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Bologna sausage (English pronunciation: /bəˈloʊnjə/ or /bəˈloʊni/), also known as boloney, baloney or polony, is a sausage derived from and somewhat similar to the Italian mortadella (a finely hashed/ground pork sausage containing cubes of lard that originated in the Italian city of Bologna, IPA: [boˈloɲɲa] ( listen)). U.S. government regulations require American bologna to be finely ground, and without visible pieces of lard. Bologna can alternatively be made out of chicken, turkey, beef, pork, venison or soy protein.
Polony is the name for a large sausage made from a mixture of beef and pork that was very popular in Britain during the 17th and 18th centuries, although seldom seen nowadays. Polony sausages keep well as they are highly seasoned before being hot smoked. They are then cooked in boiling water when required. The name is believed to be derived from Polonia (the old name for Poland) but some think it may be a corruption of Bologna.
Kosher or halal bologna 
Kosher or halal bologna is typically made with only beef, but sometimes made from turkey, chicken or lamb.
German bologna 
Sometimes referred to as garlic bologna, this sausage differs from traditional bologna due to various seasonings, most typically garlic being added to the recipe. Although referred to as German Bologna elsewhere, it is usually called Fleischwurst in Germany and Extrawurst in Austria. Other varieties, usually upscale, are sometimes called Lyoner ("Lyon sausage") and usually do not contain a noticeable amount of garlic, while Fleischwurst is often flavored with garlic.
In Germany, "regular" bologna is referred to as Mortadella, and is mostly identical and made out of the same meats as its American counterpart, although it often contains pistachios. The original, larger and less finely ground Mortadella is called italienische Mortadella.
Bologna bowl 
Occasionally a slice of bologna is heated up so, as the fat renders, the round slice takes the shape of a bowl which may be filled with cheese or other fillings.
Lauantaimakkara is a Finnish type of bologna derived from the early Lyon sausage, the "Lyoner".
South African Polony 
South Africans refer to bologna exclusively as 'polony', although South African polony is typically made using highly-processed meat with a high pink slime concentration. These processed meat products are typically an artificially bright pink color, and are a low-income food due to its low-cost. Large pink, bland polonies are called French Polony, with higher quality, thinner rolls referred to as polony.
A popular low-fat non-GMO soy vegan bologna style alternative is made by the Lightlife company in the United States
See also