats. For example Griffon at Busch Gardens Williamsburg, uses ten seats in three rows, while Krake at Heide Park uses six-across seating in three rows.[31] On recent hyper coaster projects, B&M has used a new car design that has two rows of two seats; the two seats in the rear of the car pushed out from the centerline so that the four seats resemble a V formation. This formation has only been used on Behemoth at Canada's Wonderland, Diamondback at Kings Island, Intimidator at Carowinds and Shambhala: Expedición al Himalaya at PortAventura. In 2013, B&M introduced a new car design that has two rows of two seats, however, they are not in a V formation.[22][23]

All B&M hyper coasters use a type of restraint called a "T-bar" restraint, which consists of bar with a cushioned lap bar with two handles for riders to hold on to. This type of restraint generally does not use a seat belt, however seat belts have been added to Behemoth at Canada's Wonderland, Diamondback at Kings Island, and Intimidator at Carowinds, all of which have the stadium style seating.[32] Bolliger & Mabillard also uses over-the-shoulder restraints, in that the restraint is placed over the riders' shoulders and sits and extends to the riders' laps. This type of restraint is used on Dive, Inverted, Sitting, Flying, Floorless, Stand-up, and Wing Coasters.[33]

Track[edit]

CAD model of B&M box-section track

A notable feature of Bolliger & Mabillard roller coasters is the box-section track. The running rails are connected to a box-section spine, instead of the circular spine used by other manufacturers. When a train travels around a box-section track, it creates a distinctive roaring sound, which is unique to this style of track. However, on some Bolliger & Mabillard roller coasters, such as Talon at Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdom, the track is filled with sand to reduce this noise.[34]

Also, depending on the model of the roller coaster, the track size can vary. Models such as the Flying and Dive Coaster have heavier trains which require a larger track size while models with lighter trains (such as the Stand-Up Coaster) do not and use a smaller sized track.[7]

Brakes[edit]

As of 2012, Bolliger & Mabillard uses three types of braking system; friction, magnetic, and water.

Friction brakes[edit]

When B&M was first founded, the linear magnetic eddy brake had yet to be developed, so it used friction brakes as its main braking system. On the train, pads are fitted beneath the seating areas. On the brakes, similar pads are connected to steel supports. When the pads on the train come into contact with the brakes, friction is created which slows the train.[35] Beginning with Kumba in 1993, friction brakes have also been used as trim brakes that regulate the speed of the train while it is still navigating the course.[36]

Magnetic brakes[edit]

Magnetic brakes were first used on Nitro at Six Flags Great Adventure in 2001.[37] Magnetic brakes slow down trains much faster than friction brakes; most B&M roller coaster built in or after 2001 have at least one set of magnetic brakes. Magnetic brakes do not make contact with the train. Fins that run parallel to the train are fitted beneath the seats. As the fins pass through the brakes, the magnetic field created by the brakes slows the train. Magnetic brakes have also been used as an alternate type of trim brake on B&M roller coasters such as Leviathan at Canada's Wonderland.[38]

Water brakes[edit]

Water brakes were first introduced on SheiKra at Busch Gardens Tampa Bay in 2005.[39] Water brakes can only be used when a splashdown element, in which a body of water surrounds a section of track, is present within the layout of the roller coaster. When scoops on the last car of each train come in contact with the surrounding water, the train slows down and the water is sprayed several feet into the air behind it.[40]

List of roller coasters[edit]

Vortex at Carowinds, a Stand-up Coaster model
Leviathan at Canada's Wonderland.
Batman: The Ride at Six Flags Great Adventure, an Inverted Coaster model
Dragon Khan at PortAventura, a Sitting Coaster model
Oblivion at Alton Towers, a Dive Coaster model
Hydra at Dorney Park, a Floorless Coaster model
Behemoth at Canada's Wonderland, a Hyper Coaster model
Manta at SeaWorld Orlando, a Flying Coaster model
Raptor at Gardaland, first Wing Coaster model

Bolliger & Mabillard has built 96 roller coasters (including any that are currently under construction) as of 2014[3] which are listed in order of installation. All of their roller coasters are still in operation, but some have been relocated and renamed.

Name Model Park Country Opened
Vortex Stand-Up Coaster California's Great America United States United States 1991 [41]
Batman: The Ride Inverted Coaster Six Flags Great America United States United States 1992 [15]
Vortex Stand-Up Coaster Carowinds United States United States 1992 [42]
Batman: The Ride Inverted Coaster Six Flags Great Adventure United States United States 1993 [43]
Flight Deck Inverted Coaster California's Great America United States United States 1993 [44]
Kumba Sitting Coaster Busch Gardens Tampa United States United States 1993 [45]
Batman: The Ride Inverted Coaster Six Flags Magic Mountain United States United States 1994 [46]
Diavlo Inverted Coaster Himeji Central Park Japan Japan 1994 [47]
Nemesis Inverted Coaster Alton Towers United Kingdom United Kingdom 1994 [48]
Raptor Inverted Coaster Cedar Point United States United States 1994 [49]
Batman: The Ride Inverted Coaster Six Flags St. Louis United States United States 1995 [50]
Dragon Khan Sitting Coaster PortAventura Spain Spain 1995 [51]
Montu Inverted Coaster Busch Gardens Tampa United States United States 1996 [52]
Alpengeist Inverted Coaster Busch Gardens Williamsburg United States United States 1997 [53]
Batman: The Ride Inverted Coaster Six Flags Over Georgia United States United States 1997 [54]
Pyrenees Inverted Coaster Shima Spain Village (jp) Japan Japan 1997 [55]
Oblivion Dive Coaster Alton Towers United Kingdom United Kingdom 1998 [56]
Great Bear Inverted Coaster Hersheypark United States United States 1998 [57]
The Great White Inverted Coaster SeaWorld San Antonio United States United States 1998 [58]
The Riddler's Revenge Stand-Up Coaster Six Flags Magic Mountain United States United States 1998 [59]
Afterburn Inverted Coaster Carowinds United States United States 1999 [60]
Bizarro
Formerly Medusa
Floorless Coaster Six Flags Great Adventure United States United States 1999 [61]
Incredible Hulk Coaster Sitting Coaster Islands of Adventure United States United States 1999 [17]
Dragon Challenge Inverted Coaster Islands of Adventure United States United States 1999 [62]
Batman: The Ride Inverted Coaster Six Flags Over Texas United States United States 1999 [63]
Raging Bull Hyper Coaster Six Flags Great America United States United States 1999 [64]
Georgia Scorcher Stand-Up Coaster Six Flags Over Georgia United States United States 1999 [65]
Apollo's Chariot Hyper Coaster Busch Gardens Williamsburg United States United States 1999 [66]
Kraken Floorless Coaster Sea World Orlando United States United States 2000 [67]
Medusa Floorless Coaster Six Flags Discovery Kingdom United States United States 2000 [68]
Katun Inverted Coaster Mirabilandia Italy Italy 2000 [69]
Superman: Krypton Coaster Floorless Coaster Six Flags Fiesta Texas United States United States 2000 [70]
Diving Machine G5 Dive Coaster Janfusun Fancyworld Taiwan Taiwan 2000 [71]
Insane Speed Floorless Coaster Janfusun Fancyworld Taiwan Taiwan 2001 [72]
Nitro Hyper Coaster Six Flags Great Adventure United States United States 2001 [73]
Talon Inverted Coaster Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdom United States United States 2001 [74]
Wildfire Sitting Coaster Silver Dollar City United States United States 2001 [75]
Air Flying Coaster Alton Towers United Kingdom United Kingdom 2002 [76]
Batman: The Dark Knight Floorless Coaster Six Flags New England United States United States 2002 [77]
Batman: La Fuga Inverted Coaster Parque Warner Madrid Spain Spain 2002 [78]
Silver Star Hyper Coaster Europa Park Germany Germany 2002 [79]
Superman: La Atracción de Acero Floorless Coaster Parque Warner Madrid Spain Spain 2002 [80]
Superman: Ultimate Flight Flying Coaster Six Flags Over Georgia United States United States 2002 [81]
Vampire Inverted Coaster La Ronde Canada Canada 2002 [82]
Nemesis Inferno Inverted Coaster Thorpe Park United Kingdom United Kingdom 2003 [83]
Scream! Floorless Coaster Six Flags Magic Mountain United States United States 2003 [84]
Superman: Ultimate Flight Flying Coaster Six Flags Great America United States United States 2003 [85]
Superman: Ultimate Flight Flying Coaster Six Flags Great Adventure United States United States 2003 [86]
Dæmonen Floorless Coaster Tivoli Gardens Denmark Denmark 2004 [87]
Lightning Inverted Coaster Kuwait Entertainment City Kuwait Kuwait 2004 [88]
Silver Bullet Inverted Coaster Knott's Berry Farm United States United States 2004 [89]
Hydra the Revenge Floorless Coaster Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdom United States United States 2005 [90]
SheiKra Dive Coaster Busch Gardens Tampa United States United States 2005 [91]
Black Mamba Inverted Coaster Phantasialand Germany Germany 2006 [92]
Crystal Wing Flying Coaster Happy Valley Beijing China China 2006 [93]
Goliath Hyper Coaster La Ronde Canada Canada 2006 [94]
Goliath Hyper Coaster Six Flags Over Georgia United States United States 2006 [95]
Patriot Inverted Coaster Worlds of Fun United States United States 2006 [96]
Tatsu Flying Coaster Six Flags Magic Mountain United States United States 2006 [97]
Griffon Dive Coaster Busch Gardens Williamsburg United States United States 2007 [98]
Hollywood Dream: The Ride Hyper Coaster Universal Studios Japan Japan Japan 2007 [99]
Phaethon Inverted Coaster Gyeongju World (ko) South Korea South Korea 2007 [100]
Behemoth Hyper Coaster Canada's Wonderland Canada Canada 2008 [101]
Dive Coaster Dive Coaster Chimelong Paradise China China 2008 [102]
Dominator
Formerly Batman: Knight Flight
Floorless Coaster Kings Dominion
Geauga Lake
United States United States 2008
2000 to 2007
[103]
Goliath
Formerly Batman: The Ride
Formerly Gambit
Inverted Coaster Six Flags Fiesta Texas
Six Flags New Orleans
Thrill Valley (jp)
United States United States 2008
2003 to 2005
1995 to 2002
[104]
The Time Machine Sitting Coaster Freestyle Music Park United States United States 2008 [105]
Diamondback Hyper Coaster Kings Island United States United States 2009 [106]
Diving Coaster Dive Coaster Happy Valley Shanghai China China 2009 [107]
Manta Flying Coaster SeaWorld Orlando United States United States 2009 [108]
The Monster
Formerly Orochi
Inverted Coaster Walygator Parc
Expoland
France France 2010
1996 to 2007
[109]
Intimidator Hyper Coaster Carowinds United States United States 2010 [110]
Green Lantern
Formerly Chang
Stand-Up Coaster Six Flags Great Adventure
Kentucky Kingdom
United States United States 2011
1997 to 2009
[111]
Hair Raiser Floorless Coaster Ocean Park Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong 2011 [112]
Krake Dive Coaster Heide Park Germany Germany 2011 [113]
Raptor Wing Coaster Gardaland Italy Italy 2011 [114]
Sky Scrapper Flying Coaster World Joyland China China 2011 [115]
Apocalypse
Formerly Iron Wolf
Stand-Up Coaster Six Flags America
Six Flags Great America
United States United States 2012
1990 to 2011
[116]
Leviathan Hyper Coaster Canada's Wonderland Canada Canada 2012 [117]
OzIris Inverted Coaster Parc Astérix France France 2012 [118]
Shambhala: Expedición al Himalaya Hyper Coaster PortAventura Spain Spain 2012 [119]
The Swarm Wing Coaster Thorpe Park United Kingdom United Kingdom 2012 [120]
Wild Eagle Wing Coaster Dollywood United States United States 2012 [121]
X-Flight Wing Coaster Six Flags Great America United States United States 2012 [122]
GateKeeper Wing Coaster Cedar Point United States United States 2013 [123]
Nitro Floorless Coaster Adlabs Imagica India India 2013 [124]
Banshee Inverted Coaster Kings Island United States United States 2014 [125]
Parrot Coaster Wing Coaster Ocean Kingdom China China 2014 [126]
Flug der Dämonen Wing Coaster Heide Park Germany Germany 2014 [127]
Family Inverted Coaster Family Inverted Coaster[1] Happy Valley Shanghai China China 2014 [128]
Unknown Flying Coaster Xishuangbanna Theme Park China China 2014 [129]
Rougarou
Formerly Mantis
Floorless Coaster
Formerly Stand-Up Coaster
Cedar Point United States United States 2015
1996 to 2014
[130]
Acrobat Flying Coaster Nagashima Spa Land Japan Japan 2015 [131]
Thunderbird Wing Coaster (launched) Holiday World & Splashin' Safari United States United States 2015 [132]
Unknown Dive Coaster Gardaland Italy Italy 2015 [133]
Baron 1898 Dive Coaster Efteling Netherlands Netherlands 2015 [134]
Fury 325 Hyper Coaster Carowinds United States United States 2015 [135]

References[edit]

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  77. ^ Marden, Duane. "Batman – The Dark Knight  (Six Flags New England)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  78. ^ Marden, Duane. "Batman: La Fuga  (Parque Warner Madrid)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  79. ^ Marden, Duane. "Silver Star  (Europa Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  80. ^ Marden, Duane. "Superman: La Atracción de Acero  (Parque Warner Madrid)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  81. ^ Marden, Duane. "Superman: Ultimate Flight  (Six Flags Over Georgia)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  82. ^ Marden, Duane. "Vampire  (La Ronde)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  83. ^ Marden, Duane. "Nemesis Inferno  (Thorpe Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  84. ^ Marden, Duane. "Scream!  (Six Flags Magic Mountain)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  85. ^ Marden, Duane. "Superman: Ultimate Flight  (Six Flags Great America)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  86. ^ Marden, Duane. "Superman:Ultimate Flight  (Six Flags Great Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  87. ^ Marden, Duane. "Dæmonen  (Tivoli Gardens)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  88. ^ Marden, Duane. "Lightning  (Kuwait Entertainment City)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  89. ^ Marden, Duane. "Silver Bullet  (Knott's Berry Farm)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  90. ^ Marden, Duane. "Hydra the Revenge  (Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  91. ^ Marden, Duane. "SheiKra  (Bush Gardens Tampa Bay)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  92. ^ Marden, Duane. "Black Mamba  (Phantasialand)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  93. ^ Marden, Duane. "Crystal Wing  (Happy Valley Beijing)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  94. ^ Marden, Duane. "Goliath  (La Ronde)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  95. ^ Marden, Duane. "Goliath  (Six Flags Over Georgia)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  96. ^ Marden, Duane. "Patriot  (Worlds of Fun)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  97. ^ Marden, Duane. "Tatsu  (Six Flags Magic Mountain)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  98. ^ Marden, Duane. "Griffon  (Busch Gardens Williamsburg)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  99. ^ Marden, Duane. "Hollywood Dream: The Ride  (Universal Studios Japan)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  100. ^ Marden, Duane. "Phaethon  (Gyeongju World)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  101. ^ Marden, Duane. "Behemoth  (Canada's Wonderland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  102. ^ Marden, Duane. "Dive Coaster  (Chimelong Paradise)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  103. ^ Marden, Duane. "Dominator  (Kings Dominion)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  104. ^ Marden, Duane. "Goliath  (Six Flags Fiesta Texas)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  105. ^ Marden, Duane. "The Time Machine  (The Time Machine)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  106. ^ Marden, Duane. "Diamondback  (Kings Island)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  107. ^ Marden, Duane. "Dive Coaster  (Happy Valley Shanghai)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  108. ^ Marden, Duane. "Manta  (SeaWorld Orlando)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  109. ^ Marden, Duane. "The Monster  (Walygator Parc)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  110. ^ Marden, Duane. "Intimidator  (Carowinds)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  111. ^ Marden, Duane. "Green Lantern  (Six Flags Great Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  112. ^ Marden, Duane. "Hair Raiser  (Ocean Park Hong Kong)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  113. ^ Marden, Duane. "Krake  (Heide Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  114. ^ Marden, Duane. "Raptor  (Gardaland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  115. ^ Marden, Duane. "Sky Scrapper  (World Joyland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  116. ^ Marden, Duane. "Apocalypse  (Six Flags America)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  117. ^ Marden, Duane. "Leviathan  (Canada's Wonderland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  118. ^ Marden, Duane. "OzIris  (Parc Astérix)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  119. ^ Marden, Duane. "Shambhala: Expedición al Himalaya  (PortAdventura)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  120. ^ Marden, Duane. "The Swarm  (Thorpe Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  121. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wild Eagle  (Dollywood)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  122. ^ Marden, Duane. "X-Flight  (Six Flags Great America)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  123. ^ Marden, Duane. "GateKeeper  (Cedar Point)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  124. ^ Marden, Duane. "Nitro  (Adlabs Imagica)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved April 9, 2013. 
  125. ^ Marden, Duane. "Banshee  (Kings Island)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 8, 2013. 
  126. ^ Marden, Duane. "Parrot Coaster  (Ocean Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 20, 2012. 
  127. ^ Marden, Duane. "unknown  (Heide Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 6, 2013. 
  128. ^ Marden, Duane. "Family Inverted Coaster  (Happy Valley)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 20, 2012. 
  129. ^ Marden, Duane. "unknown  (Xishuangbanna Theme Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved February 21, 2014. 
  130. ^ Marden, Duane. "Rougarou  (Cedar Point)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 13, 2012. 
  131. ^ Marden, Duane. "Acrobat  (Nagashima Spa Land)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 14, 2014. 
  132. ^ Marden, Duane. "Thunderbird  (Holiday World & Splashin Safari)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 24, 2014. 
  133. ^ Marden, Duane. "unknown  (Gardaland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved April 11, 2014. 
  134. ^ Marden, Duane. "Baron 1898  (Efteling)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 28, 2014. 
  135. ^ Marden, Duane. "Fury 325  (Carowinds)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 21, 2014. 

External links[edit]